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manicum adjectivum addiderat : quod nos circumlocutione Latine reddidimus : siquidem illa, amplus, copiosus, latus, longus, largus, fusus, uber, plenus, locuples, explanatus, enucleatus, suis numeris absolutus, perfectus, alia aut parum aut nimium significant ; et hoc postremum majus etiam est quam id quod aliquando cognomen nova editione se huic libro additurum sperat, ut in fine præfationis scripsit auctor : atque ipsum illud, quod in titulo posuimus, plus esse videtur, quam auctores voluerunt; ut fortasse addito aut subaudiendo, quoad ejus fieri potuit, temperandum sit. Hunc autem titulum, qui copiam, diligentiam, elaborationem, quantam fieri potuit, maximam profiteatur, in hunc Matthiæ librum vere convenire, ita magis intelligent lectores nostri, si antea de ipsius Grammaticæ notione, vi, fine, officio, formis, partibus, monuerimus. Ergo Græcum nomen Grammatica, universe, quidem idem sonat quod Latinum Literatura, de quo supra diximus, omnemque Literarum scientiam complectitur. Hæc quum ad aliquam Linguam adstricta sit, quæ duobus modis addiscatur, arte et usu, ars ejus Linguæ proprie dicta est Grammatica. Ejus duo sunt Capita : alterum Elementare; quod est de singulis literis, syllabis, quantitate, accentu, tum de vocabulis, partibus Orationis, Nominibus et Verbis, Articulis, Pronominibus, Adverbiis, Declinationibus, Conjugationibus, Participiis, Præpositionibus, Conjunctionibus, Interjectionibus : horum denique omnium formatione et etymologia. Alterum est Caput de Syntaxi, id est de Compositione seu Constructione partium orationis ad quamdam sententiam : quæ ipsa pluribus continetur generibus. Est enim vel ligatæ orationis, quæ metrica, vel solutæ, quæ prosa dicitur. Porro, vel solam spectat puritatem ac perspicuitatem orationis, quæ simpliciter dicitur Syntaris grammatica : vel simul cum puritate ac perspicuitate propositas sibi habet suavitatem ad delectandum et gravitatem ad commovendum, idque vel in prosa vel in ligata oratione ; unde novæ artes duæ existunt, Rhetorica et Poëtica. Hujus autem libri Syntaxis, recte finibus continetur Grammaticæ : et tamen alterum tantum paginarum Capitis Elementaris, id est duos trientes totius libri, explet. Hunc eniin auctor non tironibus ac novitiis, quippe quibus epitomen hinc factam parat, sed provectioribus destinavit iis, qui se ad Scriptores Græcos cum grammatica et critica diligentia legendos cognoscendosque dare volunt. Itaque utroque Capite complecti studuit, omnem summatim materiam, præcepta, observationes, cum doctissimorum in hoc genere hominum indagatione in lucem proditas : tum a se ipso iterata Scriptorum, qui ante Alexandrum Macedonem fuerunt, lectione collectas. Qua copia illud spectavit cruditissimus auctor, ut lectores suos apparatu et instrumento augeret; cum ad interpretandos veteres Scriptores, tum ad Græce scribendi exercitationem : quæ exercitatio, quod ait auctor, recentiore ætate, tam

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frequente commendatione, ut discentibus utilis et doctis necessaria, celebrata est, ut supervacaneum sit de ejus laude quidquam addere. Quod nos auctori plane assentimur. Græce enim scribere in puerilibus scholis publice quondam institutum, paulatim in plerisque defecit; magistrorum cum errore, inutilem hanc exercitationem putantium, quod ad scribendos libros et communem eruditorum usum non Græca, sed Latina frequentatur lingua: tum ignorantia, qui, quod ipsi nesciunt, discipulos docere nequeunt. Memini me puerum, sub pædagogo, Nepotis Vitas Græce vertere, adolescentem sponte Xenophontea e Græcis Latina et rursus e Latinis, seposito libro, Græca fecisse. Postea ipse docens ad hanc exercitationem studiosissimum quemque discipulum adhortari et singulatim juvare solebam : nuperrime idem in schola factitare institui, non sine magno discentium fructu; qui sic in primis ad promtam accuratioremque Syntaxeos, Conjugationum, Declinationum, ceterarumque orationis partium, et Accentuum, cognitionem confirmantur. Quæ omnia negligentius animadvertuntur ab iis, qui sola lectione Scriptorum contenti sunt : contra multo firmius percipiuntur ab iis, qui lectioni scriptionem adjungunt, qua singula quæque Nomina et Verba eorumque partes et compositio sub acumen stili judiciique vocantur. Illud etiam in hac Grammatica probamus, quod in materia linguæ Græcæ certa et propria versatur, eaque ad veterem a Grammaticis traditam rationem digeritur : nec e sententia Lennepii, viri ceteroquin eruditissimi, Aoristus secundus Activi, ad imperfectum vetustioris formæ redigitur, veluti ētutoV ad Imperfectum Verbi TÚTW : aut Aoristus Primus Passivi étúdinu a vetere et ignoto Verbo TÚ¢onues ducitur: et alia Tempora ab aliis diversis vetustioribus primitivis formis repetuntur. Quæ ratio nil habet, quo se nobis commendet. Neque enim aut discendi viam faciliorem reddit, aut per se aliquam adfert verisimilitudinem. Nam et primitiva formæ sic in quovis Verbo multiplicatæ innumerabiles fiant; quas paucas fuisse credibile est : et multo rationi magis consentaneum est, Modorum Temporumque formationem talem exstitisse qualem adhuc omnes Grammatici arbitrati sunt, Præsentis Indicativi Activi v. c. TÁTW per terminationes et augmenta variando: quæ est eadem causa Latinæ et aliarum linguarum: et item flexionis Nominum per terminationes; nisi forte et Casus quosque ab aliis Nominibus, exstitisse contendamus. At vero tuemur illam ab Hemsterhusio ostensam, a Valckenario illustratam Analogiam, cujus Specimen editum est in Lennepiano libro, qua simplicissima Verba constituuntur, ut origines ceterorum ex his producendis augendisque formatorum : hanc igitur tuemur ut veram et, undecumque tandem ortam, certe constante Linguæ observatione confirmatam : ut fructuosissimam denique ad plurima in Græcis libris desiderata vocabula restituenda : et yero, ad plurium etiam, quam

