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subsequent to the religious revolution of the sixteenth century, religion became less directly social in its action; and if the action and interference of what is now called the State in every department of social life is continually extending, this may not inaptly be said to be due to the fact that it has largely taken up the direct social work and direction from which the Church found herself perhaps compelled to recede, in order to concentrate her efforts more intensely on the promotion of more purely and strictly religious influences. It is impossible to study the available sources of information about the period immediately preceding the change without recognising that, so far from the Church being a merely effete or corrupt agency in the commonwealth, it was an active power for popular good in a very wide sense. At any rate, whatever view we may take of the results of the Reformation, to understand rightly the conditions of religious thought and life on the eve of the religious revolution is a condition of being able really to read aright our own time and to gauge the extent to which present tendencies find their root or their justification in the past.

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INDEX.

ABBOTS, display in elections of, 114
Abraham, religious play, 281
Adrian VI., Pope, 139
Aggeus, Augustine, 272
Aldine press, at Venice, 141
Aldus, printer, 142, 147
Alexander VI,, Pope, 91
Alms, 116
Alton, foundation for obits at, 355-

356
Amberbach, printer, 146
Amyas Chantry, 354
Andronicus, 22
Angels, devotion to, 270
Anti-clerical spirit, 101, 105
Antoninus, St., Archbishop of Flor-

ence, 85
“ Apology” of Sir Thomas More, 64,

65, 102, 108, 127
Archäology, pagan and Christian,

182
Architecture, pre-Reformation activity

in, 8-9, 288 et seq. ; decline of the

art, 289
Aretino, 21
Art, great activity of, prior to Re.

formation, 9-10
Arundel, Archbishop, 208
Ashley, Mr. W. J., cited, 333, 339
Augmentation, Court of, 338

| Basle, printing-press at, 146

Baynard's Casıle, meeting at, 62
Beccles, foundation at, 359
Becket, Thomas, 388
Bede-roll, 295, 299
Benedict XII., 92
Benedictine Order, average of gra.

duates at Oxford, 39
Benefices, 50, 94, 96, note, 311
Benefit of clergy, 50
Bequests, mediæval, 343 et seq.
Bere, Abbot, of Glastonbury, 36, and

note
Berthelet, publisher, 65, note, 66,

87, note, 90, note, 95, note, 98, 121,

note, 262
Bible, the Bishops', 218
Bible, Erasmus' translation, 148 et

seg.
Bible, English, hostility to, 208;

evidence of Catholic acceptance,
209, 213-214, 218; supposed early
Catholic version, 209, 213, 218;
persecutions for possession ex-
amined, 212, and note, 213 ; trans-
lations authorised, 213-214, 218-
219; not prohibited, 218, 243-244;
absence of popular demand for,
220-221; Tyndale's version and
Luther's share in it, 222 et seq. ;

useless without interpretation, 243
Bishops, and ordination, 131 ; and

spiritual jurisdiction, 135; obstacles

to Reformation, 390
Blackfriars, meetings at, 61
Bombasius, Paul, 31, and note
Bond, William, 74, 268

Boniface VIII., Pope, 88
| Books, heretical, prohibited, 189-191;

More on heretical, 193, et seq.

BADSWORTH, chantry foundation at,

353
Baigent, Mr. F. T., 327, note
Baker, mediæval fresco painter, 10
Baptism, 199
Barbarus, Hermolaus, 27, 29, note
Barnes, Friar, 79, 104, 105, 120, 197-

198

Books, earliest printed, largely re-

ligious, 277
Bourbon, Duke of, 203
Boyer, Sebastian, Court physician,

141
Brentano, Mr., cited, 319-320
Brethren of St. John's, 329; and

Hospital, 330
Bretton, William, 272, and note
Brewer, Mr., cited, 129-130, 187, 220,

246
Brotherhoods, Parish, 305
Brunfels, Otto, 171
Brygott, Richard, prior of Westacre,

41
Bucer, 189
Burials, 49
Burnet, historian, cited, 4
Bury St. Edmunds, chantries at, 360
Butley, Priory of, 40
CALENDAR of papers, domestic and

foreign, of reign of Henry VIII., 3
Cambray, Bishop of, 140
Cambridge, portions of Prior Selling's

library at, 30; monastic students
at, 40; petition of scholars to the

king, 43
Campeggio, Cardinal, 158, 159, 160
Canterbury, Archbishop of, on clerical

immunity, 62
Canterbury, entertainment of Em-

peror Manuel at Christchurch, 20;
Selling and Hadley, monks of
Christchurch, 22 et seq.; Canter-
bury College at Oxford, 25, and
note ; St. Augustine's and the lite-

rary movement, 37
Caraffa, Cardinal, afterwards Paul

IV., 93, 95, 385
Carmelites, origin, 104; responsi-

bility for Lutheranism, 173
Caxton, 243, note
Chalcocondylas, Demetrius, 22, 26
Chantries, 109, 352, 353
Chapels of ease, 363
Chaplains, evil effects of their posi-

