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10. Under the title of “Universal History of Christianity,” Professor Marheinecke of Erlangen published in 1806 the first volume of a Manual of Ecclesiastical History, but it contains only six centuries. The author, who combines with much knowledge a true philosophical spirit, particularly endeavours to exhibit the simple and pious spirit of the primitive Christians; to penetrate the hidden causes of events; and seems to set more value upon proving wherefore these events were so ordered, than in narrating in what manner they happened. The continuation of this work will be eagerly sought after by all those who are fond of reflecting as they read.
11. A book of a very grave description, and which bears the stamp of a very elevated mind, is the “History of the Religion of Jesus Christ” by Count Stolberg.' This work may be regarded as truly ascetic, and would not find a place here, were it not for the copious historical notes and appendices which accompany it, and which are filled with details concerning the ancient religions of the East, and chronology, history, and mythology in general.
12. Mr. I. C. Muller of Schaffhausen, brother to the celebrated Historian, has continued his interesting collection of “ 'Traditions of ancient times, with their manners and opinions.” The last two volumes, which appeared at Leipsic in 1806, contain “The remarkable events in the history of the Reformation," and exhibit some very interesting historical researches.
About the same time, Professor Wolfter of Heidelberg wrote a very excellent “ History of the Reformation, but he died while it was printing, having previously solemnly abjured Catholicism and embraced the Protestant faith, in which he died.
13. There was reason to suppose that the grand undertaking of « Germania Sacra” which had for its author the learned Abbé de St. Blaise, D. Gerbert, was long since abandoned; for in fact, after the publication of the histories of the Bishoprics of Wurtzburg, Bamberg, and Coire, the wars, which for these fifteen years have desolated the South of Germany, seemed to have put an end to all further literary works. The friends of learning however were rejoiced in 1803 by the appearance of a new part, being the History of the Bishopric of Constance by the learned Neugart, in which the author has left nothing to desire. The following is the title of this estimable work at fuli length—“Episcopatus Constansiensis Alemanicus sub Metropoli Moguntina cum Vindonissensi, cui successit, in Burgundia transjurana provinciæ Vesontinæ olim fundato, chronologicè et diplomaticè illustratus a P. Putperto Neugart, San-Blasiano p. t. præposito in Kræsingen."
1 This respectable literary character is remarkable for having embraced the Roman Catholic religion after having been a zealous Protestant for 30 years. His present work is a kind of justificatory performance, and however we may condemn his errors, the purity of his motives can never be questioned. His name is perhaps krown to some of our readers as a dramatic poet of no mean celebrity. His translations of the Greek tragic poets are much esteemed in Germany.
14. We must mention with equal esteem “An Essay towards an ecclesiastical, political, and literary history of the Country of Wurtemberg, to the period of the Reformation,” 2 vols. 1806. Tubingen. The author's name is Chess-his style is somewhat diffuse, but he has nevertheless communicated much valuable information, particularly on the subject of the monastic institutions of the middle ages.
15. To M. Gess of Neustadt in Franconia, the religious world is also indebted for a work which throws a great deal of light upon the ecclesiastical history, banners, and state of civil society in France in the ninth century. It has for its title “ Life of the celebrated Hincmar, Archbishop of Rheims, with an extract from the most interesting passages of his writings." Gottingen 1806, with a Preface by M. Plank.
16. Many Protestant writers have expressed their doubts as to the reality of the female Pope Joan. An anonymous author, supported by soine authorities and particularly by several manuscript copies of the “ Liber Pontificalis” of Anastasius the Roman, has entered the lists at the present crisis to contend for the truth of this singular story. His memoir, consisting of 126 pages Svo. was printed in 1806 at Ratisbon: the perusal of this piece will prove highly entertaining, but it is fair to add that an excellent critique upon it appeared in the Gottingen literary Journal of December 15, 1808, in which the existence of this female Pontiff is regarded as fabulous.
17. The ecclesiastical history of Switzerland by the Rev. M. Wirtz of the Canton of Zurich is a most interesting and valuable book.
The author has displayed great accuracy and fidelity in the selection of his materials.
18. M. Cludius of Hildesheim published in 1808 at Altona a very excellent book on the primitive spirit of Christianity, with researches into some of the books of the New Testament; and M. Stæudlin of Gottingen published at Hanover, in 1807, a new edition of his “Universal History of the Christian Church.”
