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9. Injuries to health, by any unwholesome practices, are remedied by a special action of trespass on the case, for damages

10. Injuries to reputation are, I. Slanderous and malicious words. Remedy by action on the case, for damages. II. Libels. Remedy: the same. III. Malicious prosecutions. Remedy by action of conspiracy, or on the case, for damages 11. The sole injury to personal liberty is false imprisonment. Remedies: I. By writ of, 1st, mainprize; 2ndly, odio et atia; 3rdly, homine replegiando; 4thly, habeas corpus; to remove the wrong. II. By action of trespass; to recover damages





12. For injuries to private property, see the next chapter.

13. Injuries to relative rights affect, I. Husbands. II. Parents. III. Guardians. IV. Masters

14. Injuries to an husband are, I. Abduction, or taking away his wife. Remedy by action of trespass de uxore rapta et abducta, to recover possession of his wife, and damages.` II. Criminal conversation with her. Remedy: by action on the case, for damages. III. Beating her. Remedy by action on the case, per quod consortium amisit, for damages 15. The only injury to a parent or guardian, is the abduction of their children, or wards. Remedy: by action of trespass, de filiis, vel custodiis, raptis vel abductis; to recover possession of them, and damages

16. Injuries to a master are, I. Retaining his servants. Remedy: by action on the case, for damages. II. Beating them. Remedy: by action on the case, per quod servitium amisit; for damages






OF INJURIES TO PERSONAL PROPERTY 1. Injuries to the rights of property, are either to those of personal, or real, property

2. Personal property is either in possession, or in action

3. Injuries to personal property in possession are, I. By dispossession. II. By damage, while the owner remains in possession

4. Dispossession may be effected, I. By an unlawful taking. II. By an unlawful detaining

5. For the unlawful taking of goods and chattels personal, the remedy is, I. Actual restitution; which (in case of a wrongful distress) is obtained by action of replevin. II. Satisfaction in damages: 1st, in case of rescous, by action of rescous, pound-breach, or on the case; 2ndly, in case of other unlawful takings, by action of trespass, or trover





6. For the unlawful detaining of goods

lawfully taking, the remedy is also, I. Actual restitution; by action of replevin, or detinue. II. Satisfaction in damages; by action on the case, for trover and conversion

7. For damage to personal property, while in the owner's possession, the remedy is in damages, by action of trespass vi et armis, in case the act be immediately injurious, or by action of trespass on the case, to redress consequential damage

8. Injuries to personal property, in action, arise by breach of contracts, I. Express. II. Implied

9. Breaches of express contracts are, I. By non-payment of debts. Remedy: 1st. specific payment; recoverable by action of debt. 2dly. Damages for nonpayment; recoverable by action on the case. II. By non-performance of covenants. Remedy: by action of covenant, 1st, to recover damages, in cove nants personal; 2dly, to compel performance in covenants real. III. By non-performance of promises, or assumpsits. Remedy: by action on the case, for damages






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11. Breaches of contracts implied in the nature of government, are by the nonpayment of money which the laws have directed to be paid. Remedy: by action of debt; (which, in such cases, is frequently a popular, frequently a qui tam action) to compel the specific payment; or sometimes by action on the case, for damages 158-161 12. Breaches of contracts implied in reason and construction of law, are by the non-performance of legal presumptive assumpsits: for which the remedy is in damages; by an action on the case, on the implied assumpsits. I. Of a quantum meruit. II. Of a quantum valebat. III. Of money expended for another. IV. Of receiving money to another's use. V. Of an insimul computassent, on an account stated; (the remedy on an account unstated being by action of account). VI. Of performing one's duty, in any employment, with integrity, diligence, and skill. In some of which cases an action of deceit (or on the case, in nature of deceit) will lie 161-166

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4. Abatement is the entry of a stranger, after the death of the ancestor, before the heir

5. Intrusion is the entry of a stranger, after a particular estate of freehold is determined, before him in remainder or reversion

6. Disseisin is a wrongful putting out of him that is seized of the freehold 7. Discontinuance is where tenant in tail, or the husband of tenant in fee, makes a larger estate of the land than the law alloweth 8. Deforcement is any other detainer of the freehold from him who hath the property, but who never had the pos


