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“September 4, 1806. "Leaving Tanjore, I passed throagh the woods inhabited by the collaries (or thieves) now humanized by christianity. When they understood who I was, they followed me on the road, stating their destitute condition, in regard to religious instruction. They were clamorous for bibles. They supplicated for teachers. “We don't want bread or money from you, said they; but we want the word of God. Now, thought I, whose duty is it to attend to the moral wants of this people? Is it that of the English nation, or of some other nation?"
“Tritchinopoly, Sept. 5. "The first church built by Swartz is at this place. It is called Christ's church, and is a large building, capable of containing perhaps two hundred people.* The aged missionary, the rev. Mr. Pohle, presides over this church, and over the native congregations at this place. Christianity flourishes; but I found that here, as at other places, there is a 'famine of bibles.' The jubilee was celebrated on the 9th of July, being the hundredth year from the arrival of the messengers of the gospel. On this occasion their
various cares that assail him without ceasing. He provides for the wants of this and the southern missions (Tritchinopoly excepted) by disbursing annually upwards of 1000 'pagodas (about £. 250 sterl.) out of his private purse, partly to make up the difference between the income and expenditure of this and the southern mission (of which I annex an abstract) and the rest in assisting the deserving poor, without regard to religion; and for various pious uses. To him, as arbitrator and father, apply all Christians that are at variance, disturbed from without or from within, out or service or distressed; for most of our Christians will do any thing ra:her than go to law.
All these heterogenous, but, to a missionary at Tanjore, unavoidable avocations, joined to the ordinary duties of his station, exercise his mind early and late; and if he is not of a robust constitution, will undermine his health at last. Happily, several neighboring churches and new congregations, belonging to the mission of Tanjore, afford Mr. Kohloff frequent opportunities to relax his mind, and to recruit his health and spirits, by making occasional short excursions to see these new Christians, who were professed thieves only a few years ago, and many of them are now an honor to the Christian profession, and industrious peasants. It is pleasing to behold the anxiety with which a great number of our Christian children inquire at such times when their father willfreturn; and how they run several miles to meet him with shouts and clapping of hands, and hymns of thanks to God, as soon as they discern his palankeen at a distance:?'
* Probably an error of the Press for 3000.--Amer. Edi
venerable pastor preached from Matt. xxviii, 19; 'Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.' At this station, there are about a thousand English troops. Mr. Pohle being a German, does not speak English very well; but he is reverenced for his piety by the English; and both officers and men are glad to hear the religion of their country preached in any way. On the Sunday morning,
preached in Christ's church to a full assembly, from these words, "For we have seen his star in the east, and are come to woship him. Indeed what I had seen in these provinces rendered this text the most appropriate 'I could select. Next day some of the English soldiers came to me, desiring to know how they might procure bibles. 'It is a delightful thing, said one of them, to hear our own religion preached by our own countryman.' I am informed that there are at this time above twenty English regiments in India, and that not one of them has a chaplain. The men live without religion, and then they bury each other. O England, England, it is not for thine own goodness that Providence giveth thee the treasures of India!
"I proceed hence to visit the Christian churches in the provinces of Madura, and Tinavelly."
The friends of christianity in India have had it in their power to afford some aid to the Christian churches in Tanjore. On the 1st of January of the present year (1810,) the rev. Mr. Brown preached a sermon at Calcutta, in which he represented the petition of the Hindoos for bibles. A plain statement of the fact was sufficient to open the hearts of the public. A subscription was immediately set on foot, and lieut. ġeneral Hewitt, commander is chief, then deputy governor in Bengal, subscribed £.250. The chief officers of government, and the principal inhabitants of Calcutta, raised the subscription, in a few days, to the sum of £.1000 sterling. Instruc
tions were sent to Mr. Kohloff, to buy up all the copies of the Tamul scriptures; to distribute them at small price amongst the natives, and to order a new edition to be printed off without loss of time. *
VERSIONS OF THE SCRIPTURES
FOR THE HINDOOS.
Having now seen what the Hindoos are in their state of idolatry, as at Juggernaut, and in Bengal; and what they may become under the influence of christianity, as at Tranquebar, Tritchinopoly, and Tanjore; it remains, to give some aécount of the translation of the scriptures into the languages of the Hindoos.
There are five principal languages spoken by Hindoos in countries subject to the British empire. These are, the Hindostanee, which pervades Hindostan generally; and the four languages of the four great provinces, viz. the Bengalee, for the province of Bengal; the Telinga, for the northern Sircars; the Tamul, for Coromandel, and the Carnatic; and the Malayalim, or Malabar, for the coast of Malabar and Travancore.
Of these five languages, there are two into which the scriptures are already translated; the Tamul, by the Danish missionaries in the last century; and the Bengalee, by the Baptist missionaries from England.
