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them with tenderness, and without any diminution of the reverence and affection, which he owes his Rulers ; because his duty arises, not from the character of those men, or the nature of the government, but from the positive command of the King of kings and Lord of lords. Let every • soul be subject to the higher powers : for there • is no power but of God. The powers that be * are ordained of God. Whosoever therefore re• sisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: • and they that resist shall receive to themselves • damnation. For rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? Do that which is good, • and thou shalt have praise of the same.
For • he is the minister of God to thee for good : but * if thou do that which is evil, be afraid ; for he beareth not the sword in vain : for he is the • minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath "upon him that doth evil. Wherefore ye must ' needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also * for conscience-sake. For, for this cause pay you tribute also : for they are God's ministers, attending continually on this very thing. Render therefore to all their dues, tribute to whom • tribute is due, custom to whom custom, honour i to whom honour.'* It is. easy for a man to deny the Bible to be the word of God, and avow himself, either a Deist or Atheist. But while any one professes to believe that all scripture is
* Rom. xiii, 1, &c.
given by inspiration of God;' he will find it difficult, eren under every advantage to be deri. ved from the diabolical sophistry of the modern age, to shake off the obligations, which are laid on him by these decisive scriptures, to honour 6 and obey all that are in authority. So unambiguous are the Apostle's words, that an attempt to explain or enforce them would be to act, the part of one, who endeavoured to improve the flavour of wine by mixing it with water. Let the Christian reader, however, keep in remembrance, that the precepts of the Gospel are spiritual, and extend beyond words and actions, even to the thoughts, intents, and purposes of the heart. Both the secret desire and the overt act are cog. nizable in the court of Heaven. How deeply must the argument of the Apostle Peter influence every heart, that has tasted of the love of Christ! • Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man * for the Lord's sake, whether it be to the King as supreme, or unto Governors as unto them,
who are sent by Him for the punishment of evil • doers, and for the praise of them that do well. • For so is the will of God, that with well-doing
ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish • men.'t It is FOR THE LORD'S SAKE, that submission is required, because all Governors,
+ 1 Pet. ii, 13, 14, 15.
their public administration, are God's vicegerents. And shall I not on this motive submit myself even to a Cataline or a Nero? With how much more alacrity, respect, and affection, to the Father of his people! Christ cannot plead in vain with those who know His name. If He says, do . this for my sake,' a believer's answer is ready, • Lord, Thy blessed will is the rule of all my con• duct.'
It will now be proper, previous to the conclusion of the present essay, to lay before the reader that excellent form of prayer for the President of the United States, and all in civil authority, which our church teaches us to use ; and then briefly to point out, how admirably the particulars it contains are adapted to the purpose, for which it was composed.*
.0 Lord our heavenly Father, the high and ;
mighty (Ruler of the Universe,) who dost from • Thy throne behold all the dwellers upon the o earth ; most heartily we beseech Thee with thy • favour to behold and bless thy servant, the President of the United States, and all others in au
* This prayer 'is taken verbatim out of the sacramentary of St. Gregory, but was not inserted in our liturgy till the reign of Queen Elizabeth ; when our Reformers observing that, by the liturgies of King Edward, the Queen could not be prayed for .but upon those days, when either the litany or communion office was to be used, prudently added this form to supply the defect of the daily service. Wheatly,
thority ; and so replenish them with the grace . of Thy Holy Spirit, that they may always in• cline to Thy will and walk in Thy way: en• due them plenteously with heavenly gifts, grant • them in health and prosperity long to live ; and
finally, after this life, to attain everlasting joy 6 and felicity through Jesus Christ our Lord. 6 Amen.'
We here with singular propriety address our. selves to God as our heavenly Father;' because to His parental goodness we owe the existence of civil government, and all the inestimable blessings which are connected with it ; [and, in an especial manner, that excellent form there. of under which we live. If we employ a moment in making a comparison between the constitution of our favored land, and the various unhappy systems of government that prevail in many other countries ; we shall perceive the propriety of acknowledging God's fatherly goodness in appointing this distinguished spot for the land of our nativity and the place of our residence.] It s an established maxim that the less is blessed • of the greater ;' and therefore, in the act of supplication for an earthly Ruler, we properly consider Him, before whose footstool we bow, as "the high and mighty Ruler of the Universe;' from whom magistrates derive their authority, and to whose bar they are amenable as much as the meanest of their subjects. His eye beholds
all the dwellers upon earth,' regarding the necessities and the practices both of Rulers and their people.
Before this King of kings, who is higher than the highest in dignity, and mightier than the mightiest in power, we humbly and devoutly bend the knee ; beseeching Him to “bebold with His · favour, and bless the President of the United · States and all others in authority. For authority, without the favor of God, can only make its possessors more miserable than other men. In whatever station man be placed, the favor of God is essential to his happiness. On this solid basis the inward peace of the mind is entirely founded; and without it every outward circumstance of grandeur or prosperity is attended with a curse. The favor of God is essentially necessary for our Rulers, because the peace of our government, the wisdom of our senate, the efficacy of their measures, the success of our armies, and the wel. fare of the people are inseparably connected with it.
Since God manifests kis favor chiefly, by the communications of His Holy Spirit; we go on to pray that they may be replenished therewith. For, as no persons can incline to God's will and walk in His way, except they be taught and influenced by Divine grace ; 80 those, who are placed in stations of pre-eminence, particularly need that inestimable benefit in a more than ordinary