9. The universal remedy for all these is restitution or delivery of possession, and, sometimes, damages for the detention. This is effected, I. By mere entry. II. By action possessory. III. By writ of right 10. Mere entry on lands, by him who hath the apparent right of possession, will (if peaceable) devest the mere possession of a wrong-doer. But forcible entries are remedied by immediate restitution, to be given by a jus⚫tice of the peace








11. Where the wrong-doer hath not only mere possession, but also an apparent right of possession; this may be devested by him who hath the actual right of possession, by means of the possessory actions of writ of entry, or assise 179 12. A writ of entry is a real action, which



disproves the title of the tenant, by shewing the unlawful means under which he gained or continues possession. And it may be brought, either against the wrong-doer himself; or in the degrees, called the per, the per and cui, and the post 13. An assise is a real action, which proves the title of the demandant, by shewing his own, or his ancestor's possession. And it may be brought either to remedy abatements; viz. the assise of mort d' ancestor, &c. or to remedy recent disseisins; viz. the assise of novel disseisin 14. Where the wrong-doer hath gained the actual right of possession, he who hath the right of property can only be remedied by a writ of right, or some writ of a similar nature. As, I. Where such right of possession is gained by the discontinuance of tenant in tail. Remedy, for the right of property by writ of formedon. II. Where gained by recovery in a possessory action, had against tenants of particular estates by their own default. Remedy: by writ of quod ei deforceat. III. Where gained by recovery in a possessory action, had upon the merits. IV. Where

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1. Ouster from chattels real is, I. From estates by statute and elegit. II. From an estate for years

2. Ouster, from estates by statute or elegit, is effected by a kind of disseisin. Remedy restitution, and damages; by assise of novel disseisin


3. Ŏuster from an estate for years, is effected by a like disseisin or ejectment. Remedy: restitution and damages; I. By writ of ejectione firma. II. By writ of quare ejecit infra terminum 4. A writ of ejectione firme, or action of trespass in ejectment, lieth where lands, &c., are let for a term of years, and the lessce is ousted or ejected from his term; in which case he shall recover possession of his term, and damages

5. This is now the usual method of trying titles to land, instead of an action real viz. by, I. The claimant's making an actual (or supposed) lease upon the land to the plaintiff. II. The plaintiff's actual (or supposed) entry thereupon. III. His actual (or supposed) ouster and ejectment by the defendant. For which injury this action is brought, either against the tenant, or (more usually) against some casual or fictitious ejector; in whose stead the tenant may be admitted defendant, on condition that the lease, entry, and ouster be confessed, and that nothing else be disputed but the merits of the title claimed by the lessor of the plaintiff





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OF TRESPASS 208 to 215 1. Trespass is an entry upon, and damage done to, another's lands, by one's self, or one's cattle; without any lawful authority, or cause of justification: which is called a breach of his close. Remedy damages; by action of trespass quare clausum fregit: besides that of distress damage feasant. But, unless the title to the land come chiefly in question, or the trespass was wilful or malicious, the plaintiff (if the dama ges be under forty shillings) shall re cover no more costs than damages 208-215 CHAPTER XIII.

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that worketh damage, or inconvenience and it is either a public and common nuisance, of which in the next book; or, a private nuisance, which is any thing done to the hurt or annoyance of, I. The corporeal, II. The incorporeal, hereditaments of another 2. The remedies for a private nuisance (besides that of abatement), are, I. Damages; by aotion on the case (which also lies for special prejudice by a public nuisance). II. Removal thereof, and damages; by assise of nuisance. III. Like removal, and damages; by writ of quod permittat pros






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2. For subtraction of rents and services due by tenure, the remedy is, I. By distress; to compel the payment, or performance. II. By action of debt. III. By assise. IV. By writ de consuetudinibus et servitiis-to compel the payment. V. By writ of cessavit; and VI. By writ of right sur disclaimer—— to recover the land itself 3. To remedy the oppression of the lord, the law has also given, I. The writ of ne injuste vexes: II. The writ of




