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in the letters of the words in question ; which proof, however, I am now able to supply by others, and these tending to confirm my etymology of the name of Joseph, as I will show in a future paper; by which it will also appear, that Dathe is not free from misapprehensions and mistake. At present I shall only add, that I have certainly no wish to point out the mistakes of other writers, when they do not interfere with my own pursuit of truths, but since I have been forced to notice several misapprehensions in the etymologies of Sir W. D. it may help to verify the reality of such defects by my showing still farther that similar ones are to be found in his papers concerning other writers, both in Greek and Latin, as well as concerning my English words. I have already shown, that if he has not misapprehended the Scripture concerning there being a necessity for interpreters between the Egyptians and Israelites, yet he has at least departed from the ancient opinion, and so also he has misapprehended the Greek of Strabo and the Latin of Woidè. In his remarks on an inscription at Saguntum in No. 4. p. 908, will be found these words, “Strabo distinctly tells us, that the language of the Gauls differed only a little from that of the Aquitani.” Now this is so far from the real sense of Strabo's words, that on the contrary they mean that the two languages were quite different. llis words are these, “ Aquitanos non modo linguâ sed etiam corporibus permutatos, Hispanis magis quàm Gailis similes ess?,” and it is the other nations in Gaul, called Belga and Celtæ, who differed only a little from one another in language, not from that of the Aquitani, “reliquos verò (Belgas et Celtas) Gallicâ sanè facie, verùm non utentes usquequaque câdem linguâ omnes, sed in plerisque paululùm rariata” [uixçón παραλλάττοντας ταϊς γλώσσαις] lib. 4 ; and the same sense of the great difference between the Aquitani and Galli he repeats again not long after: “ Aquitani à natione Gallicâ corporis habitu et linguá differunt, magìs Hispanis similes.” — Woidè also had said “ E950, 75, scribitur et ffo, Togo, rex. Plur. yeqywou reges. oo go.” p. 185. This is in the Saidic dialect, and the words of Sir W. ale obese,

“ This word (oufo) is in the Saidic ggo, and it may be suspected, ihat it was originally written Po." No.6. p. 374. in note from Essay on Punic inscription. Now that phrase, “this word (ouço) is in the Saidic coo," must be understood by all readers to mean, that when either pronounced, or written at full length as pronounced, it is çpo, in the Saidic; but this is quite a different sense from the meaning of Woide's words, which is, “ that ougo is in the Saidic pronounced and also written eggo, but is sometimes contracted in writing into sgo, and into Tirso in-ti ad of Tobacco: there is then no such word as gogo in the Saidic language, it is only a contracted sign of the real word ecco, just as Co. is a coniraction of Company. As to this contraction being ever reduced to go, this is a mere supposition of the above writer, for which he has not the least foundation, and it has been thus reduced by him, in order that this pretended Egyptian word may approximate the nearer to the llebrew word roh. But although by this surgical operation performed upon the word sgpo, it is reduced in letters, not to exceed in magnitude the Hebrew word roh; yet it is a still more difficult task to make these two words mean the same sense; and the method adopted for this by making a shepherd become a king, is still more curious; but I have no con

cern here with any thing more than the sense of Woide's words, and thus to show that scribitur is by bim always opposed to pronounced. Hence he says “ Erav, duo, scribitur ut plurimum ß ---Sæpe scribitur @T-suis literis scribitur in Exodus 12. 22.” (p. 94).

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P. S. I might proceed to show, that Sir W. has in like manner misapprehended a quotation made from Akerblad at p. 414, which is applied by him to prove the truth of a conclusion, totally differeut from that, which it is there quoted to prove by Sir W. D.

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Primary Meaning, the Use, and the Etymology of

NUBERE.

To The EDITOR OF THE CLASSICAL JOURNAL.

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If the following remarks upon a Latin verb, which has long
exercised the pens of Critics, and the following strictures upon
Dr. Burgess's etymology of it, be at all interesting to your readers,
I shall have great pleasure in having communicated them.

Hatton, Oct. 24.

E. H. BARKER.

Nubere, proprio primarioque significatu est, nubis instar tegere, velare, xarút Tilly G. voiler, couvrir; ita vetus Poeta in Pervigilio Veneris v. 22. Ipsa (Vemas) jussit mane ut udæ virgines nubant (velent, tegant virgines) rosa. Arnobius, L. iii. p. 118. Quod egua nubat terram, appellatus est, inquiunt, Neptunus : hinc nubere etiam nuptias facere significat, quod sc. nova nupta fammeo nuberetur, sive velaretur, Ambros. Exhort. ad Virg. Rom. 1. f. 108. A nubibus vero bum nubentium tractum arbitror: denique operiuntur ut mibes, cum acceperint nupturæ velamina. B. Hieronymus ad illud Matthæi c. 22. In resurrectione neque nubent, nec nubentur, Latina, inquit

, consuetudo Græco idiomati non respondet ; nubere enim proprie dicuntur mulieres, et viri uxores duceré, Ovid. Met. 9. 761. de Iphi pu. ella, sed quam pro mare pater habuerat hactenus, et ei formosissimam virginem desponderat,

Pronuba quid Juno? quid ad hæc, Hymenæe, venitis
Sucra quibus qui ducat abest, ubi nubimus umba?

