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of England had not at that time received the doctrin of transubstantiation. In Italy itself (9) Angilbertus, archbishop of Milan, would not acknowlege the supremacy of the pope, nor did the church of Milan submit to the fee of Rome till two hundred years

afterwards. But no one was more willing, as indeed no one of that

age was more able to stem the torrent of superftition than Claude bishop of Turin, in his numerous writings and comments upon scripture. He (1) asserted the equality of all the apostles with St. Peter, and maintained that Jesus Christ was the only head of the church. He overthrew the doctrin of merit and all pretences to works of supererogation. He rejected tradis tions in matters of religion, held the church to be subject to error, and denied the use of prayers for the dead. He proposed the doctrin of the eucharist in a manner totally different from Pafe chafius Radbertus, and entirely conformable to the sense of the ancient church. He opposed with all his might the worship of faints, of


Litt. Ann. 858. p. 45. Vol. 2; (1) See these points proved Cellier's Ecclefiait. Hift. B. 3, by quotations and extracts from p. 165.

his works in Dr. Allix his Re(9) Rego. Ital. Lib. marks upon the ancient churches 5. Ann. 844. Spanhem. ibid. of Piedmont. Chap. 9. See also Cap. 9. Sect. 1.

Spanheim, Dupin, Cave, &c.

(2) Infelix

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relics, of images, together with pilgrimages,
penances, and other superstitions of the like
kind. He may in a manner be said to have
sown the seeds of the Reformation in his
diocese of Turin; and his doctrins took such
deep root especially in the valleys of Piedmont,
that they continued to florish there for fome
centuries, as the papists themselves acknowlege.
- The tenth century even the writers of the
Romish communion lament and describe as the
most debauched and wicked, the most illiterate
and ignorant age fince the coming of Christ. '
Genebrard (2) says “ This is called the unhappy

age, being destitute of men famous for wit
and learning, as also of famous princes and
popes; in which scarce any thing was done

worthy of the memory of posterity.? : He fubjoins, “ But chiefly unhappy in this one

thing, that for almost 150 years about go popes totally degenerated from the virtue of


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(2) Infelix dicitur hoc fæcu- prorfus defecerint, Apotactici lum, exhauftum hominibus in- Apoftaticive potius quam Aposgenio et' doctrina claris, fic tolici. Genebrard. Chron. Lib. etiam claris principibus; et pon- 4. In initio X Sæc. Uffer. de tificibus; in quo nihil fere dig- Christian. Ecclef. successione et rum memoria pofteritatis geftum ftatu. Cap. 2. Sect. 34. Spanfit-Hocvero uno infelix, quod hemii Hift. Christian. Sæc. X. per annos fere 150 pontifices Cap. 3. Sect. 1. circiter 50 a virtute majorum (3) En novum inchoatur fæ


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“their ancestors, being more like apostates

than apostles. Baronius himself. (3) denominates it an iron, a leaden, and obscure age: and declares that Christ was then, as it appears, in a very deep sleep, when the ship was covered with waves; and what seemed worse, when the Lord was thus asleep, there were want. ing disciples who by their cries might awaken

him, being themselves all fast asleep: It is not to be wondered, that in so long and dark a night as this, while all were alleep, the subtle enemy

should fow his tares in great abundance. However there were some few like lights Shining in a dark place, who remonstrated against the degeneracy and superstition of the times. The refolutions and decrees of the councils of Francfort and Paris against the worship of images (4) had still some force and influence in Germany, in France, in England, and other countries. In the former part of this century, in the year 909, a council (5) was held at Trofly, a village near Soissons in France : and having made : feveral wise and good regulations, they concluded with a profession of the things, which Christians ought to believe and practise: and in that profession are none of those things - which constitute the sum of popish doctrin, nothing of the pope's being head of the church, nothing of the daily facrifice of the mass, or of purgatory, or of the worship of creatures, or of commentitious facraments, or of confeffion to the priest, but of pure and sincere confeffion to God fo much did this council differ from the spirit and principles of the council of Trent. Many churches (6) ftill retained the use of the -fcriptures in the vulgar tongue: and in England particularly Athelstan caused them to be translated into the Anglo-Saxon idiom. Great oppofition (7) was also inade in several countries to the celibacy of the clergy; and several councils were held upon the controversy between the


culum, quod fui asperitate acoperiretur: Et quod deterius bonifterilitate ferreum, malique, videbatur, deerant qui Domiexundantisdeformitate plumbeum, nụm fic dormientem clamoribus atque inopia fcriptorum appel- excitarent discipuli,ftertentibus lari consuevit obscurum. Baron. omnibus. Ibid. ad ann. 912. ad ann, 900. Dormiebat tunc Usser, ibid. Spanhem. ibid. planè alto (ut apparet) fopore (4) Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 6. Chriftus, cum navis Au&ibus Sect. 8. Hift. Imag. Sect. 9..

(5) Tom. monks

(5) Tom. 3. Concil. Galliæ. Spelmanni Concil. Brit. Vol. I. Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 8. Sect. 3. Collier's Ecclef. Hift. B.

3. p. Dupin. X. Siecle. Chap. 3. 199.

(6) Spanhem. ibid. Cap. 6. (8) Sigebert de Ecclefiaft. Sect. 2 et 10. Scripturas divinas · Script. Cap. 138. Uffer. ibid. verti fecit in Anglo-Saxonicum Sect. 20. Spanhem. ibid. Cap.7. idioma. Wilh. Malmes. et Ba- Sect. 3. Dupin. ibid. Chap. 4. læus.

(9) Usser. ibid. Sect. 20, 21. (7) Spanhem. ibid. Sect. 5. Spanhem. ibid. Sect. 2. Dupin.

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fonks and the fecular clergy, and particularly in England, where Elfere earl of Mércia expelled the monks out of the monasteries in that province, and introduced the clergy with their wives. Many too even in this age denied the doctrin of transubstantiation. Heriger abbat of Łobes near Liege (8) wrote exprefly against it; as did alfo (9) Alfric in England, whose homily for caster used to be read publicly in the churches. His principal aim therein (1) is to prove, we spiritually taste the body of

Ethat * Christ, and drink his blood, when with true * faith we partake of that holy facrament; "the bread and wine cannot by any benediction be changed into the body and blood of Christ, * they are indeed the body and blood of Christ,

yet not corporally, but spiritually;' with much more to the fame purpose. He wrote also two epistles; the one addressed to Wulfin bishop of Shirburn, and the other to Wulfstan arhbishop of York, wherein he afferts the fame doctrin. Elliefer



ibid. Chap: 5. Cave. Hift. Litt. “ eucharistiam ; panem et viVol. 2, p. 108: &c. Collier's

non poffe per ullam Ecclefiait. Hift. B. 3. p. 204.

“ benedictionem in Chrifti &c.

" corpus & fanguinem mutaris (1)-idpene unice agit," ut vere quidem Chrifti corpus w oftendat nos spiritualiter cor- et sanguinem esse, non tamen “pus Chrifti gustare ejusque “corporaliter, fed fpiritualiter;

fanguinem bibere, cum vera “ &c.” Cave ibid. p. 110. « fide facram illam guftamus

(2) Hollia

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