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length of time that the captors may be fairly presumed to have lost or been deprived of such evidence as they might have adduced in exculpation, it

monition will not issue against them., To send the When a maritime capture is complete, it is the prize into convenient port. duty of the captors to send the vessel into some

convenient port for adjudication. What is intended by convenient port has been heretofore

considered. With prize. To this end it is their duty to put on board the master and prize crew, captured ship a proper prize-master, and a sufficient

prize crew to navigate the vessel into port, unless, ed crew con- P sent to navi- indeed, the captured crew consent to perform the

service, which, however, they are not in general bound to do.

If they do consent, they thereby exonerate the captors from all liability for loss or damage resulting from improper or unskilful navigation. If any cruelty or unnecessary force, such as putting in irons or handcuffs, is used towards the crew of a neutral ship captured, a prize court will decree

damages to the injured parties.* Captors pro- Under peculiar circumstances, and in cases of hibited from converting overruling necessity, captors may, without being cargo, or

ne bulk, thereby deprived of the effects of a lawful posses



The Purissima Conception, 6 Rob., 45... ? The Huldah, 3 Rob., 235; The Madonna del Burso, 4 Rob., 169; The St. Juan Baptista, 5 Rob., 33; The Wilhelmberg, 5 Rob., 143; The Elsebe, 5 Rob., 173; The Lively, 1 Gall., 31.); The Washington, 6 Rob., 275; The Principe, Edwards, 70. '

3 Wilcox vs. Union Ins. Co., 2 Binney, 574; The Resolution, 6 Rob., 13; The Pennsylvania, 1 Acton, 33; The Alexander'. i Gall., 532, and S. C., 8 Cranch, 169.

* The St. Juan Baptista, 5 Rob., 33, The Die Frie Damer, 5 Rob., 357.


overruling neces

sion, land or even sell the prize goods. But in all cept from oversuch cases, the burden is upon them, to satisfy the sity. court of their perfect good faith, and the circumstances giving rise to the necessity, otherwise any and every spoliation or damage to the captured ship, any breaking bulk, or conversion of the prop. erty, will deprive them of all benefit of capture, and subject them to a decree for damages, costs, and expenses."

crew of the

overortance of itsettled rule of he, port of wastances, more to send

The master, and principal officers, and some of the Duty of cap

tors to send in crew of the captured vessel, should, in all instances, master and of.

'ficers,' and be sent with the vessel into the port of adjudica- some of the tion. This is a settled rule of prize courts, and the cm

o captured vesimportance of its invariable observance cannot be sel. overestimated. During the war of 1812, between the United Great import

ance of this States and Great Britain, this rule was enforced by rule, and ef

fects of its via the special instructions of the President, and the lati violation of these instructions involved a loss of all benefit of capture. Captors should understand that by the established rules of prize courts, the examination of the master and officers, and if possible some of the crew, of the captured vessel, is the initiatory step in proceedings for condemnation, and without such examination (except by special permission in rare cases, showing physical impossibility), no proceedings can be taken.?

i The Concordia, 2 Rob., 102; L'Eole, 6 Rob., 220; The Washington, 6 Rob., 276; Clerk's Praxis, 163; Del Col. vs. Arnold, 3 Dall., 333; The Maria, 4 Rob., 348; The Rendsberg, 6 Rob., 142.

? Th. Eliza and Katy, 6 Rob., 185; The Henrick and Maria, 4 Rob., 43, 57.

duty to notify u.

found on board.

On arrival at As soon as the vessel or property captured arport of adjudi. cation, firstrives at the port of adjudication, it is the duty of the admiralty. to notify the captors (therein represented by the prize-maste

if the prize is thus sent and not carried into port by the captors themselves), forthwith to give notice of the fact of arrival to the admiralty judge, or to the

prize commissioners of the port or district, and at To deliver up the same time to deliver into the hands of the judge all papers and documents or his commissioners, all the papers and documents

found on board the captured vessel, accompanied With affidavit by an affidavit that the papers and documents thus that they are .:.. in the precise delivered up are in the same condition as when they condition as were taken, without fraud, addition, subduction, or found when taken embezzlement. The prize property is thereafter in

the custody of the court, and the duty of the captors is ended until action on their part becomes necessary to procure an adjudication.'

The next step in the proceeding is taken by the commissioners of prize, which leads to a consideration of the powers and duties of the prize commis. sioners.

Prize Commis sioners.

ze CO

ers a



Prize commissioners are officers of the court of Their appoint-'admiralty. They are appointed and commissioned and duties.

rs, by the court, and hold their office during the pleas

ure of the court, or until the termination of the war which occasioned their appointment; and the court may appoint as many in number as the exigencies require. The purpose of their appointment is to relieve the court from the performance of many of the onerous duties to which the exercise of prize

Ordonnance de la Marine, 1681, Tit. 9, Art. 21; Coll. klár.,


jurisdiction of necessity gives rise. In the name of the court they receive possession of the prize property when brought within its jurisdiction, as well as the papers and documents found and taken with it; and it is their duty to enclose the papers and documents in a secure enclosure, and the same to seal with their proper seal, and then to lodge them in the registry of the court. So, too, with regard to the prize property, it is their duty to place their seal upon the hatches of the vessel, and upon whatever doors, coverings or enclosures of any kind are used to shelter and protect the cargo, so that the same cannot be tampered with without violation of their seal. Kis their duty to appoint proper custodians to be left in the charge and safe-keeping of the prize property, so long as the same shall remain in court, or until the possession of the commissioners shall be superseded by that of the ordinary officer of the court, the marshal. The papers, and documents, and prize property, To take the

testimony of being thus secured, in the custody of the court as the master, cfthe guardian of the public interests, it is next the ficers, and

prize crew. duty of the commissioners to proceed without any delay whatever, that is to say, as soon as possible after the arrival of the vessel, to take the examination of witnesses, who are to be none others than the mas ter, officers and crew of the captured vessel, or persons actually on board at the time of the capture. The examination is always confined to such persons in the first instance, and is never extended save by special permission or upon an order for further proof. Inasmuch as the hearing before the court is Rules as to to be primarily, in all cases, upon the papers and of witnesses. documents, and the examination of the persons on


y examination

board brought in with the prize, and upon no other evidence whatever, the rules of the court require a strict adherence to all the prescribed formalities in the taking of this testimony. These rules are as follows:

First. The witnesses must be produced before the commissioners in succession, so that all may be examined, before the examination of any one is transmitted to and filed with the court. After such transmission no other witness can be exam. ined without a special order of the court.

Second. The witnesses must be examined separately and apart from each other, and without the instruction or presence of counsel, or of any other person than the commissioners, their clerk, secre tary or actuary, and agents of the parties, other than professional; and during the examination the witnesses are not allowed to communicate with or be instructed by counsel. If professional counsel were allowed to be present at the ex amination, and especially if they were allowed to take notes of the testimony, the purpose of the rule, which rigidly requires the witnesses to be examined apart from each other, might be entirely defeated.

Third. The examination of the witnesses is, in all cases, to be on the standing interrogatories in preparatorio, as they are denominated. The standing interrogatories used in the English courts of admiralty, have been drawn with great care and precision, and contain sifting inquiries upon every point which may possibly affect the question of prize. These interrogatories, which may be found in 1 Robinson's Reports, 381, have served as a

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