vis servatorum, tamen minus intellectorum veram significationem definiendam. Sed est item quidam ejus abusus : de quo diximus in commemoratione libri Lennepiani, B. Crit. Vol. III. Part. II. p. 123. Nos hujus Analogiæ in hac Grammatica aliquanto majorem rationem habendam fuisse existimamus, certe hactenus, ut ei singulare Caput sub nomine Etymologiæ daretur : quamquam ejus partes quasdam attigit et scienter explicuit Scriptor in Capite de Verbis Defectivis. Hoc etiam caute egit, ut locos confirmandis præceptis ex iis, qui ante Alexandrum fuerunt, Scriptoribus, sumeret. Tametsi enim post Alexandrum Græca lingua non tam cito corruptelam suscepit, quam Latina post sæculum primum nostræ Æræ: et Menander, Philemon, Diphilus, Apollodorus, Philippides, poëtæ Novæ Comcediæ, in classicis auctoribus habiti lectique sunt ab Aristarcho: et Scriptores ad Justiniani ætatem usque, exceptis Christianis doctoribus, Græcæ puritati Atticæque elegantiæ studuerunt, quo tempore Latinæ puritas et elegantia linguæ dudum evanuerat; ut certe Apollodorus, Dionysius Halicarnassensis, Dio Chrysostomus, Aristides, Lucianus, et haud scio an Themistius, Julianus, Libanius, Synesius, tamquam testes puræ dictionis rite laudari possint; pertinuit tamen ad auctoritatem hujus Grammaticæ in testimoniis adferendis se intra fines primæ illius ætatis plerumque continuisse. Dicimus plerumque; nam est etiam ubi aliquid ex hac severitate legis remittitur : veluti p. 153. citantur Polybius, Plutarchus, et Herodes Atticus : quorum duo priores ne voluerunt quidem elegantiæ studuisse videri. Ultimo loco accedit Appendix de Quantitate et Accentu, brevis quidem sed diligens et perspicua : in qua illud etiam recte monetur et apposito diagrammate musico ostenditur, accentum pronunciationi melodiam adferre syllabis variandis acutis, gravi. bus, circumflexis, Ex toto deinceps opere titulos capitum referre quum infinitum nec opus sit, sententiam paucis complectamur. Igitur in priore volumine omnis materia elementaris, Nomina, Verba, ceteræ orationis partes, per Declinationum, Conjugationum, Dialectorum, variam formam, dilucide explicatur, per tabulas etiam oculis quasi subjicitur: in altero volumine, eadem materia, eodem ordine, recensetur eo consilio ac inodo, ut ratio ostendatur, qua ad sententiæ declarationem construatur et componatur : itaque non solum ordinaria et communis, sed etiam exquisitior proprietas Compositionis, quos vulgo idiotismos vocant, ellipses, pleonasmi, anacoluthiæ, particulæ, aliæque formæ explanentur: in utraque autem tanta sit et præceptorum diligentia ac subtilitas, et vero exemplorum ex optimis Scriptoribus collectorum copia, ubertas, perspicuitas, et, quod addere non dubitamus, suavitas, quantam in alia Græcæ linguæ Grammatica, quod quidem sciamus, nos non deprehenderimus.

(MISCELL. DOCTR. VOL. II,

Wherefore have the ancients recorded a variety of men, under

the name of Zoroaster ?

