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For the fidelity of the translation, unless he had stated another source from which it was derived, he must himself, I conceive, be deemed responsible; a responsibility of which he could not but have been aware, and would not have unnecessarily incurred. Besides, what critic of eminence, anxious to give the precise meaning of a passage in a foreign language, would like to do it in any translation but his own ?
By the preceding remarks, I shall, I trust, be considered as rather solicitous to correct probable misapprehension, than to expose critical inaccuracies. The high character of Dr. Holmes's collation is indisputable; and had the superstructure simply rested upon the basis of Greek manuscripts alone, without borrowing the feeble support of versions, would have been still invaluable. It is a work which reflects honor upon its original compiler, upon his successor in the laborious undertaking, and upon the University of Oxford in particular, which, from its very birth, adopted and fostered it; cherishing it, in spite of its occasional frowardness, with all the fondness of a parent, and incurring no inconsiderable expense in its nurture, without the prospect or perhaps the possibility of indemnification.
I am, Sir, your's, &c.
So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.-Gen. iii. 24.
The Indian Americans have certain supposed Cherubimical figures in their Synhedria, and through a strong religious principle, dance there perhaps every winter's night, always in a bowing posture, and frequently sing Halelu-yah Yo-He-Wah.— I have seen in several of the Indian Synhedria two white painted eagles carved out of poplar wood, with their wings stretched out and raised five feet off the ground, standing at the corner, close to their red and white imperial seats; and on the inner side of each of the deep-notched pieces of wood, where the eagles stand, the Indians frequently paint, with a chalky clay, the figure of a man with Buffalo horns, and that of a Panther with the same color; from which I conjecture, especially connected with their other rites and customs, that the former emblein was designed to describe the divine attributes, as that bird excels the rest of the feathered kind in various superior qualities; and that the latter symbol is a contraction of the Cherubimical figures, the man, the bull, and the lion. And this opinion is corroborated by an established custom, both religious and martial, among them, which obliges them to paint those sacred emblems anew, at the first-fruit offering, or the annual expiation of sins. Every one of their war-leaders must also make three successful wolfish campaigns,
with their reputed holy ark, before he is admitted to wear a pair of a
It is well known that Adair wrote his work in support of an extrava-
That the Cherubim were a mystical representation of the divine Aleim, the Hebrew appellation for the Trinity, and that this Aleim has been invoked and worshipped as a plurality in unity, παντί γαρ εν κόσμω Lautrei Tpias, is Móvas aszal is, I think, proved beyond the possibility of doubt by Mr. Parkhurst in his lexicon under the head 27 and in the
* See Coll. of Voyages to the North, V. 5. 2 Picart v. 3. p. 129. 3 Picart v. 3,219.
4 Diod. Sic, B.3. C.2. 5 Damascius, see Cudworth, p. 294.
more elaborate treatise of Mr. Cudworth, in his intellectual system.' We discover amongst the idols of almost every nation a triple-formed deity frequently represented with some and occasionally with all the characteristic marks of the Lion, the flawk and the Bull, which, we learn from Ezekiel, 1. 10. and '10. 14. were essential to the cherubic forms. Thus, the symbol of Serapis, who Philarchus? tells, was that God who governs the whole world, was an animal with three heads, a Dog's, a Wolf's, and a Lion's, this last being in the centre. Orpheus, according to Damascius, made one of his principles a Dragon having the head both of a Bull and a Lion, and in the midst the face of a God with golden wings upon his shoulders, and we have the authority of Diodorus. Sic for paying the highest attention to whatever he advanced upon the subject of religious mysteries. Diana was usually represented with three heads, and some ascribe to her the likeness of a Dog, a Bull, and a Lion; in her temple of Olympia she was seen as a winged figure with the right side like a Panther, the left like a Lion. Rodigast a deity of Lusatia in Gerniany, was represented with an Ox's head upon the breast, an Eagle upon his head, and a Pike in his left hand. Mithras and Orogmasdes, who may be considered as the same deity, are called the threefold, he has been described with a human body, a lion's bead, and four wings standing on a Bull. The Spbinx had a human head, the wings of a bird and the form of a Lion. In short, whether we examine the symbols and Idols of the Scythians, East Indians or Americans, we invariably discover races of the Lion, the Bull, and the Eagle, and that these were not selected from caprice or accident might be more fully proved by a further comparison between the Pagan and the Jewish Trinities. But as it is the particular object of this article to illustrate merely the cherubic forms, such inquiry would lead to irrelevant details. The corroborating evidence here given appears to substantiate a fact, which I conceive establishes in the highest degree the authenticity and antiquity of the Bible: for however sceptical may be the advocates for limiting to the Jewish nation alone all participation and knowledge of the Mosaic dispensation, such an accumulation of similarities must surely be beyond the power of chance to effect. There were Giants in the earth in those days. Gen. vi. 4.
