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For the fidelity of the translation, unless he had stated another source from which it was derived, he must himself, I conceive, be deemed responsible; a responsibility of which he could not but have been aware, and would not have unnecessarily incurred. Besides, what critic of eminence, anxious to give the precise meaning of a passage in a foreign language, would like to do it in any translation but his own ?

By the preceding remarks, I shall, I trust, be considered as rather solicitous to correct probable misapprehension, than to expose critical inaccuracies. The high character of Dr. Holmes's collation is indisputable; and had the superstructure simply rested upon the basis of Greek manuscripts alone, without borrowing the feeble support of versions, would have been still invaluable. It is a work which reflects honor upon its original compiler, upon his successor in the laborious undertaking, and upon the University of Oxford in particular, which, from its very birth, adopted and fostered it; cherishing it, in spite of its occasional frowardness, with all the fondness of a parent, and incurring no inconsiderable expense in its nurture, without the prospect or perhaps the possibility of indemnification.

I am, Sir, your's, &c.

R. L.

BIBLICAL SYNONYMA,

So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.-Gen. iii. 24.

The Indian Americans have certain supposed Cherubimical figures in their Synhedria, and through a strong religious principle, dance there perhaps every winter's night, always in a bowing posture, and frequently sing Halelu-yah Yo-He-Wah.— I have seen in several of the Indian Synhedria two white painted eagles carved out of poplar wood, with their wings stretched out and raised five feet off the ground, standing at the corner, close to their red and white imperial seats; and on the inner side of each of the deep-notched pieces of wood, where the eagles stand, the Indians frequently paint, with a chalky clay, the figure of a man with Buffalo horns, and that of a Panther with the same color; from which I conjecture, especially connected with their other rites and customs, that the former emblein was designed to describe the divine attributes, as that bird excels the rest of the feathered kind in various superior qualities; and that the latter symbol is a contraction of the Cherubimical figures, the man, the bull, and the lion. And this opinion is corroborated by an established custom, both religious and martial, among them, which obliges them to paint those sacred emblems anew, at the first-fruit offering, or the annual expiation of sins. Every one of their war-leaders must also make three successful wolfish campaigns,

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with their reputed holy ark, before he is admitted to wear a pair of a
young Buffalo's horns on his forehead, or to sing the triumphal war
song, and to dance with the same animal's tail sticking up behind him,
while he sings Yo-He-Wah. Adair's American Indians. p. 30.

It is well known that Adair wrote his work in support of an extrava-
gant theory, that the North American Indians were actually descended
from the Israelites. We should therefore be cautious in admitting his
assertions, unless strengthened by other accounts; which, in the present
instance, establish his veracity. For the Chevalier de Tonti' informs
us that in one of the temples dedicated to the sun in Louisiana, in
which particular respect is paid to the deity, “ a closet is made in the
wall, which they call the tabernacle of the god. Two eagles with ex-
tended wings hang in it, and look towards the sun". And in Picart's Rel.
Con. there is a plate representing a temple containing three Chemims
or Zemims of the Indians of Hispaniola. The chief has five heads; those
of a Lion, Eagle, a Stag, a Dog, and a Serpent. In front of his body,
also, another Eagle's head projects. A Serpent infolds his leg, and he
bears a trident in his right hand. The two others have horns, both
are human figures, but one has the head and claws of an eagle. Park-
hurst cousiders the word Chemim to be plainly taken with little varia-
tion from Dow the Heavens or what declare and exhibit the glory of
God. Ps. 19. 1. and are, he apprehends, according to that of St. Paul, Rom.
1. 20. the created, visible emblem of his eternal power and Godhead.
In conformity with this opinion, the Spaniards, who were present at the
first conquests which were made in America, tell us that the inhabitants
of Hispaniola looked upon the Chemens or Zemes, as the messengers,
the agents or mediators of a supreme, sole, eternal, infinite Almighty
invisible being, and imagined that they presided over the affairs of
men. Whenever they went to war, they used to fix two little Chiemens
on their foreheads. With respect to the reverence due to the Bull, so
generally discovered aniongst all nations, and existing from the earliest
times, it cannot be said that it originated with the North American In-
dians from any agricultural or domestic use to which the species inight
be applied, since the Buffalo was the wild inhabitant of iheir woods.
The natural conclusion therefore, is that it must have been derived from
some more occult cause connected with religious worship. And
it is a curious fact that the East Indians think it a great honor, and
fancy themselves sure of eternal happiness, whenever they expire with a
cow-tail in their hands ;; and Diod. Siculus+ further informs us that it
was a custom among the Troglodytes, when they were grown so old as
to be unable to follow their flocks, to tie themselves to an Ox's tail and
so put an end to their days.

