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and wounded. As blame was attached, by some of the officers of the army, to general Wayne, for allowing himself to be surprised in this manner, he demanded a court martial, which, after examining the necessary evidence declared that he had done every thing to be expected from an active, brave, and vigilant officer; and acquitted him with honour.
Shortly after was fought the battle of Germantown, in which he greatly signalized himself by his spirited manner of leading his men into action.
In all councils of war, general Wayne was distinguished for sup porting the most energetic and decisive measures. In the one previous to the battle of Monmouth, he and general Cadwalader were the only officers decidedly in favour of attacking the British army. The American officers are said to have been influenced by the opinions of the Europeans. The Baron de Steuben, and generals Lee and Du Portail, whose military skill was in high estimation, had warmly opposed an engagement, as too hazardous. But general WASHINGTON, whose opinion was in favour of an engagement, made such dispositions as would be most likely to lead to it. In that action, so honourable to the American arms, general Wayne was conspicuous in the ardor of his attack. General WASHINGTON, in his letter to Congress, observes, “Were I to conclude my account of this day's transactions without expressing my obligations to the officers of the army in general, I should do injustice to their merit, and violence to my own feelings. They seemed to vie with each other in manifesting their zeal and bravery. The catalogue of those who distinguished themselves is too long to admit of particularizing individuals. I cannot, however, forbear mentioning brigadier-general Wayne, whose good conduct and bravery, throughout the whole action deserves particular commendation."
In July 1779, the American commander in chief having conceived - a design of attacking the strong post of Stony Point, committed the
charge of this enterprise to general Wayne. The garrison was composed of six hundred men, principally highlanders, commanded by lieutenant colonel Johnson. Stony Point is a considerable height, the base of which, on the one side, is washed by the Hudson river, and on the other is covered by a morass, over which there is but one crossing place. On the top of this hill was the fort; formidable batteries of heavy artillery were planted on it, in front of which, breast-works were advanced, and half way down, was a double row of abattis. The batteries commanded the beach and the crossing place of the morass. Several vessels of war were also in the river, whose guns commanded the foot of the hill. At noon, on the 15th of July, general Wayne marched from Sandy Beach and arrived at eight o'clock in the evening within a
mile and a half of the fort, where he made the necessary disposition for the assault. After reconnoitering the situation of the enemy, at half past eleven he led his troops with unloaded muskets and fixed bayonets, and without firing a single gun, completely carried the fort and made the garrison amounting to five hundred and forty-three (the rest being killed) prisoners. In the attack, while at the head of Febiger's regiment, general Wayne received a wound in the head with a musketball, which, in the heat of the conflict, supposing mortal, and anxious to expire in the lap of glory, he called to his aids to carry him forward and let him die in the fort. The resistance on the part of the garrison was very spirited. Out of the forlorn hope of twenty men, commanded by lieutenant Gibbon, whose business it was to remove the abattis, seventeen were killed. For the brave, prudent and soldierlike conduct displayed in this achievement, the Congress presented to general Wayne a gold medal emblematic of the action.
In the campaign of 1781, in which Lord Cornwallis, and a British army were obliged to surrender prisoners of war, he bore a conspicuous part. His presence of mind never failed him in the most critical situations. Of this he gave an eminent example on the James River. Having been deceived by some false information, into a belief that the British army had passed the river, leaving but the rear guard behind, he hasted to attack the latter before it should also have effected its passage; but on pushing through a morass and wood, instead of the rear guard, he found the whole British army drawn up close to him. His situation did not admit of a moment's deliberation. Conceiving the boldest to be the safest measure, he immediately led his small detachment not exceeding eight hundred men, to the charge, and after a short, but very smart and close firing, in which he lost one hundred and eighteen of his men, he succeeded in bringing off the rest, under cover of the wood. Lord Cornwallis, suspecting the attack to be a feint, in order to draw him into an ambuscade, would not permit his troops to pursue.
The enemy having made considerable head in Georgia, Wayne was despatched by general WASHINGTON to take the command of the forces in that State, and after some sanguinary engagements, succeeded in establishing security and order. For his services in that State the legislature presented him with a valuable farm.
On the peace, which followed shortly after, he retired to private life; but in 1789 we find him a member of the Pennsylvania Convention, and one of those in favour of the present Federal Constitution of the United States.
In the year 1792 he was appointed to succeed general St. Clair, who had resigned the command of the army engaged against the Indians, Vol. 1.
on our western frontier. He had to oppose an enemy of unceasing activity, abounding in stratagems, and flushed with recent victory. His troops were composed of new levies, who with difficulty could be brought to submit to the strictness of discipline, necessary to be preserved in order to counteract the arts of their wily foe. The service was considered as extremely dangerous, and the recruiting proceeded very slowly. Two gallant armies had been cut to pieces by these savages, who had destroyed with fire and the tomahawk, the advanced settlements of the whites. On his appointment, it was supposed by many, that the military ardor, for which he had ever been eminently distinguished would be very likely to lead him into action under unfavourable circumstances, when opposed by a foe, whose vigilance was unceasing, and whose rule it was, never to risk an action, without the greatest assurance of success. But the appointment had been made by the man, who of all others was the best judge of the requisite qualities of a commander. General Wayne had been selected for this important situation by President WASHINGTON, who entertained a distinguished regard for him; and the result showed his opinion as accurate in this, as in all other instances of his glorious life. Wayne formed an encampment at Pittsburgh, and such exemplary discipline was introduced among the new troops, that on their advance into the Indian country, they appeared like veterans. He wished to come to a general engagement with the enemy, but aware of the serious consequences that would follow a defeat, the movements of the army were conducted with consummate prudence. Parties were constantly in advance, and as well to guard against a surprize, which had been fatal to the officers who had preceded him, as to inure his troops to vigilance and toil, the station of every night was fortified. Provisions were difficult to procure, and a rapid advance into the enemy's country, must have been followed by as rapid a retreat. He, properly, conceived that the security of the country and the favourable termination of the war, depended more on maintaining the ground, in a slow advance, than by making a rapid incursion into their villages, which he might be obliged instantly to abandon. At this time, the Six Nations had shown a disposition to hostilities, which the care of the President was scarcely able to prevent. And on the south, it was with difficulty that the government of Georgia restrained the turbulence of its savage neighbours. In this situation, a retreat of the American troops, would probably have been attended with the most fatal consequences to the country.