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Claudian. in Eutropium Eunuchum, 1 v. 222.

Quo struis hos auri amulos, quæ pignora tantis
Succedunt opibus ? nubas, ducasre licebit,

Nunquam mater eris, nunquam pater : quando vero de viris hoc verbi usurpant auctores, de hominibus uxoriis, i. e. sub imperio uxorum viventibus fere loquuntur, ut observat Scalig. in Catalect. Poet. Vet. Comment., et ita signate Martialis 8 Epigr. 12.

Urori nubere nolo mea, sed neque hoc

perpetuo observant auctores, Nonius 2. 577. ait, Nuo bere veteres non solum mulieres, sed etiam viros dicebant, e. g. Pompon, Meus frater nupsit dotatæ vetulâ: v. Barth. 6. 14. ; item ad Claudian. paullo ante citatum locum, p. 1315. Scheurl. Statuam Mercur. 1. 2. p. 47. Taubman. ad Plaut. 15.Basilii Fabri Sorani Thesaurus Eruditionis Scholastica, recensitus, emendatus, locupletatus a J. M. Gesnero, Hage-Comitum, 1735.

" Vubo, xzaúttw, tego, operio, velo, unde obnubo, Colum. L. 10. v.158. Tellus depositis cupiet se nubere plantis :-aliquando de viro dicitur, sed vel cum præposteras nuptias significamus, Juvenal. Sat. 2. v. 135. Nubit amicus, adde Mart. L. 12. Epigr. 42. Lamprid. in Heliogab. c. 10. et Impp. Constantin, et Constant. L. 9. Cod. tit. 9. Leg. 31. hac sententia Sueton. in Neron, c. 29. et Tacit. Ann. 15. c. 37. verbo denubo usi sunt; vel cum vir uxori subjicitur, servitque aut propter dotem, aut propter nobilitatem, Pompon. ap. Non. c. 2. n. 577. Martial. L. 8. Epigr. 12. : reperitur etiam simpliciter de viro dictum, Tertull. L. 1. ad Uror. c. 7. sub fin. Pontificein Max. rursus nubere nefas est, et L. 2. c. ult. Nec filii sine consensu patrum rite et jure nubent: hinc viri nupti, matrimonio juncti, Varr. ap.

Non. 6. 7. n. 98. Viris nuptis, sacrificabantur in cubiculo viduæ : sic nupia populus, h. e. juncta viti, Plin. L. 18. c. 28.Totius Latinitatis Lexicon Consilio et Cura J. Facciolati, Opera et Studio Egidii Forcellini, Patavii, 1781.

Nubo, operire, velare, ut nubes, quæ cælum aperit—, Onomast. Nubo, καλύπτω : -Nubere, inquit Nonius, velcres non solum mulieres, sed etiam viros dicebant, ut nunc Itali dicunt, Pomponius Pannuceatis, Sed meus frater major, postquam vidit me vi dejectum domo, nupsit posterius dotate vetula, varicosa, Afre: hactenus Nonius 2. 577.: posset Poeta sic indicare voluisse virum in potestatem mulieris dotatæ transiisse, quod sic visum Scaligero ad Catal. p. 226., sicut Martial. 8. 10. Vxori nubere nolo mere ; nam obscenum plane est, et ad mollitiem marium pertinet, 1. 25. Nupsit heri, et Juv. Sat. 2. 134. Nubit amicus, Plaut. Trin. argum. extr. Nubunt liberi, i. e. filius et filia : hæc debentur Barthio Adv. 6, 14. et ad Claudian. in Eutrop. 1. 223. : illud non exemit, vel archaicam esse hanc rationem, ut nubere, legitimo quidem matrimonio, dicantur viri, vel recentioris ævi: add. Tertull

. de Monog. 7. Sine dubio, clum ille prohibetur denuo nubere, et illa prohibetur, non habens nubere nisi fratri; cf. Alb. Gentilis de Nuptiis 2. 3. p. 126." J. M. Gesneri Novus Linguæ Latince The

saurus.

