Sivut kuvina

« Anacr. Ode ΧΧΙΙΙ. ν. 3. έκαρτέρουν φυλάττων, Barnes. h. 1. ita vertit industria uterer accumulans et custodiens, sed vertendum erat perseverauter servarenι, καρτερείν enim est perseverare, ut apud Ρlaton. in Cratulo p. 51. V. 52. κινδυνεύει γαρ τοιούτός της είναι ο Αγαμέμνων, οίος αν δόξειεν αυτώ διαπονείσθαι τε, και καρτερείν, et ap. Eurip. in Hipp. v. 1456.; verti etiam posset simpliciter servarem ; nagteget enim sæpe jungitur apud Græc. Scriptores cum participiis, et eundem fere usum prestat, quam μίμνειν : ita construitur apud Soph. in Philoctete V. 1267.

πότερα δέδοκταί σοι μένοντι καρτερείν,

ή πλείν μεθ' ημών, utrum tibi certum est manere? et Eurip, in Hec. 1223.

έχων δε καρτερείς έτ' εν δόμοις, habes vero udhuc in domo, et Alcest. 1078.: adde etiam Lucian. in Tragopod. v. 253.

ο βελλεροφόντης ποδαγρός ών εκαρτερεί, Bellerophun podagricus erat : Timoclem in Cauniis ap. Athen. L. vi. p. 240. E. et Philenion. ap. Johannem Stobæum Serm. vii. p. m. 70.: nostro Anacreontis loco perquam simillimus est Eurip. in Iph. Taur. V. 1396.

οι δ' έκαρτερούν προς χύμα λακτίζοντες, illi vero perseveranter fluctibus obnitebantur.” G. D'Arnaud's Specimen Animadvv. crit. ad aliquos Scriptores Græc. p. 15. Again in p. 79. : « Non raro ita construuntur verba μένειν et μίμνειν ap. Scriptores Grac. : en tibi testes, Plato Epist. ad Aristodor. in fine, αλλ' έρρωσο τε, και μένε εν τοις ήθεσιν, οίσπερ και μένεις, sed vale, ct persevera in vivendi ratione, in qua es: adde Eurip. Phæn. v. 1699.

μένευτυχούσα, τάμ' εγω στέρξω κακά, usque sis felir : verbum uively eadem sæpe reperias significatione, ut apud ipsum Callim. Hymn. in Del. ν. 69. μίμνον απειλητήρες, ap. Es. Agam. v. 159. et Anonymum ap. Plut. Consol. ad Apollon. p. 102. F.

αλλ' αυτός αιεί μίμνε την σαυτού φύσιν

σώζων βεβαίως, ώστε χρυσός εν πυρί, Sed usque semper tram naturam serves constunter.” There is, I must frankly confess, in these verses of the Hippolytus, something, which, to me at least, requires an explanation : I do not see how the sense of καρτερείν, perseverare, which G. D'Arnaud has here illustrated, applies to κεταρτέρηται ταμα, which is evidently a play upon Sonne hidden meaning of the verb as referring to death; for Euripides connects tliese words with όλωλα by γαρ,

θη. μή νύν προδώς με, τέκνον, αλλά καρτέρει.

Ιππ. κεκαρτέρηται τάμόλωλα γαρ, πάτερ.
Both Valckenaer, and Professor Monk are silent upon

this obscure passage, to which I should be glad to see the attention of the Scholar directed.

V. 1455. “Tam apud Romanos, quam Latinos totus homo tegebatur excepta facie, cui tamen fædatæ vestem illam injiciebant; id petit apud Eurip. Hippolytus in Tragedia cognoinine,

κεκαρτέρημαι τάμ', όλωλα γαρ, πάτης:

κρύψον δε μου πρόσωπον ως τάχος πέπλοις, ,
fortis jam fui; perü enim, pater : tege autem faciem meam quam celer-
rime peplis." G. Cuperi Obss. L. II. C. 9. p. 218.

Hatton, Jan. 13, 1813.

Particulars relative to the Founders of the Druses Religion, col

lected from Arabian Authors.


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Aumen el Najem, a native of Hejaz in Arabia, declared himself a
descendant of the Prophet Mohammed - saying that he was the son of
Issa, the son of Moussa, the son of Ali, the son of Hosein, the son of
Ali, who married Fatima the daughter of Mohammed.

