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Did all, that mind assisted most, could do; .
And yet in misery lived, in misery died,
Because he wanted holiness of heart.

A deeper lesson this to mortals taught, 45 And nearer cut the branches of their pride:

That not in mental, but in moral worth,
God, excellence placed; and only to the good,
To virtue, granted happiness alone.


Eloquence of Bossuet.-BUTLER.
We have mentioned Mr. Burke's endless corrections
of his compositions; Bossuet, by the account of his
Benedictine editors, was equally laborious; but in this

they differed: that Burke appears to have been satisfied 5 with his original conceptions, and to have been fastidi

ous only in respect to words and phrases; Bossuet seems to have been equally dissatisfied with his first thoughts and his first words.

Rousseau himself has informed us, that between his 10 first committing of a sentence to paper and his final

settlement of it, his obliterations and alterations were countless. That this should have been the case of such writers as Robertson or Gibbon, is not surprising; their

eternal batteries and counter-batteries of words, seem 15 to be the effect of much reflection and many second

thoughts; but that it should have been the case with writers like Bossuet, Burke, and Rousseau, who appear to pour streams equally copious and rapid of unpremed

itated eloquence, appears extraordinary: it justifies the 20 common remark, that we seldom read with pleasure,

what has not been composed with labour. Such are the pages of Addison, such the Offices of Cicero; such also, but in a superlative degree, are many passages of Mil

ton: Akenside, his imitator, with all his genius, taste, 25 and labour, never attained it; he does not exhibit a sin

gle instance of this perfect composition: but we often find it in Gray.

Every thing we know of Bossuet, leads us to think that he had a very feeling heart; it certainly is discern

30 ible in every line of his funeral oration on the princess

Henrietta. He chose for his text the verse of Eccleseastes, so suitable to the occasion, “Vanity of Vanities! All is vanity!” Having pronounced these words, he re

mained for some time in silence, evidently overpowered 35 by his feelings. “It was to be my lot,” he then ex

claimed, " to perform this melancholy duty to the memory of this illustrious princess! She, whom I had observed so attentive, while I performed the same duty to

her royal mother, was herself so soon to become the 40 theme of a similar discourse!—And my voice was so

soon to be exerted in discharging the like melancholy duty to her! O vanity! O nothing! O mortals! ever ignorant of what awaits you!-But a month


would she have thought it! You, who then beheld her drown45 ed in tears for her mother's loss, would


have thought it! Would you have thought, that you were so soon to meet again to bewail her own fate! O vanity of vanities! All is vanity! These are the only words! the

only reflection, which, in such an event, my sorrow 50 leaves me!”

After this eloquent exordium, Bossuet pursues his dismal theme. He describes, in strains, always eloquent, but always mournful, the short but brilliant career of

the princess;-so highly stationed, so greatly gifted, so 55 widely admired, and so generally loved! The idol of

the world! The pride of her august family! the delight of all who approached her!" Yet what,” he exclaimed, " is all this, which we, so much below it, so greatly admire!

While we tremble in the view of the 60 great, God smites them, that they may serve as warnings to us.

Yes, so little does he consider these great ones, that he makes them often serve as mere materials for our instruction!-We have always sufficient reason

to be convinced of our nothingness; but if, to wean our 65 hearts from the fascination of the world, the wonderful

and the astonishing is necessary, what we now behold is sufficiently terrible. O night of wo! O night of horror! When, like a peal of thunder, the dreadful words,

-Henrietta is dying-Henrietta is dead-burst upon us! 70 Nothing could be heard but criës;--nothing was discern

ible but grief, despair, and the image of death!”—The writers of the time mentioned that, when Bossuet pro

nounced these words, the whole audience arose from

their seats; that terror was visible in every countenance, 75 and that, for some moments, Bossuet himself was unable

to proceed.


Eloquence of Bourdaloue.-Butler. In delivering his sermons, Bourdaloue used no action; Bossuet and Massillon used much; the action of the last was particularly admired. It produced an ex

traordinary effect, when he pronounced his funeral ora5 tion upon Lewis the Fourteenth. The church was hung

with black, a magnificent mausoleum was raised over the bier, the edifice was filled with trophies and other memorials of the monarch's past glories, daylight was

excluded, but innumerable tapers supplied its place, 10 and the ceremony was attended by the most illustrious

persons in the kingdom. Massillon ascended the pulpit, contemplated, for some moments, the scene before him, then raised his arms to heaven, looked down on

the scene beneath, and, after a short pause, slowly said, 15 in a solemn subdued tone, “ GOD ONLY IS GREAT!” With

one impulse, all the auditory rose from their seats, turned to the altar, and slowly and reverently bowed.