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“Satis superque multa et magnifice quidem Jos. Scaliger in usum publicum protulit, unde ei omnis posteritas debere velit ; inter cætera tamen et nonnulla damnavit, quæ melius, me si audias, absolvas, ut cum nubere de viris Latine dici negat in Animadv. in Locos controversos Titii: at Plautus argumento T'rin. de utroque sexu dixit, Senex ut rediit, cujus nubunt liberi, et Nonius disertis verbis, Nubere veteres non solum mulieres, sed etiam riros dicebant, ita ut nunc Itali dicunt, Pomponius Pannuceatis, Sed meus frater major, postquam vidit me vi dejectum domo Nupsit posterius dotatæ vetula, varicose, Afre : neque bene etiam inibi so nubere propter dotem imperio uxuri tradito interpretatur J. Mercerus ; simpliciter enim nubere etiam de virili sexu dixisse veteres Nonius docere nititur, et ita Plautus loco modo producto :--- sed et viros nuptos dixit Varro L. xiv. Antiquitatum Reruin divinarum, eodem Nonio producente in Sacrificari, viris nuptis, sacrificabantur in cubiculo viduæ, quem locum cur corrigant vv. dd. cum non addunt, nobis incorrectum producere placet, forsaa et sic magis correctum: cæterum, ne cui absonum videatur nubere dici viros, sciendum est ducere etiam quandoque fæminarum esse : Imp. Antoninus c. ill. Soluto Matrimonio Hostiliæ rescripsit, Si ignorans statum Erotis ut libertum duxisti et dotem dedisti, isque postea servus est judicatus, dotem ex peculio recipies, et si quid præterea eum tibi debuisse apparuerit." C. Barthii Adversaria, L. VI.

c. 14. Francofurti, 1624, p. 177.

“ In conducting the theory of language, many mistakes appear to have been committed by accommodating language to philosophy, instead of applying philosophy to language, or by reasoning from language in its most polished state ; and thus determining on the origin of words according to their latest orthography, and most prevailing significations: in the course of such inquiries the reasoning is often manifestly derived from modes of polished life, and maxims of refined philosophy: I will endeavour to illustrate part of this observation, by explaining what I conceive to have been the original signification of nubo : it has been an opinion long received, and almost as universally admitted, that nuptiæ diciæ, quia fiammeo caput nubentis obuoliatur, quod antiqui obnubere vocarunt: but this is a custom evidently posterior to civil society,” [My acquaintance with the customs and ceremonies, used by barbarous nations on such occasions, which in almost every country, whether ancient, or modern, have a wonderful similarity to each other, leads me to suspect the propriety of this remark, which I shall not discuss at the present momeni, because I have not now the opportunity of consulting books of Voyages and Travels, and because I do not choose to rely upon my memory), “ when ceremonies were instituted to give sanction and permanency to a rite, on which so much depended the good order, and happiness of civil life: the union, which was the origin of society, must have been antecedent to the rites ordained to make it legal: we must therefore search higher for the primitive signification of nubo: Dr. Taylor on the Civil Law, p. 287. mentions a Hebrew radix, consisting of the same elements, which signifies procreation, birth, c. which he thinks bids fairer for the etymon, than any other

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that can be assigned; but, with deference to so excellent a writer, I think that even this does not satisfy: to effect this union, there must have been something prior to the liberos procreare ; for, though the stipulation of the political contract was liberorum quærendorum causa, yet it is expressly mentioned in a law, which Taylor quotes before, and afterwards enlarges upon, that nuptias non concubitus, sed consensus facit; a law, founded on the very essence, and natural principles of marriage : and this signification, if we can discover it in nubo, will, perhaps, have the fairest claim to our preference, which I think we may be able to do, by showing that nubo originally signified to assent, and is really the same as nuo; it is well known that the Æolic, the parent, or perhaps rather, the sister dialect of the Latin, made use of the digamma F, which as well as the Latin V, was pronounced like our W, between two vowels; and thus nuo, nufo, i. e. nuvo, as from pluo came plui, pluvi, in the old Latin writers, in the same manner as they said fuvisti for fuisti, luvit for luit, &c.; but the digamma, from the affinity of its sound, often became B, as there has been occasion to observe, more than once, in the Appendix to Dawes : thus nuvo, nubo, as vado, Cáow, uro (pronounced furo), buro, rūg, with which may be compared our burn, and fire, anciently written fuyr; though nuo does not exist by itself at present in the Latin language, it remains in its compounds annuo, renuo, fc. as buro, in amburo, comburo, and bustum; it has been given as a reason for nubo's being not spoken of the man, viz. because it was the virgin only, who veiled her head; but, if there is any probability in what has been before proposed, this reason will fall to the ground: we may account for it otherwise, and consistently with the signification attributed to nubo : viri est petere, virginis est assentiri, annuere, nubere: this privilege allowed to the delicacy of the sex, is expressed by Milton Par. Lost, L. VIII. v. 502.

Her virtue, and the conscience of her worth,
That would be wro'd, and not unsought be won:

bium is consensus

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if we add that connubium implies the ratification of the union in the consent of both, it will confirm the observation, that nubo properly, and originally signifies annuo, assentior, and therefore that connu

Dr. Burgess's Essay on the Study of Antiquities, 2d edition, Oxford, 1782, p. 80–2.

With all due deference to the Bishop of St. David's, whom I revere for his virtues, and respect for his learning, I must observe, 1. That nubere has been, in the above quotations, shown to have the meaning of tegere, which is its primary signification, of which fact the worthy Bishop does not seem to have been aware, but which fact strikes at the root of his etymology; 2. That this the primary signification clearly points to nubes as its source; 3. That it is quite impossible for the Bishop, upon his own etymology, to account for the use of the verb in the passive voice, as in Cicero Fam. 15. 3.

ique mihi nuntiassent regis Parthorum filium, quocum esset nupta regis Armeniorum soror.

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