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sibly mean but that, in the Reviewer's own language, « whenever this word occurs, the allusion to two events, betwixt which time was going on continuously, or uninterrupted by the intrusion of any third to break the train, may be more or less distinctly traced, and the real meaning of the word established beyond the possibility of doubt?" If I had had the same good luck, as the Reviewer has probably had, to be born in Scotland, and to be educated at a Scotch University, I should perhaps have acquired such a meet smattering of metaphysical jargon, as to be able to make my meaning intelligible to his countrymen.
“ C. 26. Another long note, which we cannot possibly quote, first demands our attention here : in the course of it, our author's mind seems to labor under some inexplicable confusion concerning the very common idiom, dare manus alicui, which is explained by fateri se vinctum (victum): he seems to consider this phrase, and tollere digitum, with the whole tribe of amphitheatrical expressions of submission, as proceeding from the same origin: we have always been accustomed, consistently with our principle of weighing with some care the import of each word in the idiom, to coincide in opinion with those critics, neither few, nor unknown, who have explained dare manus as implying an allusion to a battle, not of gladiators, but of warriors, and representing the conquered as stretching out both hands to receive the humiliating manacles of the victor: it was thus that he became captivus, or capius, the surrendered slave of a superior combatant : we merely state this from a conviction of the absolute necessity, if we mean to convey instruction successfully to others, of having ourselves clear and precise ideas of the proper application of such explanations, as we may happen to employ: if we say simply, that the idioms, tollere manum, and dare manus alicui, with some others, announce a disposition to submission on the part of the person, to whom they are applied, it is well: but, if we illustrate the manner, in which they acquired a signification so different from what the words individually import, we are required to do so with the utmost exact. ness and fidelity, to state our sentiments, and the grounds, on which they are founded, and not to confound the terms of the gladiator's barbarous art with the less censured, less degraded, perhaps, in public estimation, but equally unchristian and detestable terms of national warfare."
To enable the reader to judge for himself, as to the state of « inexplicable confusion, under which my mind seems to labor in the course of this Note," I shall cite the whole of it, raí pear nége they were in taútmu, au 30 Ad ertremum det manus, rincique se patiatur.
4 Dare manus alicui fateri se vircium Plaut. Pers. 5. 2. 72. Cic. Att. 2. 22. Aiebat illum
primo sane diei multa contra, ad extremum autem manus dedisse, et affirmasse, ninil se contra ojus voluntatem esse facturum :' Eidem 16. 3. ·Sorienter igitur quod manus dedisti, quodque etiam ultro gratias egisti . '--add Nep. 22. 1. 4. Cæs. Bell. G. 5. 31. Plaut. Pers. 5. 2: 72. Hor. Epod. 17. 1.” Gesner's Thesaurus. In the stead of dare manus the Latins sometimes say tollere digitum : “ Tollere digitum est alteri vicioriam concedere: vid. Savaro ad Sidon. Ep. 5.
Scal. Lect. Aus. 1. 27. extr. Barth. ad Grat. v. 12." Gesner's
Thesaurus. Thus C. S. S. Apollinaris Epist. vii. L. v. Hi sunt, quorum comparationi digitum tollerent Narcissus, Asiaticus, Massa, Marcellus, Parthenius, Licinius, et Pallas.' Jo. Savaro adds the following Note: “ Digitum tollerent, i. e. victos se faterentur : Cicero apud Lactant. L. 3. c. 8. • Cedo, et manum tollo : Persius Sat. 5. --Digitum exere: Vetas interpres, • Digito sublato ostende victum te esse a vitiis, tractum a gladiatoribus, qui victi ostensione digiti veniam a populo postulabant, ad suum morem allusit D. Hieron. adversus Luciferianos, • En tollo manum, cedo, vicisti;' Sidon. in Narbone,
• Et si pulpita personare socco
Comædus voluisset, huic levato
· Palmam tu digito dares, Menander!'" Hence Quinctil. 8. 5. says · Pugnare ad digitum,' which is, as Gesner says, donec alter digitum tollerent. Mr. Burder says in his Oriental Customs (vol. 2. p. 352. third Edition) on St. Jolin c. xxi. 18. u When thou shalt be old, thou shalt stretch forth thy hands, and another shall gird thee : it was customary in the ancient combats for the vanquished person to stretch out his hands to the conqueror, signifying that he declined the battle, acknowledging that he was conquered, and submitting to the direction of the victor: thus Theocritus Idyll. xxii.
