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tinued in succession in different provinces, unto this time. The present state of the mission, will appear by the following extract from the journal of the author's tour through these provinces.

Tranquebar, 25th August, 1806. “Tranquebar was the first scene of the protestant mission in India. There are at present three missionaries here, superintending the Hindoo congregations. Yesterday I visited the church built by ZIEGENBALG. His body lies on one side of the altar, and that of his fellow missionary GRUNDLER on the other. Above are the epitaphs of both, written in Latin, and engraved on plates of brass. The church was consecrated in 1718, and Ziegenbalg and his companion died in two years after. They laid the foundation for evangelizing India, and then departed, 'having finished the work, which was given them to do.' I saw also the dwelling-house of Ziegenbalg, in the lower apartment of which the registers of the-shurch are still kept. In these I found the name of the first heathen baptized by him, and recorded in his own hand-writing in the year 1707. In Ziegenbalg's church, and from the pulpit where he stood, I first heard the gospel preached to a congregation of Hindoos, in their own tongue. The missionaries told me that religion had suffered much in Tranquebar, of late years, from European infidelity. French principles had corrupted the Danes, and rendered them indifferent to their own religion, and therefore hostile to the conversion of the Hin-. doos. "Religion,' said they, 'flourishes more among the natives of Tanjore and in other provinces where, there are few Europeans, than here or at Madras; for we find that European example in the large towns, is the bane of christain instruction.'. One instance of hostility to the mission they mentioned, as having occurred only a few weeks before my arrival. On the 9th of July, 1756; the native chris.

tians at Tranquebar celebrated a jubilee, in commemoration of the fiftieth year since the christian ministers brought the Bible from Europe. The present year 1806, being the second 50th, preparations were made at Tranquebar for the second jubilee, on the 9th of last month; but the French principles preponderating in the government, they would not give it any public support; in consequence of which it was not observed with that solemnity which was intended. But in other places, where there were few Europeans, it was celebrated by the native Christians with enthusiasm and every demonstration of joy. When I expressed my astonishment at this hostility, the aged missionary, Dr. John, said, 'I have always remarked that the disciples of Voltaire are the true enemies of missions, and that the enemies of missions are, in general, the disciples of Voltaire."

Tanjore, 30th August, 1806. “On my entering this province, I stopped an hour at a village near the road; and there I first heard the name of Swartz pronounced by a Hindoo. When I arrived at the capital, I waited on major Blackburne, the British resident at the court of Tanjore, who informed me that the Rajah had appointed the next day at 12 o'clock to receive


visit. On the same day I went to Swartz's garden close to the christian village, where the rev. Mr. Kohloff resides. Mr. Kohloff is the worthy successor of Mr. Swartz; and with him I found the rev. Dr. John, and Mr. Horst, two other missionaries who were on a visit to Mr. Kohloff.

“Next day I visited the Rajah of Tanjore, in company with major Blackburne. When the first ceremonial was over, the Rajah conducted us to the grand saloon, which was adorned by the portraits of his ancestors; and immediately led me up to the portrait of Mr. Swartz. He then discoursed for a considerable time concerning that 'good man,' whom he ever revered as his father, and guardian.' The Rajah speaks and writes English very intelligibly. I smiled to see Swartz's picture amongst these Hindoo kings, and thought with myself that there are many who would think such a combination scarcely possible. I then addressed the Rajah, and thanked him, in the name of the church of England, for his kindness to the late Mr. Swartz, and to his successors, and particularly for his recent acts of benevolence to the Christians residing within his provinces. The missionaries had just informed me that the Rajah had erected 'a college for Hindoos, Mahomedans, and Christians;' in which provision was made for the instruction of fifty Christian children.' His highness is very desirous that I should visit this college, which is only about sixteen miles from the capital. Having heard of the fame of the ancient Shanscrit, and Mahratta library of the kings of Tanjore, I requested his highness would present a catalogue of its volumes to the college of Fort-William; which he was pleased to do. It is volumnious, and written in the Mahratta character; for that is the proper language of the Tanjore court.