4. For subtraction of services, due by custom, the remedy is, I. By writ of secta ad molendinum, furnum, torrale, &c.; to compel the performance, and recover damages. II. By action on the case; for damages only





236 to 252

1. Disturbance is the hindering or disquieting the owners of an incorporeal

hereditament, in their regular and law. ful enjoyment of it

2. Disturbances are, I. Of franchises. II. Of commons. Ill. Of ways. IV. Of tenure. V. Of patronage

3. Disturbance, of franchises, is remedied by a special action on the case; for damages

4. Disturbance of common, is I. Intercommoning without right. Remedy: damages; by an action on the case, or of trespass: besides distress da. mage feasant; to compel satisfaction. II. Surcharging the cominon. Remedies: distress damage feasant; to compel satisfaction: action on the case; for damages: or, writ of admeasurement of pasture; to apportion the common;-and writ de secunda superoneratione; for the supernumerary cattle, and damages. III. Enclosure, or obstruction. Remedies: restitution of the common, and damages; by assise of novel disseisin, and by writ of quod permittat: or, damages only; by action on the case 5. Disturbance of ways, is the obstruction, I. Of a way in gross, by the owner of the land. II. Of a way appendant, by a stranger. Remedy, for both: damages; by action on the case 6. Disturbance of tenure, by driving away tenants, is remedied by a spe cial action on the case; for damages 7. Disturbance of patronage, is the hinderance of a patron to present his clerk to a benefice; whereof usurpation within six months is now become a species





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2. The crown is the agressor, whenever it is in possession of any proper ty to which the subject hath a right 254-5 3. This is remedied, I. By petition of right; where the right is grounded on facts disclosed in the petition itself. II. By monstrans de droit; where the claim is grounded on facts already appearing on record. The effect of both

Page 255-257

which is to remove the hands (or possession) of the king 4. Where the crown is the sufferer, the king's remedies are, I. By such common law actions as are consistent with the royal dignity. II. By inquest of office, to recover possession: which, when found, gives the king his right by solemn matter of record; but may afterwards be traversed by the subject. III. By writ of scire facias, to repeal the king's patent or grant. IV. By information of intrusion, to give damages for any trespass on the lands of the crown; or of debt, to recover monies due upon contract, or forfeited by the breach of any penal statute; or sometimes (in the latter case) by information in rem: all filed in the Exchequer ex officio by the king's attorney-general. V. By writ of quo warranto, or information in the nature of such writ; to seize into the king's hands any franchise usurped by the subject, or to oust an usurper from any public office. VI. By writ of mandamus, unless cause; to admit or restore any person entitled to a franchise or office to which, if a false cause be returned, the remedy is by traverse, or by action on the case for damages; and, in consequence, a peremptory mandamus, or writ of restitution




270 to 272

1. The pursuit of the several remedies furnished by the laws of England, is, I. By action in the courts of common law. II. By proceedings in the courts of equity

2. Of an action in the court of Common Pleas (originally the proper court for prosecuting civil suits) the orderly parts are, I. The original writ. II. The process. III. The pleadings. IV. The issue, or demurrer. trial. VI. The judgment. VII. The proceedings in nature of appeal. VIII. The execution

V. The

3. The original writ is the beginning or foundation of a suit, and is either optional (called a præcipe) commanding the defendant to do something in certain, or otherwise shew cause to the contrary; or peremptory (called a si fecerit te securum) commanding, upon security given by the plaintiff, the defendant to appear in court, to shew wherefore he hath injured the plaintiff: both issuing out of Chancery under the king's great seal, and returnable in bank during term-time






279 to 292

1. Process is the means of compelling

the defendant to appear in court VOL. II.