τις γα; τί γένος ;

Æschyl. Prometh. v'inct. V.563. Although, by entering upon a subject, which has excited the curiosity of the ingenious, and stimulated the research of the profound, I be deemed by some to travel over ground already sufficiently trodden, yet as the records concerning it have never been exhausted, and as no author, whom I have had the good fortune to see, appears to have completely elucidated it, if any new light can be reflected upon it, I shall consider myself sufficiently exculpated. That the Greeks knew but little of Zoroaster, I feel no hesitation in asserting, and that many moderns err respecting this personage, may possibly be as easily demonstrated.

Plato, however, whose superior mind by its own energies emerged from vulgar errors, rightly defines his magic to be, Ov Baguneid. e. g. Alcib. 1. 32. ών ο μεν μαγείαν τε διδάσκει, την Ζωροάστρου του Ωρομάζου» (έστι δε τούτο Θεών θεραπεία) διδάσκει δε και τα βασιλικά. And Porphyry de Abstr. iv. 163. also says, magá je prije toñs légσαις, οι περί το θείον σοφοί και τούτου θεράποντες, μάγοι μεν προσαγοpeúortul, which certainly is no bad description of the ancient ileri others, notwithstanding, from the version of ilio into ubyou by the Greeks, and magi by the Latins, have annexed the idea of sorcery or enchantment to the Persian term, and conjectured as much respecting the Guebres: thus Justin l. 1. writes, postremum hinc bellum cum Zoroastre rege Bactrianorum fuit, qui primus dicitur artes magicas invenisse, et mundi principia, siderumque motus diligentissime spectâsse. But although the word żo in Persian and

in Arabic are not used to express magic, it is not improbable that the priests of that order may have practised the arts of the modern Derweesh or Fakeer to deceive the admiring populace; such may have been the On of the Egyptians mentioned in Exodus, and of the Babylonians recorded in Daniel : but whether this were or were not the fact, it can by no means be collected from the name The Muhhammedan poets have made the word signify a tavernkeeper; and they also use it to express fraternities of Christian monks; indeed, the prosaic writers use this or some title indicative of the pyréal rites to distinguish all infidels, in the same way as the Italian councils the term “erético," and the Spanish inquisitors

Ingaso

.مغان

كرت پیر مغان كويد بمب ساده رنگین کن

« herege” to mark all, who dissented in opinion from themselves. Thus #hafezz says,

, · Distain thou thy sacred carpet with wine, if ever the Peer-i Mughan address thee.' That many persons

have existed of this name is well known; Bryant instances Zoroaster the Mede, the Medo-Persic, the Proconnesian, the Bactrian, the Chaldean, the Pamphylian, the Æthiopian, &c.; and Agathias l. 2. writes, oŭtos e ó Zwpócãos ÝTou, Ζαράδης (δίττη γαρ επ' αυτώ ή επωνυμία) οπήνικα μεν ήκμαζε την αρχην, και τους νόμους έθετο, ουκ ένεστι σαφώς διαγνώναι. Πέρσαι δε αυτοί οι νύν επί “Υστασπέω ούτω δή τι απλώς φασί γεγονέναι, ως λιαν αμφιγνοείσθαι, και ουκ είναι μαθείν πότερον Δαρείου πατήρ, είτε άλλος, ούτος υπήρχεν Υστάσπης, και αυτός δε τας προτέρας ιερουργίας αμειψάς παμeryers τίνας και ποικίλας ανέθηκε δόξας. The observations of Agathias display much discernment, and sound judgment concerning the diversity of the accounts; and Bryant is most clearly correct in averring, that he who appeared in the time of Hydaspes could not have been the Zoroaster of the ancients, but merely the renewer of the Tsabæan rites. Almost every Tarikh mentions a Zerdusht in the time of Gushtasp son of Lohorasp ; and the Shâh-nameh contains several inimitable verses concerning him, which are epito

; records his family name,

but the Jehan Ara particularly ; شاه نامه نثر mized in the

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لهراسن اقبش هربد يعني عابد النارد در زمان او زرد شت كه نام اصلی او دعاداست ودعوب پیغمبری كرد

, "Gushtasp was son of Lohorasp, whose surname was Herbud, i. e. servant of fire: in his time Zerdusht, whose family name was Daada, lived, and pretended to be a prophet.' --The Zerdushtnameh calls his father's name vmling and his mother's

.دغدوب

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It is also certain, that more than one Zoroaster existed, from the discordance of the accounts of the time, in which Zoroaster is said to have lived. Eudoxus and Aristotle make him 6000 years before Plato's death; Hermippus, 5000 before the Trojan war; Pliny, many thousand years before Moses; and Plutarch de Iside et Osiride says, ούτος εδίδαξε ευκταία θυεϊν και χαριστήρια, from whence Cluver confidently assumes, that Zoroaster must

· See Cluy. Bryant, &c.

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