The remaining three languages are in progress of translation; the Hindostanee, by the reverend Henry
The chief names in this subscription, besides that of gen. Hewitt, wer. Sip John Royds, Sir W. Borroughs, John Lumsden, esq George Udney, esq. J. H. Harrington, esq. Sir John D'Oyley, colonel Carey, John Thornhill, esq. R. c. Plowden, esq. Tho's Hayes, esq. W. Egerton, esq. &c. &c.
Thus, while we are disputing in England whether the bible ought to be given to the Hindoos, the deputy governor in Bengal, the members of the supreme council, and of the supreme court of judicature, and the chief officers of the government, after perusing the information concerning the state of India sent from this country, are satisfied that it is an inportant duty, and a Christian obli
Martin, B. A. chaplain in Bengal;* the Malabar, by Mar Dionysius, bishop of the Syrian Christians in Travancore; both of which translations will be noticed more particularly hereafter; and the Telinga, by Ananda Rayer, a Telinga Brahmin, by birth a Mahratta, under the superintendance of Mr. Augustus Desgranges at Vizagapatam; a missionary belonging to the London Society.
Ananda Rayer, a Brahmin of high cast, was lately converted to the Christian faith, and has given undoubted proofs of the serious impression of its principles on his heart. It is remarkable that versions of the scriptures should be now preparing for the Mahomedans and Hindoos, by their own converted countrymen; namely, the Persian and Arabic versions, by Sabat the Arabian; and the Telinga version by Ananda Kayer, the Telinga Brahmin. The latter has translated the four Gospels, and the Acts of the Apostles. The progress of Sabat in his translations will be noticed hereafter.
• It was before mentioned that the gospels were translated into Hindostanee, and part of them printed in the college of Fort William. Another version has since been published by the Baptist missionarie : The Hindostanee being spoken over suct exten ive regions, varies much in its dialects.
+ The account of Ananda Rayer's conversion is given by the rev. Dr. John, the aged missionary at Tranquebar, in a letter to Mr. Desgranges. This Brahmin applied (as many Brahmins and other ilindoos constantly do) to an older Brahmin of some fame for sanctity, to know what he should do ibat he might be saved?” The old Brahmin told him that "he must repeat a certain prayer four lack of times:" that is, 400,000 times. This he performed in a Pagoda, in
six months; and added many painful ceremonies But finding no comrort or - peace from these external rites, he went to a Romish priest, and asked him if
he knew what was the true religion? The priest gave him some Christian books in the Telinga language; and, after a long investigation of christianity, the inquiring Hindoo had no doubt remaining on his mind, that "Christ was the saviour of the world.” But he was not satisfied with the Romish worship in many points: he disliked the adoration of images, and other superstitions: and having heard from the priezts themselves, that the Protestant Christians at Tanjore and Tranquebar, professed to have a purer faith, and had got the bible translated, and worshipped no images; he visited Dr. John, and the other missionaries at Tranquebar, where he remained four months, conversing, says Dr. John, “almost every day with me,” and examining the holy scriptures. He soon ac. quired the Tamul language (which has affinity with the Talinga) that he might read the Tamul translation; and he finally became a member of the Prote staat church.
The missionaries at Vizagapatam being in want of a learned Telinga scholar, to assist them in a translation of the scriptures into the Telinga language, Dr. John recommended Ananda Rayer; "for he was averse, says he, to undertake any worldly employment, and had a great desire to be useful to his brethren of the Telinga nation.” The reverend missionary concludes thus: “What Jesus Christ hath required of his followers, this man hath literally done; he hath left father, mother, sisters and brothers, and houses and lands for the gospel's sake.**
See Dr. John's letter, dated 29th January,, 1808, communicated to the Bible Society, by the rev. Mr. Brown,
In the island of Ceylon, the population under the British government amounts, according to the best authorities, to upwards of a million and a half; and one third is supposed to profess christianity. This population was divided by the Dutch, while they had possession of the island, into 240 church-ships, and three native schoolmasters were appointed to each church-ship. The Dutch government never gave an official appointment to any native who was not a Christian; a distinction which was ever considered by them as a wise policy, as well as a Christian duty, and which is continued by his majesty's government in Ceylon. Perhaps it is not generally known in England that our Bengal and Madras governments do not patronize the native Christians. They give official appointments to Mahomedans and Hindoos generally, in preference to natives professing christianity. The chief argument for the retention of this system is precedent. It was the practice of the first settlers. But it has been often observed . that what might be proper or necessary in a factory, may not be tolerable in a great empire. It is certain that this system confirms prejudice, exposes our religion to contempt in the eyes of the natives, and precludes every ray of hope of the future prevalence of christianity at the seats of government,
“Jaffna-patam, in Ceylon, Sept. 27, 1806. “From the Hindoo temple of Ramisseram, I crossed over to Ceylon, keeping close to Adam's bridge. I was surprised to find that all the boatmen were Christians of Ceylon. I asked the helmsman what religion the English professed, who now governed