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So they went together out of the gates, and fell upon the hosts of the Greeks and slew many chiefs of fame, and Glaucus the Lycian went with them.

ALFRED J. CHURCH: The Story of the Iliad.

HELPS TO STUDY 1. Where was Troy? 2. Who was its king? 3. Name some of his sons and daughters. 4. Why did the Greeks make war on Troy? 5. Describe Hector's return from battle to the city. 6. What do you learn about the battle without the walls? 7. To what deities did the Trojans offer sacrifices ? 8. Tell in your own words of the conversation between Hector and Paris and Helen. 9. Where did Hector find his wife and child ? 10. For what reason did Andromache urge Hector to remain within the walls ? 11. What did Hector reply? 12. What changed their sorrow to laughter? 13. What did Hector pray for his son? 14. To what tasks was Andromache left? Dardanelles (där-da-nelz')

Artemis (är'tem-is) Priam (pri'am)

Hecuba (hek'u-bä) Paris (pâr'is)

Athene (ath-c'nē) Menelaus (měn-e-lā'us)

Scamandrius (ska-măn'dri-us) Scæan (skē'an)

Astyanax (as-tý'a-naks) Laodice (lā-od'i-sē)

Glaucus (gló'kus) Diomed (di'o-mēd)

Lycian (lis'i-an) Andromache (an-drom'ā-ke)


ZEUS (JUPITER or JOVE) was the king of all the gods and men and presided at the councils of the gods on Mount Olympus.

POSEIDON (pā-si'don) (NEPTUNE), brother of Zeus, ruled the sea.

HADES (PLUTO, ploo'to), brother of Zeus, was King of the underworld, the abode of the dead.

HERE (hē're) (Juno) was the wife of Zeus and sat on his right hand.

ATHENE (PALLAS or MINERVA) sat on his left and was goddess of wisdom. She was especially friendly to the Greeks.

APOLLO (PH@BUS) was god of the sun and of music and poetry. He is sometimes spoken of as the archer or archer-son of Zeus, and was the most beautiful of all the gods.

ARTEMIS (DIANA), his sister, was goddess of the moon and of the chase.

APHRODITE (af-rõ-di'tē) (VENUS), was the goddess of love and beauty.

ARES (ā'rez) (MARS) was the god of war.

DEMETER (de-mē'tēr) (CERES) was the goddess of vegetation and fruit. Her daughter, PROSERPINE (pro-sẽr'pen-e, or Pros'erpin) was carried off by Pluto to be his bride in Hades.

HEPHÆSTUS (hē-fes'tus) (VULCAN), the husband of Aphrodite, was lame and ungainly. He was the blacksmith of the gods and forged their weapons.

HERMES (hẽrm'ēz) (MERCURY) was the messenger of the gods, and is represented with wings on his sandals.

These were the chief deities but there were many others; as ATLAS, who bore the world on his shoulders and EROS (ē'ros) (CUPID), the god of love, who is usually represented as a child, the son and companion of Aphrodite.

The names in parentheses are those given to the gods by the Romans; and are used more frequently than the older Greek





Now when Athene saw that the Greeks were perishing by the hand of Hector and his companions, it grieved her sore.

So she came down from the heights of Olympus to help them. And Apollo met her and said:

“Art thou come, Athene, to help the Greeks whom thou lovest? Well, let us stay the battle for this day; hereafter they shall fight till the doom of Troy be accomplished."

But Athene answered, “How shall we stay it?"

And Apollo said, “We will set on Hector to challenge the bravest of the Greeks to fight with him, man to man."

So they two put the matter into the mind of Helenus the seer.

Then Helenus went near to Hector, and 15 spake, saying:

“Listen to me, for I am thy brother. Cause the rest of the sons of Troy and of the Greeks to sit down, and do thou challenge the bravest of the Greeks to fight

with thee, man to man. And be sure thou shalt not 20 fall in the battle, for the will of the immortal gods is so.”

Then Hector greatly rejoiced, and passed to the front of the army, holding his spear by the middle, and kept back the sons of Troy; and King Agamemnon did likewise with his own people. Then Hector spake:

“Hear me, sons of Troy, and ye men of Greece. The covenant that we made one with another hath been broken, for Zeus would have it so, purposing evil to both, till either you shall take our high-walled city or we shall conquer you by your ships. But let one of you 5 who call yourselves champions of the Greeks, come forth and fight with me, man to man.

And let it so be that if he vanquish me, he shall spoil me of my arms, but give my body to my people, that they may burn it with fire; and if I vanquish him, I will spoil him of his arms, but 10 give his body to the Greeks, that they may bury him and raise a great mound above him by the broad salt river of Hellespont. And so men of after days shall see it, sailing by, and say, 'This is the tomb of the bravest of the Greeks, whom Hector slew.' So shall 15 my name live forever.”

But all the Greeks kept silence, fearing to meet him in battle, but ashamed to hold back. At last Menelaus leapt forward and spake : “Surely ye are women and not men.

Is there no 20 man to stand up against this Hector? Lo! I will fight with him my own self.”

So he spake in his rage, courting death, for Hector was much stronger than he. Then King Agamemnon answered:

“Nay, but this is folly, my brother. Seek not in thy anger to fight with one that is stronger than thou; for




even Achilles is loth to meet Hector. Sit thou down among thy comrades, and the Greeks will find some champion who shall fight with him."

And Menelaus hearkened to his brother's words, 5 and sat down. Then rose up nine chiefs of fame, eager now for fame; but Nestor said, “Let us cast lots to see who shall do battle with the mighty Hector.”

So they threw the lots into the helmet of King Agamemnon, - a lot for each. And the people prayed, “Grant, ye gods, that the lot of Ajax the Greater may leap forth, or the lot of Diomed, or the lot of King Agamemnon.” Then Nestor shook the lots in the helmet, and the one which they most wished leapt forth.

For the herald took it through the ranks and showed it 15 to the chiefs, but none knew it for his own till he came

to where Ajax the Greater stood among his comrades. But Ajax had marked it with his mark, and put forth his hand for it, and claimed it, right glad at heart. On the ground by his feet he threw it, and said:

“Mine is the lot, my friends, and right glad I am, for I think that I shall prevail over the mighty Hector."

So he armed himself and moved forwards, smiling with grim face. With mighty strides he came,

brandishing his long-shafted spear. And all the Greeks were 25 glad to behold him, but the knees of the Trojans were

loosened with fear, and great Hector's heart beat fast; but he trembled not, nor gave place, seeing that he had


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