• And hands uprais’d with death-presaging mind,
* At once the fight and victory declin’d: so also Turnus in Virgil,
• Thine is the conquest; lo, the Latian bands
. Behold their gen’ral stretch his suppliant hands :' Pitt. in the instance now above cited the stretching out of the hands was to be a token of submission to that power, under which he would fall and perish.” The Reviewer says, as we have seen—“If we say simply that the idioms, tollere manum, and dare manus alicui, with some others, announce a disposition to submission on the part of the persons to whom they are applied, it is well”—I should be glad to ask the Reviewer, if I have pretended to go any further, as I am not yet conscious of it. But now that he has stirred the question, I will give both to him, and to others clear and precise ideas" upon the subject. Be it known then-(1.) That tollere digitum, is a gladiatorial mark of submission, as we learn from the old Scholiast on Persius Sat. 5. (Digitum cxere, Digito sublato ostende victum te esse a vitiis, tractum a gladiatoribus, qui victi estensione digiti veniam a populo postulabant); that Persius uses exerere digitum for the proper term tollere digiium ; that Cicero, as cited by Lactantius L. JI, C. 8., uses tollere manun with the same allusion; that if Cicero had said tollere manus, there would not have been this gladiatorial allusion, as tollere manus is applied in a military sense to persons, who surrender, supplicating for mercy with hands supine, as when Horace says Calo supinas si tuleris manus, and it is then synonymous with tendere manus, generatim solebant orantes manus supinas ad cælum ac deos tendere, Virg. Æn. 3. 176., supinas, i. e. expansas, sic manibus supinis accipere Seneca dixit De Benef. 1, 15., et Cic. Cat. 4, 9. Supplex ma
Aus tendit patria communis,” B. Faber Thes. Scholast, Erudit., and so too Vossius (cited in Oudendorp's Cæsar B. G. 5. 31. Lug. Bat. 1737. p. 250.) says, “ Erat autem ille mos dedititiorum, sed de illis proprie dicitur tendere manns, unde Cæsar L. VII. C. 40, Manus tendere, et deditionem significare, Zosimus L. II. Todows de (waypiee inay tà περιλειφθέν πλήθος χείρας ανατείναν εδέξατο,” with which last, as well as with the passage of Seneca above, the reader may compare the passage of Suidas under the word 'TTIOS, cited by Mr. Blomfield on the Prom. ν. 1040. προθυμία τη πάση αναπατάσαντες τας πύλας, εδεξαντο υπτίαις xipri tous Transpeloos: hence then Quintil. says 8. 5. Pugnare ad digibum, which is well explained by Gesner, donec alter digitum tolleret, “pugnare ad digitum ap. Martial. De Spectac. Epigr. 29. h. e. sine spe missionis, donec alter e gladiatoribus digitum tollat, et victum se fateatur, alii exponunt, donec præses certaminis, digitum pollicem vertat, et mori alterutrum jubeat,” Forcellinus Ler, totius Latinitatis : Tollere digitum is also an auctioneering phrase, “Cic. Verr. 1, 241. c. 54. Accurrunt tamen ad tempus tutores, digitum tollit Junius patruus, signi, ficat sese redemtorem, hoc ipse alibi digito liceri vocat, in emtione enim antiquitus post licitationem digitus lavabatur, significans quenquam emtioni allubescere, Martial
Jam mea res digitum sustulit hospitibus, unde manceps est appellatus, qui quidpiam conducens manum tollebat, se significans emtorem, hoc erat apud veteres micare, per digitorum levationem distrahere; huc respicit Manil. 5. 318. Non illo coram digitos licitantium quæsiverit, desideraverit, hasta auctionis, ad quam venduntur bona proscriptorum, Defueritque bonis sector, sic emendavit feliciter Bentleius, vid. Scal. ad Manil. p. 118. et Hotom. in Cic. Verr. 1. c. 54.” Gesner's Thes. Ling. Lat.: Tollere digitum is also a phrase to denote applause, as Gesner remarks, “ Est etiam favere, suffragari, Hor. Epist. 1. 19, 66.
Vulgus utroque suum laudabut pollice ludum :" Tollere manus, besides the signification of a suppliant posture mentioned above, has the following meanings noticed by Basil Faber : 1. “ Tollebant manus, suffragia ferentes, v. Voss. Inst. Orat. 4. p. 162 sq. et L. 6. p. 535 sq. ; 2, in admiratione, Cic. Acad. Qu. 4, 19. Hortensius vehementer admirans, quod quidem perpetuo Lucullo loquente fecerat, ut etiam manus sæpe tolleret, Idem Fam. 7. 5. Sustulimus manus, ego et Balbus, tanta fuit opportunitas, ut illud nescio quod, non fortuitum, sed divinum videretur, Catull. 54, 4. Admirans ait hæc, manumque tollens,"
(2.) Dare manus alicui: the Reviewer says, “ We have always been accustomed to coincide in opinion with those critics, neither few, nor unknown, who have explained dare manus as implying an allusion to a battle, not of gladiators, but of warriors, and representing the conquered as stretching out both hands to receive the humiliating manacles of war.” This is the opinion of Lambin, cited in Havercamp's Lucretius on L. 11. v. 1041., who says, translatum a re milio tari : it may be so, but before the Reviewer can establish his point, ke must be able to produce an instance from any historian, Livy,
Cæsar, Sallust, or Tacitus, where the word is indisputably used in a military sense : as to the passage in Cæsar B. G. L. V. c. 31. Tandem dat Cotta permotus manus : superat sententia Sabini. Dare manus is here used not in a military, but in a metaphorical sense, as is evident from the sentence, with which it is connected. But in the fol lowing passage it is evident that the phrase is military in its original import, Romanos armis persequi, donicum aut certe ricissent, aut victi manum dedissent, Nep. in Amilc. c. I.
