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previously written various dramas in rhyme; and the bold experiment of Marlowe having been instantly successful, , Greene was obliged to abandon his old course, and his extant plays are all in blank-verse. Nash, who had attacked Marlowe in 1587, before 1593 (when Marlowe was killed) had joined him in the production of a blank-verse tragedy on the story of Dido, which was printed in 1594.
It has been objected to “ Tamburlaine," that it is written in a turgid and ambitious style, such indeed as Nash and Greene ridicule ; but we are to recollect that Marlowe was at this time endeavouring to wean mixed audiences from the "jigging veins of rhyming mother-wits," and that, in order to satisfy the ear for the loss of the jingle, he was obliged to give what Nash calls “the swelling bombast of bragging blank-verse.” This consideration
This consideration will of itself account for breaches of a more correct taste to be found in “ Tamburlaine.” In the Prologue, besides what we have already quoted, Marlowe tells the audience to expect “high astounding terms,” and he did not disappoint expectation. Perhaps, the better to reconcile the ordinary frequenters of public theatres to the change, he inserted various scenes of low comedy, which the printer of the edition in 1590 thought fit to exclude, as “digressing, and far unmeet for the matter." Marlowe likewise sprinkled couplets here and there; although it is to be remembered, that having accomplished his object of substituting blank-verse by the first part of “Tamburlaine," he did not, even in the second part, think it necessary by any means so frequently to introduce occasional rhymes. In those plays which there is ground for believing to be the first works of Shakespeare, couplets, and even stanzas, are more frequent than in any of the surviving productions of Marlowe. This circumstance is, perhaps, in part to be accounted for by the fact (as far as we may so call it) that our great poet retained in some of his performances portions of older rhyming dramas, which he altered and adapted to the stage; but in such early plays, as are to be considered entirely his own, Shakespeare appears to have deemed rhyme more necessary to satisfy the ear of his auditory, than Marlowe held it when he wrote his “ Tamburlaine the Great."
As the first employment of blank-verse upon the public stage by Marlowe is a matter of much importance, in relation to the history of our more ancient drama, and to the subsequent adoption of that form of composition by Shakespeare, we ought not to dismiss it without affording a single specimen from “Tamburlaine the Great." The following is a portion of a speech by the hero to Zenocrate, when first he meets and sues to her
“ Disdains Zenocrate to live with me,
Which with thy beauty will be soon dissolv'd 1.” Nash having alluded to “Tamburlaine” in 1587, it is evident that it could hardly have been written later than 1585 or 1586, which is about the period when it has been generally, and with much appearance of probability, supposed that Shakespeare arrived in London. In considering the state of the stage just before our great dramatist became a writer for it, it is therefore clearly necessary to advert briefly to the other works of Marlowe, observing in addition, with reference to “Tamburlaine,” that it is a historical drama, in
1 Our quotation is from a copy of the edition of 1590, 4to, in the library of the Earl of Ellesmere, which we believe to be the earliest : on the title-page it is stated that it is “now first and newly published :" it was several times reprinted, but no later edition is to be trusted : they are full of the grossest errors, and never could have been collated. For this reason the modern impression, in 3 vols. 8vo, under the care of the Rev. A. Dyce, is peculiarly acceptable : the comparison of different editions is made with unusual care, but not without the display of that timidity which has too often prevented the exercise of even ordinary sagacity. For instance, in the very first page of “Tamburlaine,” Vol. i. p. 11, “ freezing meteors”
ought unquestionably to be “freezing waters," the old compositor having mistaken, as was not unfrequently the case, the w for an m, and guessed at the rest of the word. Fiery meteors are well known, but who ever before heard of
“ Freezing meteors and congealed cold ?" Again (p. 67), who can doubt that “senseless lure," of the old copies, ought to be “senseless aire," and not “senseless light," as Mr. Dyce prints it;
“ And make your strokes to wound the senseless air ?”
which not a single unity is regarded; time, place, and action, are equally set at defiance, and the scene shifts at once to or from Persia, Scythia, Georgia, and Morocco, as best suited the purpose of the poet.