"In the evening I dined with the resident, and the rajah sent his band of music, consisting of eight or more vinas, with other instruments. The vina, or been, is the ancient instrument which Sir William Jones has described in his interesting descant on the musical science of the Hindoos, in the Asiatic Rta searches, and the sight of which, he says, he found it so difficult to obtain in northern India. The band played the English air of 'God save the King,' set to Mahratta words, and applied to the maha rajah, or great king of Tanjore. Two of the missionaries dined at the resident's house, together with some English officers. Mr. Kohloff informed me that major Blackburne has promoted the interests of the mission by every means in his power. Major Blackburne is a man of superior attainments, amiable man


ners, and a hospitable disposition; and is well qualified for the important station he has long held, as English resident at this court.

"On the day following, I went to view the Hindoo temples, and saw the great black bull of Tanjore. It is said to be of one stone, hewn out of a rock of granite; and so large that the temple was built around it. While I surveyed it, I reflected on the multitude of natives, who during the last hundred years, had turned away their eyes from this idol. When I returned, I sat some hours with the missionaries, conversing on the general state of christianity in the provinces of Tanjore, Tritchinopoly, Madura and Palamcottah. They want help. Their vineyard is increased, and their laborers are decreased. They have had no supply from Germany in the room of Swartz, lænicke, and Gericke; and they have no prospect of further supply, except from the Society for promoting Christian knowledge;' who, they hope, will be able to send out English preachers to perpetuate the mission."

Tanjore, Sept. 2, 1806. “Last Sunday and Monday were interesting days to me, at Tanjore. It being rumored that a friend of the late Mr. Swartz had arrived, the people assembled from all quarters. On Sunday three sermons were preached in three different languages. At eight o'clock we proceeded to the church built by Mr. Swartz within the fort. From Mr. Swartz's pulpit ļ preached in English from Mark xiii, 10; And the Gospel must first be published among all nations. The English gentlemen here attended, civil and military, with the missionaries, catechists, and British soldiers. After the service was ended, the congregation of Hindoos assembled in the same church, and filled the aisles and porches. The Tamul service commenced with some forms of prayer, in which all the congregation joined with loud fervor.

A chapter of the Bible was then read, and a hymn of Luther's sung. After a short extempore prayer, duriag which the whole congregation knelt on the floor, the Rev. Dr. John delivered an animated discourse in the Tamul tongue, from these words, Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come to me and drink. As Mr. Whitefield, on his first going to Scotland, was surprised at the rustling of the leaves of the Bible, which took place immediately on his pronouncing his text (so different from any thing he had seen in his own country) so I was surprised here at the sound of the iron pen engraving the Palmyra leaf. Many persons had their ollas in their hands writing the sermon in Tamul short-hand. Mr. Kohloff assured me that some of the elder students and catechists will not lose a word of the preacher if he speak deliberately.* This, thought I, is more than some of the students at our English universities can do. This aptitude of the people to record the words of the preacher, renders it peculiarly necessary that the priests' lips should keep knowledge.' An old rule of the mission is, that the sermon of the morning should be read to the schools in the evening, by the catechist, from his Palmyra leaf.

“Another custom obtains among them which pleased me much. In the midst of the discourse the preacher sometimes puts a question to the congregation; who answer it without hesitation, in one.voice. The object is to keep their attention awake, and the minister generally prompts the answer himself.-Thus, suppose that he is saying, 'My dear brethren, it is true that your profession of the faith of Christ is attended with some reproach, and that you have lost your cast with the Brahmins. But your case is not peculiar. The man of the world is the man of

It is well known that natives of Tanjore and Traveņcore can write fluentig what is spoken doliberately. They do not look much at their ollas while writingi The fibre of tho leaf guides the pen.

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