Et si tibi vera videtur, Dede manus, aut si falsa est, accingere contra, Lucret. L. II. ¥. 1041. : in the passage of Lucretius the word accingere proves the point.
“ Thus ends the first series of annotations, which are followed by an additional apparatus of supplementary ones; among these the only article, that seemed to obtrude itself upon our notice from its intrinsic merit, is the following: in referring to I. Duport's Hom. Gnomologia, our Author thus modestly speaks of his illustrious self, and his illustrious College, and his illustrious predecessor, I will take this opportunity of recommending to the notice of the classical student this book of I. Duport, who was once the Grcek Professor of the UniTersity of Cambridge, and belonged to the illustrious College, of which I am a member : this, we presume, is prudently brought forward on the present occasion, lest the careless printer should have omitted his titles on his title page, where, to be sure, they skulk almost unseen amidst a vocabulary of greatly more important matter, or, lest some pert untoward booby should deface the illustrious name-or, by demolishing the first leaf, erase for ever from the records of fame the remembrance of the learned author of this immortal work : doubt: less, in some future age, when moths and snuff shops have spared only a solitary copy of this unrivalled production, and that, too, haply stripped of its title, moulders in the corner of the library of the illustrious College, it will afford no ordinary consolation to the plodding critic to discover in this small print what may likely escape the malignity of the booby pupil, and the eyes of 'less laborious bookworms, that the learned and illustrious author was once a member of the same illustrious College with Duport.” The Writer here drops the Reviewer, and, as the late Lord Thurlow would have said, becomes a Jesuit grafted upon al-kel:
(Hic niger est: hunc tu, Romane, caveto;) but I am content with exclaiming against such illiberal remarks, and such puerile trash.
It is beyond the powers even of a Scotch logician, or a Scotch metaphysician, to prove (but, perhaps, a Scotch Reviewer may be privileged to assert what he cannot prove,) that in the words, which are cited from my Work, there is any thing to justify the language, which is here used. Is it nct an honorable feeling to be proud that you belong to a College, composed of illustrious men, as Trinity is at present in many respects, and to exult at the mention of the distinguished characters, who have, from the earliest periods, adorned its annals ?
υπό γαρ λόγων ο νούς και μετέωρίζεται,
Has the Reviewer forgotten the contention for the birth-place of Homer? Little do I envy this Scotchman the blunt feelings of his nature : he, it seems, is content to be a chartered vagrant, and professes cosmopolitism ; perhaps because he may be a lineal descendant of the evalciato. OrBuios, (of whom Demosthenes speaks) or perhaps because he has read in Thucydides that the whole earth is to illustrious characters one ist Mausoleum, ανδρών γαρ επιφανών πάσα γή τάφος, or in Plutarch • that the man of the world is the world's denizen, πατρίς δε γίνεται πάσα πόλις ευθύς ανθρώπο χρήσθαι μεμαθηκότι. .
I have now gone through all the strictures in this Review, relative to myself, to which I deem it necessary to pay any attention. As to the censure of Mr. Jones, which runs through the article, I shall leave him to defend himself, if he thinks it worth his while to do so, but I cannot help remarking, that there is in this censure of Mr. Jones, a spirit of personal hostility: the cloven foot could not be entirely concealed from the view by the thin covering, which was put upon it. Be this as it may. When I publish a second edition of these Tracts, I shall be glad to renew my acquaintance with the Scotch Reviewer, and hope that he will have the goodness to lay before me his own opinions upon those difficult passages, “ which," as he says, to have escaped my penetration, or gone beyond it.” “ But," with many thanks to him for having entered upon a critical examination of my book, “ I am in laste," his respectfully,
E. H. BARKER.
ON THE PHOENICIAN INSCRIPTION,
Found in the Island of Malta.
I derive great pleasure, Sir, from the very handsome acknowledgment of obligation made by Sir William Drummond to my endeavors to ascertain the inport, or rather the character, of the Tyrian Inscriptiou. Sir W. does not appear to be dissatisfied with that which I attribute to it; or at least, he expresses no sense of dissatisfaction, but desires a further consideration of the meaning given