LITERARY HISTORY. The ancients cultivated but imperfectly, and were but little acquainted with, this part of the history of mankind in a state of society. A knowledge of the progress of the human mind, and the works of genius calculated to enlighten and ennoble it, are nevertheless necessary to enable us to form an opinion of the degree of civilisation of the various nations, as well as of the principles, philosophical, political, and religious, which imperceptibly guide those of mankind. Since the revival of learning in Europe, the Germans were the first to treat systematically this branch of education, wbich was soon fornied into a separate science. C. Gesner, Lambecius, Morhof, Struve, Conring, were among the first who acquired celebrity in this way, and Germany still continues to produce abundance of authors who devote their attention to the Literary History : of the world. The short period embraced by the present analysis furnishes ample proofs of this fact, but for the reasons formerly
assigned, such works only as bear a particular character for erudition and critical nicety can be noticed at length, and many very useful publications must be passed over: of the latter description, are Meusel's “Literature of Germany," Ersch's “Literature of France," and lis“ Universal Repertory of Literature and of the Sciences” and Nopitsch's " Biographical Dictionary of the learned men of Iluremberg,” besides many others.
1. At the head of works dedicated to the History of Literature, it is but justice to place an important collection, a kind of historical Encyclopedia, published at Gottingen some years since, but not yet brought to a conclusion. It is called "History of the Arts and Sciences from their revival to the end of the eighteenth century," and was undertaken in 1796 by several of the Professors of the above University, assisted by others. The idea was suggested by M. Eichhom, who laid down the plan of the work, and who had at first the superintendance of it, but in which he is now succeeded by M. Heeren.
The chief heads of this work (which are besides subdivided into various branches) are, I. “A general Introduction or History of the Religion and Literature of modern Europe" by M. Eichhorn. U. “History of the fine arts” by M. Fiorillo. III. History of the Belles lettres by M. Bouterveck. IV. History of Philology or the Study of the Classics by M. Heeren. V. Account of the Study of History. VI.“History of Philosophy” by M. Buble.' VII. History of the Mathematics by M. Kostner, and that of “ Tactics” by M. Hoyer. VIII. " History of the natural sciences” (Physics by M. Fischer, Chemistry by Gmelin, Technology by M. Poppe.) IX. History of Dedicine. X. History of Theology. (Biblical Criticism by M. Meyer, Christian morality by M. Strudlin, practical theology by M. Ammon.)
Fifty volumes of the above work have already appeared : the whole are not equally well executed, but they are full of valuable materials.
2. M. Eichhorn, whose active genius conceived the plan of the above Encyclopedia, did not stop there: he has executed by himself a still greater project. His “ General History of Literature" embraces all ages, but it is confined within narrower limits. The first volume of this new literary History appeared in 1805. The fifth, which came out in 1807, treats of the History of the Study of the languages, and it has been already mentioned ; but we have now to inform our readers, that it has been recently translated into French by M. Stapfer, a Swiss Clergyman residing in Paris, who has added copious and valuable notes of his own.
1 The most recent History of Philosophy, however, is that of Professor Tenneman of Magdeburg, the 6th and last volume of which appeared at Leipsic in 1807. The last two volumes contain the History of the Philosophy of the first four centuries of our cra, in which the new Platonic school performs a principal part. Mi, Tenneman enters at full length into the doctrines of Plotinus and Porphyry, the two chiets of this school, and notices the connexion of the Alexandrine philosoply with the dogmas of Christianity, which was developed under the influence of the foriner,
3. Professor Harles, of Erlangen, still attentive to the interests of a science to which he has always rendered so many services, and being of opinion that the Greek Dictionary of Fabricius, now a century old, could not now answer its original purpose, in consequence of the numerous recent discoveries of the learned, determined to re-model it, entirely. The twelfth volume in 4to appeared at Hamburgh in 1809, under the superintendance of the learned Bohn, who is at once the bookseller and corrector of the Press. This edition contains the unpublished supplements of Fabricius himself, and M. Heuman of Gottingen. The materials are arranged in a better order than in the original edition, and the numerous errors which had crept into it are carefully avoided.
