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necessity for such a measure has long been felt, owing to the locality of many villages, and the difficulty of meeting with aid in the best methods of instruction: hence many county schools are without rule, order, and proper government ; but by this association they will not only purchase their books more cheaply, but be assisted to promote more effectually the intellectual, moral, and religious training of their children.

Ellesmere.-SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION.—The children and friends of this Union held their first general meeting on Whit Monday. The procession through the town, varied as it was by the singing of appropriate hymns, astonished and delighted every one. Such a demonstration of the Sunday schools took the town by surprise. In the evening, about a thousand persons had tea, in a tent erected for the occasion, in a field adjoining the house of Mr. John Lea, to whom this Union is greatly indebted for its efficiency and harmony. From the pleasure, both social and sacred, enjoyed there, the field was named the happy land.'

Hyde.-TRIBUTE OF RESPECT TO A CLERGYMAN.—The superintendents and teachers of the Hyde Church Sunday school, assisted by the congregation, have presented to the Rev. H. Allkin, incumbent, a handsome suit of robes, together with a neat pocket communion service, as a tribute of regard for his ministerial character and valuable services during his residence among them.

Middlesbro'-on- Tecs.-A new and spacious school-room, capable of accommodating 300 children, was recently opened for the use of the Sabbath school in connexion with the Independent Chapel, Middlesbro'; on which occasion two sermons were preached by the Rev. T. Scales, of Leeds. On the following day nearly 200 of the friends took tea together in the new room, after which addresses were delivered by the Revds. C. Bingley, the pastor of the church ; T. Hamer, of Stockton; William Henmers, of Ayton; Thomas Scales, of Leeds ; Samuel Lewin, of Hartlepool; J. Cummins, formerly of Madagascar; J. Howard, of Pickering; and Messrs. Brentnal and Ramsey, of Middlesbro'. During the evening a copy of Bagster's Bible was presented by the Chairman, on behalf of the teachers, to Mr. Ramsey, the respected superintendent of the school, who is about to romove to Berwick-on-Tweed. Through the liberality of the friends of education, very nearly the whole cost of the building has been provided for, and thus another evidence has been afforded of the efficiency of the voluntary principle, in providing for the religious instruction of the young.

Stockton.--SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION.-The second anniversary of the Stockton Sunday School Union was celebrated on the 31st August. In the afternoon, after the children in a procession had paraded the town, they proceeded to the Wesleyan Association Chapel, and were addressed by Mr. J. R. Wilson, of Gateshead, formerly the travelling Agent of the London Sunday School Union. In the evening a public meeting was held, when addresses were delivered by Mr. Wilson: also by the Revds. Messrs. Long, Joblin, and Clemetson, of Stockton; Bingley, of Middlesbro'; and Hamer, of Rotherham College. The statements made by Mr. Wilson were exceedingly interesting, and will not soon be forgotten by those who had the pleasure of hearing them : they related, chiefly, to his own experience in the work of Sunday school tuition.

[For the honourable mention made of the Sunday School Magazine, both in the report and in the addresses, its conductors return their best thanks.]

Taunton-The ceremony of laying the foundation stone of the Chapel about

to be erected by the seceders from Paul's Street Chapel, took place on Thursday,
the 10th of August, 1843. The stone was laid by the honorable Mrs. Thompson,
and the effort was sanctioned by the presence and assistance of Revds. Dr.
Bennett and Payne, and many other ministers. Not the least interesting feature
on this occasion, was the presence of between 2 and 300 Sabbath school children,
and young persons, under Scriptural instruction, who have been collected together
in the course of a few weeks, many of them from the highways and hedges.'
They! with their teachers walked in procession to the site of the New Chapel,
to witness the ceremony of laying the foundation stone, after which, and after
they had sung a hymn, they were each presented with a cake and with a copy of
the New Testament, in which was a label with the following inscription :-
'Independent Sabbath school, presented to In commemoration of laying the
first stone of the Independent Chapel, North Street, Taunton, August 10th, 1843.'
The honorable Mrs. Thompson presented each with a little book on Missions.

Manchester.-TESTIMONIALS OP RESPECT TO Rev. E. H. NOLAN, LL. D.-On Friday evening, August 25th, the congregation assembling in Ducie Chapel, Manchester, held a special tea party, for the purpose of welcoming their excellent , Pastor, on his return from a Missionary tour in Ireland, to the people of his charge. After tea, Mr. George Stonier, the senior Deacon of the Church, was unanimously called to preside, who introduced the business of the evening, by giving out that beautiful hymn by Montgomery

"We bid thee welcome, in the name,' &c. Mr. Hind, another Deacon, then presented to the minister, in the name of the Church, Congregation, and Sabbath school, an exceedingly handsome Silk Gown, Bans, and Gloves, with a request that he would wear them when conducting the services of the Sanctuary. Mr. Chidlaw, (also a Deacon of the Church,) after addressing the meeting with much feeling, presented the Doctor with a splendid pulpit edition of Watt's Psalms and Hymns, as expressive of a sincere desire that he might long be spared as their Minister and Pastor. The meeting then joined in singing

'Let Zion's watchmen all awake,' &c. after which, the Rev. Dr. Nolan spoke with more than his wonted eloquence and fervour, acknowledging this unexpected token of the kindness and goodfeeling of his people towards him, and expressing his entire devotedness to the work of the ministry,

The meeting was subsequently addressed by Messrs. Watkins, Moulding, Robinson, and other friends, and then separated evidently much delighted with what they had seen and heard. “Behold, how good and how pleasant & thing it is, for brethren to dwell together in unity.':

Whitehaven.--The Sabbath school teachers and members of the Bible class in Providence Chapel, have recently presented their beloved Pastor with elegantly bound copies of Jay's Works, in seven volumes, and Robinson's Biblical Researches, in three volumes. The works have this inscription Presented to the Rev. R. G. Milne. A.M., as a tribute of affection and esteem by the Sabbath school teachers, and the members of the Bible class under his pastoral care, in connection with Providence Chapel, Whitehaven.'