tion, 122-123
Charnock, Prior, 36
Chaucer cited, 365
Children, and idols, 257 ; religious

instruction of, 274, 275-276
Christchurch, see Canterbury

Christianity and the classical revival,

179-182
Chrysoloras, Manuel, Greek scholar,

21, and note
Chrysostom, St., cited, 108
Church, position of, prior to Refor-

mation, 1, 130, 187; need of re-
form in, 5 et seq. ; attitude to
learning, 14, 19, 32-36, 38; hosti-
lity to "New Learning” explained,
14 et seq., 18; limits of jurisdiction,
47 ; and disputations entailed,
ibid. ; State right to regulate tem-
poralities of, 48 et seq. ; king as
supreme head, 59, 99; rights, 59 ;
what constitutes, 63; riches coveted,
67 ; Pope as head, 74 et seq. ; Papal
Commission appointed to save,
93 : evils in, and how caused, 94 :
abuses pointed out by Commission,
95, note, 96, note, 97, note ; limita-
tations of king's Headship, 99-100;
controversy on riches of, 109;
Erasınus' attitude to, 148 et seg.,
176 - 178 ; Erasmus regarded as
an enemy to, 154-156; Lutheran
tenets concerning, 171: need of
Reform obscured by Reformation,
175 ; attack on, 191; attitude to
vernacular Bibles, 208 et seq., 216-
219; but hostility to denied, 213-
214, 217-218, 221; religious teaca-
ing prior to Reformation, 245 et
seq. ; charges against on points of
worship, 258, 266-267; bequests
to, 343 et seq. ; suggested disposal

of wealth of, 390; abuses in, 365
Church of Christ, sermon on, 80
Church-building, activity of, 287 ;

contributions of people towards be-
quests for, 287, and note, 344 ;

decoration, 288, 292
Church House, 300
Churchyards, trees and grass in, 55
Cicero, and the classical revival, 179-

182
Ciceroniana of Erasmus, 179
Clark,Dr. John, English Ambassador,

- 84

Classical revival, Erasmus on, 179;
1 absurdities of, 179-180
Claymond, John, Greek scholar, 37,

note, 38, note

Clement, John, 34, note

Constantinople, effect of fall of, 22
Clement, Pope, 97, note

Constitution, Provincial, 209-211,
Clergy, alleged encouragement of 214, 247

ignorance, 2, 245; mortuary dues, Contarini, Cardinal, 95, 97, note
49, 123-127 ; "benefit,” 50 ; rights Convocation, grant of Headship of
and duties, 56, 59-64 ; ordinations, Church to the king, 99 ; enactment
57, 131-135 ; exemptions, 57 ; im regarding ordination, 131-132;
munity, 60 et seq. ; not the Church, powers of legislation transferred to
63; position as individuals, 64; the Crown, 135; draws up list of
attack on their temporalities, 91 : heretical books, 190
laity's grievance against, 101 et Corpus Christi, feast of, 328 ; proces-
seq. ; and its causes, 106, 122 ; sion of guilds, 329; at Corunna,
defended by More, 106-107; alleged 366-367
mercenary spirit, 109; and idle Council of Trent, 5, 97, note, 386
laxity of living, 113; prayers, 116; Courts, ecclesiastical, subject to Pope,
alms, 116-118; fasting and mortifi 72
cation, 118; charges of corruption, Coverdale, Myles, 91, 228
120; lack of definite work, 121, Cranmer, and the English Bible, 208,
note; in households of laily, 122; 218; on hearing mass, 286
tithe exactions, 125; faulis, 126 Creeping to the Cross, 266
128; alleged immorality, 128-129; Criticism in the Church, 137, 151
charge of simony, 129; Mr. Croke, Richard, 33, note, go, note
Brewer cited on, 129-130; igno Cross, honour to on Good Friday,
rance of, 133; hostility to verna 266
cular scriptures examined, 208 et Crowley, quoted, 336
seq., 214, 217; and reasons for Crucifix, reverence of image of, 254-
not encouraging, 213, 215; extent 255, 264, 269; not an idol, 258
and character of their religious Crumwell, Thomas, 100, 135
teaching, 247 et seq. ; books used Curates and mortuaries, 123-125; and
by for teaching, 271 et seq.; chantry tithes, 125
clergy, 352, 357-360, 364; pilgrim Cuthbert (Tunstall), Bishop, 194
ages and relics maintained by, 365 ;

and motives for, 371, 374
" Clericus,” 67

Dalton, John, of Hull, will of, 344
Cloth, clerical, State's right to legis. Dead, prayers for, 341, 352
late on, 55