He retired to Bassora, where several great and wealthy men possessed many slaves- there he began to preach on the injustice of slavery, arguing that it was wrong for some to be well clothed, idle, and luxurious in their food, while others ran before them naked, or were constantly employ. ed in fatiguing labors, and generally suffering from excessive hunger--he added, that the black complexion of the slaves did not by any means render them inferior to the white mien, since their dark color was occasioned by the influence of the sun, from which, he affirmed, if the blacks were to be preserved, their descendants would gradually become fair -- and he concluded with one grand general maxim, that every thing in this world ought to be common to all men,

In consequence of these doctrines, he soon obtained a considerable party among the slaves, and he also became a favorite with those white people, whose wants and distresses rendered them jealous of the rich and great. He now took a bolder tight, and not contenting himself with preachiug his dangerous principles openly, he one Friday (the Mahometan Sabbath) intimated to the multitude and especially to the slaves, that by his profound skill in astronomy, (for which he was highly celebrated) he had discovered that, unless their tyraunical oppressors were to loose their chains and restore them to their natural rights, on the following Monday, Heaven wonld manifestly declare its vengeance by means of an eclipse this he had well calculated previously to uttering his prophecy.

On the day which he had mentioned, his prediction was fulfilled, and Ahmed el Najem obtained the reputation of a propliet--without losing time, he availed bimself of his new character, and induced a number of the slaves to assemble in a place without the city, and there they agreed to murder their masters, and to seize upon and divide their

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riches among themselves.--A Friday was particularly fixed on as the day for this massacre, because in these early ages of the Mussulinan religion, they strictly observed noon as a time for devotion in the mosques,-and accordingly in the year 216 of the Hejira (of the Christian Æra 831) they were all slain, being unarmed, by the hands of their slaves—and this horrid plot succeeded the more, as at this very juncture the Sultan Mamoun, Khalif of Baghdad, was in Egypt with all his army.

After this slaughter, the Blacks attacked the houses of the great men, and of the rich inhabitants, stripped them of every thing valuable, and divided the spoil among themselves under the inspection of El Najem, who was proclaimed their deliverer and sovereign.“ After a short time, this new chief assembled a sufficient nuniber of armed men, and marched against the Persians, whom he defeated on several occasions, invaded their territories, aud pillaged their towns, always dividing the plunder among his soldiers, until after reigning sixteen years, he was overcome in a memorable battle, and his whole army cut to pieces by the Sultan Vathek of Baghdad; and Ahmed El Najem with considerable difficulty escaped, saving himself by flight, after having lost every thing, and particularly lamenting his astrolabe, an instrument extremely rare in those times, and which had cost him a prodigious sum of money.

He crossed in disguise through Yemen (Arabia Felix) and Egypt, and settled in Barbary in the vicinity of Tripoli and Tunis, where having established a considerable reputation for the various sciences which he possessed, and especially for his skill in astronomy, be at length declared himself to be that Ahmed el Najem, whose fame had resounded all over the East, not only on account of his actions at Bassora and in Persia, but as a descendant of the prophet; and this latter consideration obtained for him the respect of all those people who had lately embraced the Mahomedan faith. They placed themselves under his command, and readily adopted those maxiins of equality and community of property which he had before preached to the slaves and beggars of Bassora, with so much success.

He reigned in tranquillity several years, and after him his son and nephew, who during their government undertook various expeditions against Egypt, in one of which they obtained possession of Alexandria, and in another they entered Fua; but they were always obliged to abandon these attempts until the year 358 of the Hejira (of the Christian Æra 968) when Johar al Kaïed, a slave of El Moaz, nephew, or rather grandson, of El Najem marched, by command of his sovereigu, with a powerful army into Egypt, and having conquered the maritime provinces of that country, he encamped with sixty thousand soldiers on the spot where now the city of Cairo stands.- Of this city Johar al Kaied laid the foundation by some buildings, the remains of which are still shown. The capital of Egypt at this time was Fostat.

Particulars relative to Mansur al Hakem, Khalif of Egypt

BY ASSIOUTI. Mansur al Hakem was entitled “ the consummation of wickedness of the human race."-No tyrant more base than Mansur has governed