G. S.


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THE MANDARIN. The government of China may be justly denominated patriarchal. It bases its authority on the parental prerogative, which demands the affection of offspring, and asserts its right to dispose of their fortunes and liberties. This has been the foundation of Chinese politics from the earliest ages of antiquity; it is inculcated with the greatest strictness in the writings of their philosophers and legislators; it has prevailed through every successive dynasty, and even to this day succeeds in cementing and tranquillizing their vast and increasing population. The claims of rulers are thus explained and enforced in the sacred edict of Kang-he: “The duty to parents and the duty to elders are


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indeed similar in obligation; for he who can be a pious son, will also prove an obedient younger brother; and he, who is both, will, while at home, prove an honest and orderly subject, and in active service from home, a courageous and faithful soldier. May you all, O soldiers and people, conform to these our instructions, evincing your good dispositions by your conduct and actions; each fulfilling his duty as a son and a junior, according to the example which is left you by the wise and holy men of former times. Mencius has said, Were all men to honour their kindred and respect their elders, the world would be at peace.' Acting on these views, the Emperor is called the Father of the empire; the viceroy, of the province over which he presides, and the mandarin, of the city which is under his administration. The first is the supreme in political power, having divine right superadded to that of earthly supremacy. • Heaven and earth are considered the parents of all mankind, and the Emperor, as the Son of heaven, is of course, next in authority, and reverenced accordingly. Whosoever, therefore, obtains the decree of heaven to ascend the dragon throne,' has a sort of mysterious dignity thrown around him ; and it is in their opinion as wicked to dispute the authority of the supreme on earth, as the supreme

in heaven. But with all his power and divine honour, though as the Celestial Emperor,'—'the Holy Lord,' he claims all ‘within the four seas' as his dominion; though he dwells in the pearly palace,' and sits on the dragon throne, entitled the “Ten thousand years, and worshipped as God, yet, his majesty finds it an impossibility to keep the political machine of the empire in motion, without the aid of his ministers and magistrates, who are addressed by him as his “hands and feet;' his ears and eyes ; ' --who with their fortunes and their families, their liberties and their lives, are entirely under his mastery. From this circumstance arose the proverb among the Chinese, ''Tis safer to sleep in a tiger's den, than bask in the sunshine of Imperial favour.'

Next in magisterial dignity to the Emperor, members of the 'interior council chamber. They are four in number, two Tartars, and two Chinese, who constitute the Imperial Cabinet :-under the Cabinet, there are the Lew-poo, or six Boards, for the management of the several departments of government business ; -- First, the Board of Civil Office, which exercises vigilance over the various grades of civil officers, and publishes quarterly in

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a red book, (being literally one with a red cover), a report of the conduct of each.--Second, the Board of Revenue, which inspects the coin and regulates the taxation of the realm.--Third, the Board of Rites, which takes cognizance of all religious ceremonies, and specifies the etiquette and the dress of the court.-Fourth, the Board of War, which superintends the army, navy, and ordnance.—Fifth, the Board of Punishments, whose duty it is to note all judicial proceedings, and to enforce the execution of the laws.Six, the Board of Public works, to which is committed the care of all public edifices, the excavation of canals, &c. In subordination to these, there are other official tribunals, to which distinct departments are assigned.

But we must chiefly confine our observations to one class of the magistracy, who receive from foreigners the name of Mandarin. The word · Mandar' has a Portuguese origin, and signifies an officer of the government, whether civil or military. These form the nobility or aristocracy of China, and are selected to occupy these posts of honour from even the meanest grades of society, provided they have mounted *the cloudy ladder' of literary fame. Strange as it may. seem, there is probably no other country in the globe where education, irrespective of wealth or rank, is so valued, for the Emperor chooses none for his officers but men of the highest attainments and most commanding abilities. Of the civil mandarins, there are estimated to be no fewer than fourteen thousand, who are divided into nine ranks, each of which is distinguished by a double badge—the colour of the globe on the apex or point of the cap, and the embroidery on the front and back of their official vestments; their state robes are beautifully embroidered, a liberal portion of which is wrought with gold thread ; each has an enormous bead necklace, extending below the waist in front, with a string of court beads' attached to it at the hinder part of the neck, which reaches down to the middle of the back : the caps are dome-shaped, with the lower portion turned up, and forming a broad rim, which is faced with black velvet; the top of the cap is surmounted by a globular button or ball, the colour and material of which are an index to the rank of the wearer ; these are sometimes red, light blue, dark blue, crystal, white stone, and gold; besides this distinctive button, the removal of which, by the order of the Emperor, would be to degrade the person and to unfit him for any post of honour in his dominions, each grade of mandarin has a characteristic badge worn upon

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