De Athegua, George, Bishop, 157,
Cochlæus, John, 223, 224, note

and note
Colet, Dean, 6, 18, 27, and note, 31, | De Burgo, John, 272
note, 132, 141, 145, 148

Dee, Ďr., supplication to Queen
Commerce, progress not due to Re. Mary, 44
formation, 7

Defence of Peace, 91, 92, note
Commissioners, royal, 334, 338 Degree, advantage of, to religious, 41
Compostella, pilgrimages to, 366 De Melton, William, Chancellor of
Concordat, between Leo X. and

York, 131
Francis I., 69

De Ribbe, M. Charles, on wills, 342,
Concubines, alleged licences for, 128 note
Confession, 199, 248, 253

Determinations of the Universities,
Congregation, denoting church, 153, 90, note
note, 231-234

Deventer, school, 138-139
Conscience, examinations of, 252 De Worde, Wynkyn, 74, 131, 243,
Constantine, donation to Pope, 85 note, 251, and note, 262, 275
Constantine, scholar, 22

Digon, John, Canterbury monk, 38,
Constantine, George, 196

and note

on, 177

Dislike of clergy, alleged, 101 ; | Erasmus
reasons for, 112, 122

In London, 141 ; visits Italy, ibid. ;
Lispensations, 94

his Adagia, ibid. ; visits Venice,
Dives et Pauper, 250, 262, 311, 312 ibid. ; returns to London, 142 ; his
Division between spirituality and Encomium Moriæ, 142, 177 et seq.,

temporality, Saint-German's work 378; at Cambridge, 142-143 ; testsi.
on, 102 et seq., 108, 112, 123

mony to Archbishop Warham's
Divorce question, the, and its share kindness, 143; praise of English

in the Reformation, 184, and note ecclesiastics, 144, note ; amounts
Doctors of Divinity, Erasmus's satire received from English friends, 145;

again leaves England, 146; settles
Döllinger, Dr., cited, 20

at Basle, ibid. ; superintends Fro.
Dominicans, the, and Erasmus, 165; ben's press, 146; death, 147 ; atti-

responsibility for Lutheranism, 173 tude to Church, 148 et seq., 176-
Dorpius, Marten, 149-150

177 ; translation of New Testa-
Dues of clergy, 49

ment, 148, et seq.; attacks on, 153
Dunstan's, St., Canterbury, 304 ; et seq. ; regarded as an enemy to
parish accounts, 305

the Church, 154-156: opposition
Djalogue of Saint-German, 40 et seq., to his revival of Greek, 156-157 ;
102, 123; of More, 231, 237,255 defends himself to the Pope, 158,

160-161; disclaims connection with
ECCLESIASTICAL authority, alleged Luther, 159-161, 164, 172-175;

discontent of laity under, 1, 101, opposition to national churches,
184, et seq., 366 ; limits of, 47

16i, note; attitude to Luther, 163,
Ecclesiastical discipline, inquiry into, 172, 173-175; attacks Luther,
385

164; replies to von Hutten's at.
Ecclesiastics, attitude to revival of tacks, 165 et seq.; attitude to the

learning, 33-35, 38; resistance to Pope, 167-168, and note, 170, 171.
encroachment, 47, 49; Erasmus' 172, 174; attacks Lutheran mo.
satire on, 177 et seq. ; attitude to tives, 169-170 ; letter to Bishop
English Bible, 208 et seq.; alleged Marlianus on attitude to Luther,

encouragement of ignorance, 2, 245 174; general attitude to religious
Edgworth, Roger, preacher, 15, 42, movement of his age, 177 et seq. ;

188, 215, 239, 240, note, 257, 316 and to the classical revival, 179;
Education, fostered by monasteries, on pilgrimages and relics, 365, 367,
41

378; on devotion to saints, 379 et
Encomium Moria, of Erasmus, 142, seq.
_177, et seq.; 378

Eton College Chapel, wall paintings
Erasmus, attitude to Reformation, 6, of, 10

19; made responsible for “New Evensong, said before noon, 118
Learning," 14, note ; but attitude to Exemptions of clergy, 57, 68
defined, 18, 19; his chief support
in England, 35; position and views, FAIRS, 333 et seq.; at Winchester,
137 ; considered a Reformer, 138, 333
157, 159-160; birth and education, Faith, The Olde, of Great Britayne
138.139; joins order of St. Augus. and the New Learning of England,
tine, 139 ; ordained, ibid. ; unfitness 16, and note
for religious lise, ibid.; hostility Fasting, 118
to religious orders, 139, 159, 165, Ferguson, Mr., quoted on architec.
177 ; denounces enticing of youths, tural art, 289
into cloister, 140 ; leaves the | Fineux, Chief Justice, tries John
religious life, 140-141 ; takes Savage, 52 et seq. ; opinion on
pupils, 141 ; at Oxford, ibid.

spiritual courts, 62 ; 306

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