The Indians had collected in great numbers, and it was necessary not only to rout them, but to occupy their country by a chain of posts, that should, for the future, check their predatory incursions. Pursuing this regular and systematic mode of advance, the autumn of 1793 found
general Wayne with his army at a post in the wilderness, called Greensville, about six miles in advance of Fort Jefferson, where he determined to encamp for the winter, in order to make the necessary arrangements for opening the campaign to effect early in the following spring. After fortifying his camp, he took possession of the ground on which the Americans had been defeated in 1791, which he fortified also, and called the work fort Recovery. This situation of the army, menacing the Indian villages, effectually prevented any attack on the white settlements. The impossibility of procuring the necessary supplies prevented the march of the troops till the summer. On the eighth of August, the army arrived at the junction of the rivers Au Glaize and Miami of the Lakes, where they erected works for the protection of the stores. About thirty miles from this place, the British had formed a post, in the vicinity of which the Indians had assembled their whole force. On the 15th, the army again advanced down the Miami, and on the 18th arrived at the Rapids. On the following day they erected some works, for the protection of the baggage. The situation of the enemy was reconnoitered, and they were found posted in a thick wood, in the rear of the British fort. On the 20th the army advanced to the attack. The Miami covered the right flank, and on the left were the mounted volunteers, commanded by general Todd. After marching about five miles, major Price, who led the advance, received so heavy a fire from the Indians, who were stationed behind trees, that he was compelled to fall back. The enemy had occupied a wood in front of the British fort, which, from the quantity of fallen timber, could not be entered by the horse. The legion was immediately ordered to advance with trailed arms, and rouse them from their covert; the cavalry under captain Campbell, were directed to pass between the Indians and the river, while the volunteers, led by general Scott, made a circuit to turktheir flank. So rapid, however, was the charge of the legion, that before the rest of the army could get into action, the enemy were completely routed, and driven through the woods for more than two miles, and the troops halted within gun-shot of the British fort. All the Indians' houses and corn-fields were destroyed. In this decisive action, the whole loss of general Wayne's army, in killed and wounded, amounted only to one hundred and seven men. As hostilities continued on the part of the Indians, their whole country was laid waste, and forts established, which effectually prevented their return.
The success of this engagement destroyed the enemies' power; and in the following year general Wayne concluded a definitive treaty of peace with them.
A life of peril and of glory was terminated in the month of December. 1796. He had shielded his country from the murderous tomahawk of the savage. He had established her boundaries. He had forced her enemies to sue for her protection. He beheld her triumphant, rich in arts, and potent in arms. What more could his patriotic spirit wish to see? He died in a hut in the wilderness, and lies buried on the shore of Lake Erie. The traveller may search almost in vain for his grave. No mausoleum points out the spot where he reposes. He who deserved a monument
Regalique situ pyramidum altius, has not a humble stone to tell his countrymen, that beneath it lie whatever was mortal of a HERO and a PATRIOT.
POLITE LITERATURE-FOR THE PORT FOLIO.
The author of the little volume before us, possessed a poetic genius, which, undoubtedly, would have gained him no mean fame, could he have devoted his time assiduously to its cultivation. But, in our country, men of powerful and brilliant talents, at an early age, are generally hurried into the vortex of business; and neglect the flowers of poesy, for the fruits of wealth and independence. We lament the untimely death of Mr. H. the following well-written account of whom, is introduced, by the editor, in his preface.
ST. John Hoverwood was born at Leicester, in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. His father was a respectable physician in that place. At the age of twelve years, our poet had the misfortune to lose his parents. An or phan, destitute of patrimony, he was greatly indebted to the generosity of individuals for the education he received.
At a Latin school, then of some celebrity at Lebanon, in the State of Connecticut, under the care of Mr. Tisdale, he was taught those rudiments of learning, which are a necessary preparation for an admission to Yale College. Soon after entering that seminary he became the distinguished favourite of the President, Dr. Stiles, into whose house, during his residence at New Haven, he was received with parental kindness.
After completing his collegiate studies with great honour to himself, he quitted New-England, and went to reside at Schenectady, in the State of New-York, where he continued about two years, as preceptorin an academy. Thence he removed to Albany, and commenced the study of the law, in the office of Peter W. Yates, Esquire, with whom he pursued his legal studies for two years: at the expiration of which time, having been admitted to the bar, he went to Salem, in the county of Washington, where he practised in his profession for ten years with unblemished reputation. He was made a