Those, who read sermons merely for their literary merit, will generally prefer the sermons of Massillon to 20 those of Bourdaloue and Bossuet. But those who read

sermons for instruction, and whose chief object in the perusal of them, is to be excited to virtue or confirmed in her paths, will generally consider Bourdaloue as

the first of preachers, and every time they peruse him, 25 will feel new delight.

When we recollect before whom Bourdaloue preached; that he had, for his auditors, the most luxurious court in Europe, and a monarch abandoned to ambition

and pleasure, we shall find it impossible not to honour 30 the preacher, for the dignified simplicity with which he

uniformly held up to his audience the severity of the Gospel, and the scandal of the cross. Now and then, and ever with a very bad grace, he makes an unmean

ing compliment to the monarch. On these occasions, 35 his genius appears to desert him; but he never disguis

es the morality of the Gospel, or withholds its threats. In one of the sermons which he preached before the monarch, he described, with matchless eloquence, the

horrors of an adulterous life, its abomination in the eye 40 of God, its scandal to man, and the public and private

evils which attend it: but he managed his discourse with so much address, that he kept the king from sus pecting that the thunder of the preacher was ultimately

to fall upon him. In general, Bourdaloue spoke in a 45 level tone of voice, and with his eyes almost shut. On

this occasion, having wound up the attention of the monarch and the audience to the highest pitch, he paus ed. The audience expected something terrible, and

seemed to fear the next word. The pause continued 50 for some time: at length, the preacher, fixing his eyes

directly on his royal hearer, and in a tone of voice equally expressive of horror and concern, said, in the words of the prophet, thou art the man!" then, leaving

these words to their effect, he concluded with a mild 55 and general prayer to heaven for the conversion of all

sinners. A miserable courtier observed, in a whisper, to the monarch, that the boldness of the preacher exceeded all bounds, and should be checked.

No, sir," replied the monarch, “the preacher has done his duty, 60 let us do ours." When the service was concluded, the

monarch walked slowly from the church, and ordered Bourdaloue into his presence. He remarked to him, his general protection of religion, the kindness which he

had ever shown to the Society of Jesus, his particular 65 attention to Bourdaloue and his friends. He then re

proached him with the strong language of the sermon: and asked him, what could be his motive for insulting him, thus publicly, before his subjects? Bourdaloue

fell on his knees: “God is my witness, that it was 70 not my wish to insult your majesty; but I am a minis

ter of God, and must not disguise his truths. What I said in my sermon is my morning and evening prayer: -May God, in his infinite mercy, grant me to see the

day, when the greatest of kings shall be the holiest.' 75 The monarch was affected, and silently dismissed the

preacher: but, from this time, the court began to observe that change which afterward, and at no distant period, led Lewis to a life of regularity and virtue.

EXERCISE 114. Eloquence of Bridaine.-Butler. "The missionary orator, most renowned in our days, says Maury, was M. Bridaine. Highly gifted with popular eloquence, full of animation, abounding in figures

and pathos, no one possessed, in an equal degree, the 5 rare talent of commanding an assembled multitude. The

organ of his voice was so powerful and happy, as to render credible what ancient history relates of the de clamation of the ancients; he made himself as well

heard in open air, to an assembly of 10,000 persons, as 10 if he spoke under the vault of the most sonorous temple.

In all he said, there might be discovered that natural eloquence, which originates from genius; that bound of natural vigour, which is superior to any imitation. His

bold metaphors; his quick and vivid turns of thought 15 and expression, equally surprised, affected and delight

ed. His eloquence was always simple, but it was always noble in its simplicity. With these endowments, he never failed to raise and preserve the attention of the peo

ple; they were never tired of listening to him." 20 In 1751, he preached in the church of St. Sulpice, at

Paris. His renown had preceded him; and the temple was filled with the highest dignitaries of the church and state, decorated with the various insignia of their ranks

and orders. The venerable man ascended the pulpit, 25 cast a look of indignation and pity on his audience, re

mained in silence for some moments, and then began his sermon in these words:—“ In the presence of an audience of a kind so new to me, it might, my brethren,

be thought, that I should not open my mouth, without 30 entreating your indulgence to a poor missionary, who

does not possess any one of the talents, which you are pleased to require from those, who address you on the salvation of your souls. My feelings are very different.

May God forbid, that any minister of the gospel shall 35 ever think he owes an apology for preaching Gospel

truths to you; for, whoever you are, you, like myself, are sinners in the judgement of God. Till this day, Í have published the judgements of the Most High in the temples roofed with straw: I have preached the rigours

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