2. This includes, I. Summons. II. The writ of attachment, or pone; which is sometimes the first or original process. III. The writ of distringas, or distress infinite. IV. The writs of capias ad respondendum, and testatum capias: or, instead of these, in the King's Bench, the bill of Middlesex, and writ of latitat; and, in the Exchequer, the writ of quo minus. V. The alias and pluries writs. VI. The exigent, or writ of exigi facias, proclamations, and outlawry. VIII. Appearance, and comVIII. The arrest. IX. mon bail. Special bail, first to the sheriff, and then to the action





293 to 313

1. Pleadings are the mutual altercations of the plaintiff and defendant, in writing; under which are comprised, I. The declaration or count (wherein, incidentally, of the visne, nonsuit, retraxit, and discontinuance). II. The defence, claim of cognizance, imparlance, view, oyer, aid-prayer, voucher, or age. III. The plea; which is either a dilatory plea (1st, to the jurisdiction; 2ndly, in disability of the plaintiff; 3rdly, in abatement: or it is a plea to the action; sometimes confessing the action, either in whole, or in part (wherein of a tender, paying money into court, and set-off); but usually denying the complaint, by pleading either, 1st, the general issue; or, 2ndly, a special bar (wherein of justifications, the statutes of limitation, &c.) IV. Replication, rejoinder, surrejoinder, rebutter, surrebutter, &c. Therein of estoppels, colour, duplicity, departure, new assignment, protestation, averment, and other incidents of pleading




314 to 317

OF ISSUE AND DEMURRER 1. Issue is where the parties, in a course of pleading, come to a point affirmed on one side and denied on the other: which, if it be a matter of law, is called a demurrer; if it be a matter of fact, still retains the name of an issue of fact

2. Continuance is the detaining of the parties in court from time to time, by giving them a day certain to appear upon. And, if any new matter arises since the last continuance or adjournment, the defendant may take advantage of it, even after demurfer or issue, by alleging it in a plea puis dar

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330 to 341

1. Trial is the examination of the matter of fact put in issue 2. The species of trials are, I. By the record. II. By inspection. III. By certificate. IV. By witnesses. By wager of battel. VI. By wager of law. VII. By jury


3. Trial by the record is had, when the existence of such record is the point in issue

4. Trial by inspection or examination is had by the court, principally when the matter in issue is the evident object of the senses

5. Trial by certificate is had in those cases, where such certificate must have been conclusive to a jury 6. Trial by witnesses (the regular method in the civil law) is only used on a writ of dower, when the death of the husband is in issue

7. Trial by wager of battel, in civil cases, is only had on a writ of right: but, in lieu thereof, the tenant may have, at his option, the trial by the grand assize





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8. Trial by wager of law is only had, where the matter in issue may be supposed to have been privily transacted, between the parties themselves, without the intervention of other witnesses 341


351 to 385

OF THE TRIAL BY JURY 1. Trial by jury is, I. Extraordinary; as, by the grand assize, in writs of right; and by the grand jury, in writs of attaint. II. Ordinary

2. The method and process of the ordinary trial by jury is, I. The writ of venire facias to the sheriff, coroners, or elisors; with the subsequent compulsive process of habeas corpora, or distringas. II. The carrying down of the record to the court of nisi prius. III. The sheriff's return; or panel of, 1st, special, 2ndly, common jurors. IV. The challenges; 1st, to the array; 2ndly, to the polls of the jurors; either, propter honoris respectum, propter defectum, propter affectum (which is sometimes a principal challenge, sometimes to the favour), or, propter delictum. V. The tales de circumstantibus. VI. The oath of the jury. VII. The evidence; which is either by proofs, 1st, written; 2ndly, parol-or, by the private knowledge of the jurors. VIII. The verdict: which may be, 1st, privy; 2ndly, public; 3rdly, special





386 to 399

1. Whatever is transacted at the trial,

OF PROCEEDINGS IN THE NATURE OF APPEALS 402 to 411 1. Proceedings in the nature of appeals from judgment, are, I. A writ of attaint; to impeach the verdict of a jury: which of late has been superseded by new trials. II. A writ of audita querela; to discharge a judgment by matter that has since happened. III. A writ of error, from one court of record to another; to correct judgments, erroneous in point of law, and not helped by the statutes of amendment and jeofails

402-406 2. Writs of error lie, I. To the court of King's Bench, from all inferior courts of record; from the court of Common Pleas at Westminster; and from the court of King's Bench in Ireland. II. To the courts of Exchequer Chamber, from the law side of the court of Exchequer; and from proceedings in the court of King's Bench by bill. III. To the house of Peers, from proceedings in the court of King's Bench by original, and on writs of error; and from the several courts of Exchequer Chamber

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