That the Cherubim were a mystical representation of the divine Aleim, the Hebrew appellation for the Trinity, and that this Aleim has been invoked and worshipped as a plurality in unity, παντί γαρ εν κόσμω Lautrei Tpias, is Móvas aszal is, I think, proved beyond the possibility of doubt by Mr. Parkhurst in his lexicon under the head 27 and in the

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* See Coll. of Voyages to the North, V. 5. 2 Picart v. 3. p. 129. 3 Picart v. 3,219.

4 Diod. Sic, B.3. C.2. 5 Damascius, see Cudworth, p. 294.

more elaborate treatise of Mr. Cudworth, in his intellectual system.' We discover amongst the idols of almost every nation a triple-formed deity frequently represented with some and occasionally with all the characteristic marks of the Lion, the flawk and the Bull, which, we learn from Ezekiel, 1. 10. and '10. 14. were essential to the cherubic forms. Thus, the symbol of Serapis, who Philarchus? tells, was that God who governs the whole world, was an animal with three heads, a Dog's, a Wolf's, and a Lion's, this last being in the centre. Orpheus, according to Damascius, made one of his principles a Dragon having the head both of a Bull and a Lion, and in the midst the face of a God with golden wings upon his shoulders, and we have the authority of Diodorus. Sic for paying the highest attention to whatever he advanced upon the subject of religious mysteries. Diana was usually represented with three heads, and some ascribe to her the likeness of a Dog, a Bull, and a Lion; in her temple of Olympia she was seen as a winged figure with the right side like a Panther, the left like a Lion. Rodigast a deity of Lusatia in Gerniany, was represented with an Ox's head upon the breast, an Eagle upon his head, and a Pike in his left hand. Mithras and Orogmasdes, who may be considered as the same deity, are called the threefold, he has been described with a human body, a lion's bead, and four wings standing on a Bull. The Spbinx had a human head, the wings of a bird and the form of a Lion. In short, whether we examine the symbols and Idols of the Scythians, East Indians or Americans, we invariably discover races of the Lion, the Bull, and the Eagle, and that these were not selected from caprice or accident might be more fully proved by a further comparison between the Pagan and the Jewish Trinities. But as it is the particular object of this article to illustrate merely the cherubic forms, such inquiry would lead to irrelevant details. The corroborating evidence here given appears to substantiate a fact, which I conceive establishes in the highest degree the authenticity and antiquity of the Bible: for however sceptical may be the advocates for limiting to the Jewish nation alone all participation and knowledge of the Mosaic dispensation, such an accumulation of similarities must surely be beyond the power of chance to effect. There were Giants in the earth in those days. Gen. vi. 4.

I must confess that were there no other grounds for supposing that the term Giants applied to persons of a superior size, I should feel inclined from the meaning of the word bad to conclude that it signified nothing more than a race of violent and lawless people who were in the habit of committing depredations upon their more peaceable neighbours. As the Scriptures, however, in other places refer evidently to the existence of men of more than ordinary stature, and as the septuagint translates the word vivas, tbis opinion is niaterially weakened, and if we may depend upon the following accounts, no doubts must remain as to the truth of the scriptural assertion.

During the disputes between the Lacedæmonians and Tegeans, the foriner having been repeatedly defeated, sent to consult the Delphic oracle what particular deity they had to appease to become victorious

I Cudworth, B. 1. C. 4. 2 Cudworth, 351. 3 Cudworth, 298. 4 Diod. Sic. B. 4. C. 1. s Parkhurst Lex. 351. 6 Sam. Grosser, Hist. of Lusatia

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over their adversaries. The Pythian assured them of success if they
brought back the body of Orestes son of Aganiemnon. The search
was without intermission continued, and the body was at length disco-
vered accidentally by a man of the name of Lichas. There happened
at this time to be a commercial intercourse with the Tegeans, and
Lichas, seeing a smith at his forge, observed with particular curiosity
the process of working iron. The man took notice of his atten-
tion, and desisted from bis labor, Stranger of Sparta,” said
he," you seem to admire the art which you contemplate ; but how
much more would your wonder be excited, if you knew all that I
am able to communicate! Near this place, as I was sinking a well,
I found a coffin seven cubits long; I never belieyed that men were
formerly of larger dimensions than at present; but when I opened
it, I discovered a body equal in length to the cothin; I correctly
measured it and placed it where I found it :” Lichas, after hearing
this relation, was induced to believe that this might be the body
of Orestes, concerning which the oracle had spoken. He accord-
ingly returned to Sparta and related the matter to his countrymen ;
who immediately, under pretence of soine imputed crime, sent him
into banishment. He returned to Tegea, told bis misfortune to
the smith, and hired of him the ground. He resided there for a
certain space of time, when, digging up the body, he collected
the bones, and returned with them to Sparta, and from that time
the Lacedæmonians, in their contests with the Tegeans, were attended
with uninterrupted success.