4. M. Degen, Syndic of the city of Luneburg, had long promised a translation of the Jurisconsult Theophilus. He has now published “ Remarks on the Greek Paraphrase of the Institutions” of ihis same Theophilus, and although consisting of 100 pages only, this pamphlet must be very interesting to Jurists, as it will direct their attention to the study of the Byzantine Jurisconsults, at a period when the adoption of the Code Napoleon has revived some of the most prominent doctrines of their school.
5. M. Gruner, Professor of Medicine in the University of Jena, published in 1807 a good edition with notes of the following little work : “ Isidis Christiani, et Poppi Philosophi, jusjurandum chemicum, nunc primum gr. ac lat. editum.” This work is noticed under the head of the luistory of the sciences, in consequence of the most remarkable part in it being “ Historia sodalitatis chemicorum arcanæ, ex actis eruta" a composition of first-rate importance in the history of the chemistry of the middle ages. It fully elucidates' the mysteries in which that science was stucliously enveloped at that period.
6. The continuator of the “ Typographical Annals of Maittaire, the learned Pantzer of Nuremberg, died suddenly in the midst of his labors in July 1805. He had just published the eleventh volume in folio of his valuable continuation of the annals of printing, but he left incomplete another work, of which it is to be lamented that he only published two volumes. This is "A bibliographical and descriptive history of the books printed in Germany since the invention of printing.” The second volume contains from A. D. 1520 to 1526, which may be regarded as the commencement of the Reformation, and it is worthy of remark that the number of books printed within these six years is greater than that printed during the sixty years preceding. The author proposed to carry down his work to the death of Luther in 1546, and it is to be lioped that the materials will be found among
7. The Royal Academy of Bavaria, since its regeneration, has been an active member of the literary world. The opening discourse of M. Jacobi, the President, contains enlightened vieivs of the objects of scientific institutions, and a history of learned academies drawn up with the skill and eloquence of a master. This discourse, which excit. ed a great sensation throughout the contineut, was printed in 4to at Munich 1807
8. “ The History of the Bavarian Academy" has for its author, M. Westenrieder, one of its most distinguished members, and who has already written the History of his country with so much elegance.
9. The Royal Library at Munich contains perhaps the richest treasures in Europe in the shape of MSS. The voluminous "Catalogue of Greek MSS.” by M. Hardı, which merits the attention of all scholars, is now completed, and M. Scheerer is busily occupied in preparing a similar catalogue of the MSS. in the oriental languages.
PROGRAMMATA AND THESES. In a country like Germany, where learning is so much respected, and where it forms a kind of staple article of national industry, there are of course an immense number of Schools and Academical Institutions, in which there is an annual festival, or anniversary, which is celebrated by the publication of some literary production or programma. The same circumstance takes place on the conferring academical honors, and on the admission of a new professor. It is not rare, therefore, to see a young student throw into a Latin dissertation a fundamental sketch of the ideas, with the developement of which his whole future life is occupied.' On the other hand the learned, who are called upon from their chairs as Professors to publish these programmata frequently, generally make choice of a series of researches into some important point with a view to give it more interest. In this way, the illustrious Professor Heyne, of Gottingen, has published annually, for more than half a century, pieces of this description on various points of classical antiquities : at Hamburg the learned Gurlitt annually gives a dissertation on the Olympics of Pindar, or on the Songs of Ossian: and at Flensburg, in the Duchy of Sleswick, M. Kenigsmann explains in several successive programmata the geographical system of Aristotle. The great multiplicity of these pamphlets, which are announced in a very modest manner, and which are frequently of the first importance, constitutes a kind of scientific luxury, and exhibits a superabundance of literary riches which are unknown every-where else. They are mostly written in very elegant Latin, and in this way they contribute to preserve a taste for this comprehensive language. For these reasons, it may not be uninteresting to notice these productions under a separate head, as forming particular traits of the various lines of study pursued with most eager
i In 1770, the celebrated Kant was nominated Professor of Philosophy in the University of konigsberg and published on that occasion an inaugurai Dissertation intiiled “ De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis." This work iifolded the fundamental principles of the philosophical system which the author developed many years afterwards, and which excited such a fermentation among the German literati.
2 In September 1806, for instance, M. Heyne's Programma, intended to form part of a series of critical pieces on the writers of the last ages of latinity, was an examination of the Book of Boethius : “ Censura Boethii de Consolatione philosophica."