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Egypt since the time of Pharoah. He thought proper, like Pharoah,
to declare himself entitled to honor due only to the Divinity; he com-
manded that his subjects on the bare niention of his name should
testify their veneration of him by rising up on their feet, and this was
practised throughout all his dominions, and even in the sacred territo-
ries of Mecca and Medina, but the inhabitants of Cairo especially were
compelled to bow the knee to him—not only the people in the streets,
but all strangers of every description. He was proud of heart, obsti-
nate, and like the devil, extremely double-faced and deceitful both in
his words and actions. He demolished the Christian churches in Cairo,
and afterwards rebuilt them—and he acted in the same manner with
the Cupola of the Sanctuary (or the Tomb of Mohammed). ---Neither
before nor since his time have the Mussulman laws allowed the building
of churches in the land of true believers--nor, according to the book
entitled Sebki Alejmaa, even if an ancient church should go to decay,
is it lawful to rebuild it iu Mussulınan countries. Among the number of
his capricious wickednesses, I shall mention his building of schools,
and placing in them learned teachers - these he afterwards put to death
and ruined the schools. Another of his strange inconsistencies was,
ordering that the citizens should keep their shops open at night and
shut all day. Among his infamous actions we must record bis exer-
cising in person the functions of a police officer, riding about the
streets upon an ass, and ordering his black slave Masood to punish any
delinquent, whom he found, in a manner inost obscene and unnatural.
He forbade women to go out of their houses, or to look from the win-
dows or terraces he ordered that the shoemakers should not furnish
them with shoes, and at last he prohibited their going to the baths; and
several women, who disobeyed this order, he put to death, and caused
many baths to be destroyed. He would not allow the herb Melukia
to be used in cookery, and commanded the seed and plants of it to be
burnt. By these aud various other extravagant and wicked actions,
he became odious to the people, who revenged themselves on him by
satires. Once they made the effigy of a woman, clothed with a mantle
and shoes on her feet, holding in her hand a leaf on which were written
many severe and bitter reproaches against him—this image was placed
in the street, and El Hakem passing by, thought it was some female
who had suffered oppression and wished to present a memorial to him
he took the paper and having read the satires which it contained, he
was enraged and ordered his slaves to kill the woman, but when he
discovered that it was only a lifeless image, le commanded that Cairo
should be burnt and sacked-a horrible carnage ensued in consequence
of this order, and during three days the palaces and houses were in
flames; the women flew for shelter to the Mosques and held up

the sacred volume of the Koran, in hopes of obtaining divine mercy. But the evil continued until one third part of the city was consumed, and a multiplicity of women killed and violated by the black slaves of the Tyrant.—The historian Ebn al Jouzi relates that the madness and wickedness of El Hakem increased to such a degree, that from bis desire of being reputed divine, a troop of-fanatical wretches, whenever they beheld him, impiously exclaimed “O thou the only one! thou who makest alive! thou who art immortal!"

In our own times, there was a prince named Ardimar Altóweil, whose religion nearly resembled that of the 'Tyrant El Llakem-be endeavoured to obtain the chief command and aspired to the kingdom. If God had permitted this, he would have equalled El liahcm in his actions. He disclosed to me what were his intentions, and he recommnended to me the private adoption of his faith, which he wished that I should keep secret until he could seize on the government, and then by the sword he would compel all men to profess his religion. I was grieved and scandalized at this, and I did not cease to pray that God might damn him and not permit him to rule over Mussulmans. I also recommended myself to the Prophet, and at last he was slain and the true believers rescued from their danger.—The historian Ebn Fadlallah relates, that El ilakem having falsely accused his own sister of adultery, she laid a plot for taking away his life. One evening, when he went up to Mount El Mokaddam to observe the stars, for he was much addicted to astronomy, two slaves atiаcked and killed him—they then dragged his body to the house of his sister, who caused it to be buried, in the year of the Hegira 411 (of the Christian Era 1020).



Grammatica Graeca suis partibus expleta et explicita, ab AVGVS

TO MATTHIAE, Philosophiae Doctore, Directore Gymnasii et Bibliothecae Ducalis Altenburgensis, Socio Academiae Scientiarum Erfordiensis, Societatis Latinae Jenensis, et Societatis Moguntinae Scientiarum et Artium Sodali Honorario. Lipsiae. apud Siegfr. Lebr. Crusium. 8. pagg. 975.

Quamquam hujus libri auctoritatem aliquoties citavimus in Supplemento ad alteram editionem Selectorum ex Historicis Græcis, et in Annotatione ad Platonis Phædonem ; tamen debemus ei uberiorem commemorationem, cum propter ipsius præstantiam, tum propter necessitudinem inscriptionis ; qua nobis eum dicavit eruditissimus ejus scriptor, consuetudinis ac familiaritatis caussâ, quæ nobis ante hos sedecim annos Amstelodami eum eo intercessit, quum, pædagogus ornatissimorum adolescentum Guilielnii et Danielis Willinkiorum fratrum, cum his in nostras scholas ventitaret. Qui quum suam in Græcis Literis facultatem jam per alia scripta doctis hominibus probasset ; hoc libro idem officium præstare voluit Græcæ Linguæ studio, quod Latinc Scellerus in Grammatica sua præstiterat, qui item hoc Ger

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