Marlowe was also, most likely, the author of a play in which the Priest of the Sun was prominent, as Greene mentions it with “Tamburlaine” in 1588, but no such piece is now known : he however wrote “The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus,” “The Massacre at Paris," “The rich Jew of Malta,” and an English historical play, called “The troublesome Reign and lamentable Death of Edward the Second," besides aiding Nash in "Dido Queen of Carthage,” as already mentioned'. If they were not all of them of a date anterior to any of Shakespeare's original works, they were written by a man who had set the example of the employment of blank-verse upon the public stage, and perhaps of the historical and romantic drama, in all its leading features and characteristics. His “Edward the Second” affords sufficient proof of both these points: the versification displays, though not perhaps in the same abundance, nearly all the excellences of Shakespeare ; and in point of construction, as well as in interest, it bears a strong resemblance to the “Richard the Second” of our great dramatist. It is impossible to read the one without being reminded of the other, and we can have no difficulty in assigning “Edward the Second” to an anterior period '.
The same remark as to date may be made upon the plays which came from the pen of Robert Greene, who died in September, 1592, when Shakespeare was fast rising into notice, and exciting the jealousy of dramatists who had previously furnished the public stages. This jealousy broke out on the part of Greene in, if not before, 1592, (in which year his “Groatsworth of Wit,” a posthumous work, was published by his contemporary Henry Chettle`,) when he complained that Shakespeare had “beautified himself” with the feathers of others : he alluded, as we apprehend, to the manner in which Shakespeare had availed himself of the two parts of the “Contention between the Houses, York and Lancaster," in the authorship of which there is reason to suppose Greene had been concerned'. Such evidence as remains
2 Another play, not published until 1657, under the title of “Lust's Domi. nion,” has also been constantly, but falsely, assigned to Marlowe : some of the historical events contained in it did not happen until five years after the death of that poet. This fact was distinctly pointed out more than thirty years ago, in the last edition of Dodsley's “Old Plays” (Vol. ii. p. 311); but nevertheless “ Lust's Dominion” has since been spoken of as Marlowe's undoubted production. Mr. Singer so treats it repeatedly in his recent edition of Shakespeare, in spite of irrefragable evidence, and the consequent exclusion of it by the Rev. Mr. Dyce. It is in all probability the same drama as that which, in Henslowe's Diary (Shakespeare Society's edit. p. 165), is called “ The Spanish Moor's Tragedy," which was written by Dekker, Haughton, and Day, in the beginning of the year 1600.
3 In “ The History of English Dramatic Poetry and the Stage,” Vol. iii. p. 139, it is stated, that "the character of Shakespeare's Richard II. seems modelled in no slight degree upon that of Edward II.” We willingly adopt the qualification of Mr. Hallam upon this point, where, in reference to our opinion, he says (" Introduction to the Literature of Europe," Vol. ii. p. 171, edit. 1843), “ I am reluctant to admit that Shakespeare modelled his characters by those of others ; and it is natural to ask whether there were not an extraordinary likeness in the dispositions, as well as in the fortunes of the two kings?”
this point has been adduced in our “Introduction ” to “The Third Part of Henry VI.;" and a perusal of the two parts of the “Contention," in their original state, will serve to show the condition of our dramatic literature at that great epoch of our stage-history, when Shakespeare began to acquire celebrity®. “The True Tragedy of Richard III.” is a drama of about the same period, which has come down to us in a much more imperfect state, the original manuscript having been obviously very corrupt : it was printed in 1594, and Shakespeare, finding it in the possession of the company to which he was attached, probably had no scrnple in constructing his “Richard the Third” of some of its rude materials. It seems not unlikely that Robert Greene, and perhaps some other popular dramatists of his day, had been engaged upon “ The True Tragedy of Richard III.?”