I must confess that were there no other grounds for supposing that the term Giants applied to persons of a superior size, I should feel inclined from the meaning of the word bad to conclude that it signified nothing more than a race of violent and lawless people who were in the habit of committing depredations upon their more peaceable neighbours. As the Scriptures, however, in other places refer evidently to the existence of men of more than ordinary stature, and as the septuagint translates the word vivas, tbis opinion is niaterially weakened, and if we may depend upon the following accounts, no doubts must remain as to the truth of the scriptural assertion.
During the disputes between the Lacedæmonians and Tegeans, the foriner having been repeatedly defeated, sent to consult the Delphic oracle what particular deity they had to appease to become victorious
I Cudworth, B. 1. C. 4. 2 Cudworth, 351. 3 Cudworth, 298. 4 Diod. Sic. B. 4. C. 1. s Parkhurst Lex. 351. 6 Sam. Grosser, Hist. of Lusatia
over their adversaries. The Pythian assured them of success if they
Herodot. lib. I. C. 68.
To these authorities from ancient historiaus, we may add some
graves covered with stones in which he discovered human skeletons of ten and eleven feet in length. The Chevalier Scory, in his voyage to the peak of Teneriffe, says that they found in one of the sepulchral caverns of that mountain the head of a Guanche which had eighty teeth, and that the body was not less than fifteen feet long. In digging in some ditches at Rouen in 1509, a tomb stone was found eputaining a skeleton which was about seventeen feet in length.
On the tomb was a plate of copper, describing the bones to be those of the Noble and puissant Lord, the Chevalier Ricon de Vallemont. In Canada also, gigantic remains have been discovered; and although in some instances the bones may have been those of Elephants or other large animals, it is highly improbable that in every instance this should have been the case.
Critical, and Explanatory Notes on the Hippolytus Stephanepho
rus, with Strictures on some Remurks of Professor Monk.
V. 134. τριτάταν δέ νιν κλύω
τάνδε κατ' αμβροσίου
Δάματρος ακτάς δέμας άγνόν άσχειν. « Verba ν. 136. et sequentium si sic construas cum Scholiaste, τριτάταν δε νιν κλύω ταν δε ημέραν κατέχειν αγνον το στόμα τας Δάματος áxtās, sensum dederis, quem poscunt Euripidea, cujus nutrici Phædra dicitur v. 275, τριταίαν ουσ’ άσιτος ήμέραν, et pulcrum os dixisse videlbitur αμβροσίου στόματος δέμας : inservit et haec vox periphrasi; ista tamen est insolentior: hæc forsan olim levi mutatione fient clariora : corrigere Reisk. tentalbat, τάνδ' εκάς αμβροσίου pulcra quevis dicuntur et νεκτάρεα, λόγος ουν αμβρόσιος, και νύξ αμβροσίη, και αμβρόσιαι χαϊται, και αμβρόσιον στόμα παρ’ Ευριπίδη, Eustatth. in Π. Δ. p. 333, 13. ad os ambrosium accedit prope yourdgeoy usidro' in Apollon. Rhod. m. 1008.: farinam, αλφίτου ακτήν, sive frumentum mola fractum vocat Δαματρος ακτάν: Ηomeri II. Ν. 322.
δς θνητός τ' είη και έδοι Δημήτερος ακταν, sunt Horatio Carm. II. Od. 14, 10.
Quicunque terræ munere vescimur cui tamen obversabantur Simonidis, Ευρυεδούς όσοι καρπόν ανύμεθα χθονός, excitata Platoni Protag. p. 345. et ter quaterve Plutarcho : tεrre fruges, Δήμητρός τε και Κόρης δώρα Platoni Δημητρος καρπόν sæpe vocant alii, etiam Herod. 1. c. 193. IV, c. 198.: Euripideum δέμας αγνον ίσχειν adhibet in alium sensum Naumachins Stobaei Grot. p. 278. καλόν μεν δέμας αγνον έχειν, αδμητά τε μίμνειν Παρθενικήν.” Valckenaer. I shall now cite Professor Monk's Note: “ Sensus est” (the sense is obvious, but the construction is not obvious, and Mr. Monk has not told us how we are to dispose of rat' αμβροσίου στόματος) « Audio autem eam tertium hunc diem in pulchrum os cibum non accipere : habet quidem Eurip. Orest. 41. ούτε σίτα δια δερης εδέξατο: hic autem pro ου δέχεσθαι σίτα dixit magis poetice ίσχειν δέμας αγνον Δαματρος ακτάς, quomodo infra 1007. λέχους αγνον δέμας : mirabere Valckenaerium periphrasin αμβροσίου στόματος δέμας excogitasse, et mox probasse infelicem Reiskii conjecturam τάνδ' εκάς αμβροσίου.” Yet Jacobs, as we shall see below, says