Herodot. lib. I. C. 68.
Pausanias describes the bones of Ajax discovered at Salamis as
being of immense size. He also relates the following anecdotes
respecting the existence of giants. On the coast of Ionia, near
Miletus, is an island called Lade, which is subdivided into two
smaller islands. One of these is denominated Asterius, because
Asterius the son of Anax was buried in it. And Anax was the son
of the earth. The dead body of this Asterius was not less than
ten cubits in length. Also that, in upper Lydia, there was a city
of no great magnitude, called the gates of Temenis. In this place,
a sepulchre being turn open by a tempest, certain bones were
exposed to the view, wbich, had it not been for their retaining the
figure of human bones, no one could have believed from their size
that they were those of a man. This gigantic corpse was reported
to be that of Hyllus. Pausanias, B. I. c. 35.

To these authorities from ancient historiaus, we may add some
from modern travellers. Jacob le Maire, in his voyages to the Straits
of Magellan, reports that he found at Port Desire several

graves covered with stones in which he discovered human skeletons of ten and eleven feet in length. The Chevalier Scory, in his voyage to the peak of Teneriffe, says that they found in one of the sepulchral caverns of that mountain the head of a Guanche which had eighty teeth, and that the body was not less than fifteen feet long. In digging in some ditches at Rouen in 1509, a tomb stone was found eputaining a skeleton which was about seventeen feet in length.

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On the tomb was a plate of copper, describing the bones to be those of the Noble and puissant Lord, the Chevalier Ricon de Vallemont. In Canada also, gigantic remains have been discovered; and although in some instances the bones may have been those of Elephants or other large animals, it is highly improbable that in every instance this should have been the case.

E. S.

Critical, and Explanatory Notes on the Hippolytus Stephanepho

rus, with Strictures on some Remurks of Professor Monk.

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V. 134. τριτάταν δέ νιν κλύω

τάνδε κατ' αμβροσίου
στόματος αμέραν

Δάματρος ακτάς δέμας άγνόν άσχειν. « Verba ν. 136. et sequentium si sic construas cum Scholiaste, τριτάταν δε νιν κλύω ταν δε ημέραν κατέχειν αγνον το στόμα τας Δάματος áxtās, sensum dederis, quem poscunt Euripidea, cujus nutrici Phædra dicitur v. 275, τριταίαν ουσάσιτος ήμέραν, et pulcrum os dixisse videlbitur αμβροσίου στόματος δέμας : inservit et haec vox periphrasi; ista tamen est insolentior: hæc forsan olim levi mutatione fient clariora : corrigere Reisk. tentalbat, τάνδ' εκάς αμβροσίου pulcra quevis dicuntur et νεκτάρεα, λόγος ουν αμβρόσιος, και νύξ αμβροσίη, και αμβρόσιαι χαϊται, και αμβρόσιον στόμα παρ’ Ευριπίδη, Eustatth. in Π. Δ. p. 333, 13. ad os ambrosium accedit prope yourdgeoy usidro' in Apollon. Rhod. m. 1008.: farinam, αλφίτου ακτήν, sive frumentum mola fractum vocat Δαματρος ακτάν: Ηomeri II. Ν. 322.

δς θνητός τ' είη και έδοι Δημήτερος ακταν, sunt Horatio Carm. II. Od. 14, 10.

Quicunque terræ munere vescimur cui tamen obversabantur Simonidis, Ευρυεδούς όσοι καρπόν ανύμεθα χθονός, excitata Platoni Protag. p. 345. et ter quaterve Plutarcho : tεrre fruges, Δήμητρός τε και Κόρης δώρα Platoni Δημητρος καρπόν sæpe vocant alii, etiam Herod. 1. c. 193. IV, c. 198.: Euripideum δέμας αγνον ίσχειν adhibet in alium sensum Naumachins Stobaei Grot. p. 278. καλόν μεν δέμας αγνον έχειν, αδμητά τε μίμνειν Παρθενικήν.” Valckenaer. I shall now cite Professor Monk's Note: “ Sensus est” (the sense is obvious, but the construction is not obvious, and Mr. Monk has not told us how we are to dispose of rat' αμβροσίου στόματος) « Audio autem eam tertium hunc diem in pulchrum os cibum non accipere : habet quidem Eurip. Orest. 41. ούτε σίτα δια δερης εδέξατο: hic autem pro ου δέχεσθαι σίτα dixit magis poetice ίσχειν δέμας αγνον Δαματρος ακτάς, quomodo infra 1007. λέχους αγνον δέμας : mirabere Valckenaerium periphrasin αμβροσίου στόματος δέμας excogitasse, et mox probasse infelicem Reiskii conjecturam τάνδ' εκάς αμβροσίου.Yet Jacobs, as we shall see below, says

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