The dramatic works published under the name or initials of Robert Greene, or by extraneous testimony ascertained to
4 In our biographical account of Shakespeare, under the date of 1592, we have necessarily entered more at large into this question.
5 Mr. Hallam (“ Introduction to the Literature of Europe," Vol. ii. p. 171) supposes that the words of Greene, referring to Shakespeare, “ There is an upstart crow beautified with our feathers,” are addressed to Marlowe, who may have had a principal share in the production of the two parts of the “ Contention.” This conjecture is certainly more than plausible; but we may easily imagine Greene to have alluded to himself also, and that he had been Marlowe's partner in the composition of the two dramas, which Shakespeare remodelled, perhaps, not very long before the death of Greene.
6 They have been accurately reprinted by the Shakespeare Society, under the care of Mr. Halliwell, from the earliest impressions in 1594 and 1595.
7 This drama has also been reprinted by the Shakespeare Society, with perfect fidelity to the original edition of 1594, in the library of the Duke of Devonshire. The reprint was superintended by the late Mr. B. Field in 1844.
be his, were “Orlando Furioso,” (founded upon the poems of Boiardo and Ariosto) first printed in 1594 ® ; “ Friar Bacon and Friar Bungay,” also first printed in 1594, and taken from a popular story book of the time; “Alphonsus King of
Arragon, 1599, for which we know of no original; and " James the Fourth” of Scotland, 1598, partly borrowed from history, and partly mere invention. Greene also joined with Thomas Lodge in writing a species of moral-miracle-play, (partaking of the nature of both,) under the title of “A Looking-Glass for London and England," 1594, derived from sacred history; and to him has also been imputed “George a Greene, the Pinner of Wakefield,” and “The Contention between Liberality and Prodigality,” the one printed in 1599, and the other in 1602. It may be seriously doubted whether he had any hand in the two last, but the productions abovenamed deserve attention, as works written at an early date for the gratification of popular audiences.
In the passage already referred to from the “Groatsworth of Wit," 1592, Greene also objects to Shakespeare on the ground that he thought himself “as well able to bombast out a blank-verse as the best of his contemporaries. The
8 In “The History of English Dramatic Poetry and the Stage,”. Vol. iii. p. 155, it is observed of “ Orlando Furioso :”—“How far this play was printed according to the author's copy we have no means of deciding ; but it has evidently come down to us in a very imperfect state.” Means of determining the point beyond dispute have since been discovered in a MS. of the part of Orlando (as written out for Edward Alleyn by the copyist of the theatre) preserved at Dulwich College. Hence it is clear that much was omitted and corrupted in the two printed editions of 1594 and 1599. See the “Memoirs of Edward Alleyn," 8vo, 1841, p. 198. These were not printed when the Rev. A. Dyce published his edition of “Greene's Works,” 2 vols. 8vo, but from too confiding an adherence to the old impressions he has allowed undoubted blunders of text to remain, which ought to have been corrected. We will point out only one, as a specimen, from the commencement of “ Orlando Furioso,” where the poet mentions certain ships “which Brandimart rebated from his coast.” Now, surely it is as clear as day that “rebated" ought to be rebutted, i. e. drove back, a sense in which it occurs in the chronicler Hall, speaking of rebutting invaders by sea, and in other authorities. The same ob. vious error is repeated in a subsequent part of the same play (p. 34), where it is said,
" This is the city of great Babylon,
Where proud Darius was rebated from." Darius was rebutted, or driven back, from Babylon, not "rebated,” which merely means blunted, as in “ Richard III.,” A. v. sc. 4,
“Rebate the edge of traitors, gracious Lord !” The ordinary reading has been “ Abate the edge of traitors ;" but it is “rebate" in the corr. fo. 1632,- ,-an emendation of which Mr. Singer avails himself, but without notice of the source of the change in his text. He was right in adopting the alteration, but wrong in not avowing from whence he had procured it, viz. Mr. Collier's corrected folio.