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of the eucharist, of justification, of repentance, of pretended visions and '
miracles, and various other points, are such as a papist would abhor, and a protestant would subscribe. Not to seek for farther instances, the (7) British churches lamented and execrated the second council of Nice; and the famous Albin or Alcuin wrote a letter against it, disproving and refuting it by express authorities of holy scripture ; which letter was transmitted to Charles the great in the name of the bithops and other great men of the kingdom. Even in Italy (8) the council of Forojulio prescribed the use of no other creed but that of the apostles, so that they had no conception of the necessity of. so many ada ditional articles, as have since been made by pope Pius IV, and received by the church. Some even of the Italian bishops aflifted at the council of Francfort before mentioned, and particularly Paulinus bishop of Aquileia bore a principal part in it. Popery prevailed ftill more in the ninth cenyet not without considerable opposition.
Not (7) Hoveden, Annal. pars Allix's Remarks upon the anprior. p. 232. Simeon Dunelm. cient churches of Piedmont, Hift. p. in. Matt. Wefm. Chap. 8. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. Flores Hift. Ann. 793. Uffer. 9, 10. ibid. p. 19, 20. clei. Hist. B. 2. p. 139.
(9) Fred. Spanhemii Hist. (8) Tom.7. Concil. p. 1002. Christian. Sæc. IX.Cap. 9. Mif
Not only (9) the emperors of the east, Nicephorus, Leo Armenius, Michael Balbus, Theophilus, and the emperors of the west, Charles the great, and Lewis the pious, but also several prelateś and ecclefiaftics, opposed the absolute power and supremacy of the pope, together with the worship of 'images, and invocation of faints and angels. The capitularies and edićts of Charles the great and Lewis the pious (1) injoined the reading of the canonical scripture aś the sole rule of faith, without any regard to human traditions or apocryphal writings. Private maffes and pilgrimages, and other such superstítions (2) were forbidden by the fame capitularies. Lewis the pious held a council at Paris in the year 824, which (3) agreed with the council of Francfort in rejecting the second council of Nice, and forbidding the worship of images. Agobard, archbishop of Lyons, in biš book against pictures and images, maintains, that we ought not to adore any image of God, but only that which is God himself, even his eternal Son; and that there is no other me
diator cell. Sacræ Antiq. Lib. 6. Hist. Sect. 5, 8, &c. Imag. Sect. 7, 8, 9.
(3) Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 2. (1) Capit. Aquisgranens.' Sect. 3. Cap. 12. S:et. z. Hit. Spanhem. Hift. Chriftian. Sæc. imag Sect. 9. Allix's Remarks FX. Cap. 3. Sect. 2. Cap. 9. upon the ancient churches of
the Albigenses. Chap. 9. ! "(2) Spanhem, ibid. Cap: 9.
diator between God and men, save Jesus Chrift God and man: so that it is no wonder that this book is condeinned in the Index Expurgatorius of the church of Rome. It was in this century, that the doctrin of transubftantiation was first advanced here in the west by Pafchafius Radbertus abbat of Corbie in France ; but it was ftrenuoully opposed by Rabanus Maurus, Bertramus, Johannes Scotus, and many other bishops and learned men of that age. Rabanus Maurus, archbishop of Mentz, (4) passes this censure upon the novelty of the doctrin ; ' Some, says he, of late not rightly
conceiving concerning the facrament of the ?body and blood of our Lord, have affirmed " that this is the very fame body of our Lord, « which was born of the virgin Mary, and in < which our Lord himself suffered, &c; which ? error we have opposed to the utmost of our power, &c. He thus (5) expresses his own
sentiments; sentiments ; « Our Lord would have the fa !crament of his body and blood be taken and
(4) Quidam nuper de ipfo (5) Maluit Dominus corporis facramento corporis et sangui- et fanguinis fui facramenta fimis Domini non recte fentientes, delium ore percipi, et in partem dixerunt hoc ipfum corpus Do- [al. pastum eorum redigi,ut per mini quod de Maria virgine na- vifibile opus invifibilis oftendetum est, et in quo ipfe Domi- retur effectus. Sicut enim cibus nus pallus eft, &c; cui errori materialis forinsecus nutrit corquantum potuimus &c. Lib. puset vegetat, ita etiam verbum Pænitent. Cap. 33. Spanhem. Derintusanimam nútritet roboHift. Christian. Sæc. IX. Cap. rat. Sacramentum in alimentum 10. Sect. 4.
Corporis redigitur, virtúte autem 3
eaten by the faithful, that by a visible work 1 an invisible effect might appear. For as the
material food outwardly nourishes and rem $ ifreshes the body, 'so also the word of God • inwardly nourishes and strengthens the fouli' Again : "the sacrament is reduced into the
nourishment of the body, but by the virtue of
the facrament eternal life is obtained.' Bertramus, or Ratramnus as he is otherwise called, a monk of Corbie, wrote a book of the body and blood of our Lord, which he inscribed to the emperor Charles the bald. The emperor (6) had inquired of him, whether the same body, 6 which was born of Mary, and suffered, and * was dead and buried, and which fitreth at & the right hand of the Father, is what is
daily taken in the mouth of the faithful by "the mystery of the sacrament in the church :
facramenti æterna vita adipiscie Patris confideat, fit quod ore fidelitur. Inftitut. Cleric. Lib.s. Cap. um per jacramentorum mysterium 31. et de Universo Lib. 5. Cap. in ecclefia quotidie fumitur: ref11. Uffer, de Christian. Eccles. pondet Bertramus discrimen insuccessione et ftatu. Cap. 2. ter utrumque esse tantum, quanSect.'16.
tum eft inter pignus, et eam rem
pro qua pignus traditur; quan(6) Ubi quærenti imperatori tum inter imaginem. et rem cujus utrum ipfum corpus quod de Maria eji imago ; et quantum inter jpeI natum eft et paljum, mortuum et ciem et veritatem. Uffer. ibid, Jepultum, quodque ad dexteram Sect, 17,
and Bertram answers, that the difference be-
and the thing for which the pledge is delive-
thing whose image it is; as great as between
are figuratively the body of Christ, spiritually
tery, not in truth, or real existence, or pre-
ment of the altar is not the true body, nor
of the true body and of the true blood.:
(7) Ibi fusé Bertramus, Pa- (8) Sacramentum altaris non nem vinumque figuraté corpus esse verum corpus, nec verum Chrifli exiftere; spiritualiter, non sanguinem Domini, fed folumcorporaliter ; in figura, in ima- modo memoriale veri corporis gine, in myfterio ; non in veritate, et veri fanguinis.Spanhem. ibid. feu reali existentia, vel præsentia Uffer. ibid. Sect. 19. Dupin. Jubftantiæ &c. Spanhem. ibid. IX. Siecle. Chap.7. Cave Hift.