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it is expressly stated that they believed only in God, Heb. xi.

Especially the grace of eternal life. Mark i. 15. " repent ye, and believe the gospel.” John iii. 15. 6 that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life.” v. 18. “ he that believeth on him is not condemned, but he that believeth not is condemned already." These passages are to be understood of those to whom Christ has been revealed ; for to believe in one of whom we have never heard, is evidently impossible. Rom. x. 14. So also John vi. 47. “ he that believeth on me hath everlasting life.” 2 Thess. ii. 13. “ because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the spirit and belief of the truth.” Heb. x. 39. “ of them that believe to the saving of the soul.” 1 Pet. i. 9. " receiving the end of your faith, even the salvation of your souls.” 1 John V. 13. “ these things have I written unto you that believe on the name of the Son of God, that ye may know that ye have eternal life.”

Seeing, however, that faith necessarily includes a receiving of God, and coming to him, John i. 12. “as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name;" vi. 35. “ he that cometh to me shall never hunger, and he that believeth in me shall never thirst ;" Eph. ii. 18. “ through him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father ;' iïi. 12. - in whom we have boldness and access with confidence by the faith of him ;" Heb. vii. 25. " he is able to save them to the uttermost that come untó God by him ;" x. 22. “ let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith ;">

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seeing also that we must have a right knowledge of God before we can receive him or come to him, for " he that cometh to God, must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him," xi. 6. it follows, that the source from which faith originally springs, and whence it proceeds onward in its progress to good, is a genuine, though possibly in the first instance imperfect, knowledge of God; so that, properly speaking, the seat of faith is not in the understanding, but in the will.

From faith arises hope, that is, a most assured expectation through faith of those future things which are already ours in Christ. Rom. iv. 18, 19. “ who against hope believed in hope,” &c. viii, 24, 25. “ we are saved by hope ; but hope that is seen is not hope, for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for ? but if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.” xvi. 13. “ now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.” Gal. v. 5. “ for we through the Spirit wait for the hope of righteousness by faith.” Heb. x. 23. 6 let us hold fast the possession of our faith without wavering.” 1 Pet. i. 3. “ who hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the resurrection.” v. 13. “ hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought unto you at the revelation of Jesus Christ.” v. 21. " that your faith and hope might be in God.” Heb. vi. 11. “ we desire that every one of you do show the same diligence to the full assurance of hope unto the end.” Hope differs from faith, as the effect from the cause ; it differs from it likewise in its object : for the object of faith is the promise ; that of hope, the thing promised,

CHAPTER XXI.

OF BEING PLANTED IN CHRIST, AND ITS EFFECTS.

Regeneration and its effects, repentance and faith, have been considered. Next follows planting in Christ.

Believers are said to be planted in Christ, when they are graffed in Christ by God the Father, that is, are made partakers of Christ, and meet for becoming one with him. Matt. xv. 13. “every plant, which my heavenly Father hath not planted, shall be rooted up.John xv. 1, 2.“ I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman: every branch in me that beareth not fruit, he taketh away." 1 Cor. i. 30. of “him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom, and righteousness, and sanctification, and redemption.” iii. 22, 23. “ all are your's, and ye are Christ's, and Christ is God's." Eph. i. 3. “who hath blessed us with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ.Heb. iii. 14. " we are made partakers of Christ."

Of this implanting, combined with regeneration, the effects are newness of life and increase. For the new spiritual life and its increase bear the same

VOL. II.

relation to the restoration of man, which spiritual death and its progress (as described above, on the punishment of sin) bear to his fall.

Newness of life is that by which we are said to live unto God. 2 Cor. iv. 10. “ that the life also of Jesus might be made manifest in our body.” Rom. vi. 11. “ likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord.” v.4. “even so we also should walk in newness of life.” viii. 13. "if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live.Gal. ii. 19. “ that I might live unto God.” v. 20.“ Christ liveth in me." Col. iii. 3. “ your life is hid with Christ in God."? 1 Pet. iv. 6. “ that they might live according to God," that is, “ in the Spirit.”

This is also called self-denial. Luke ix. 23. " if any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me.”

The primary functions of the new life are comprehension of spiritual things, and love or holiness. And as the power of exercising these functions was weakened and in a manner destroyed by the spiritual death, so is the understanding restored in great part to its primitive clearness, and the will to its primitive liberty, by the new spiritual life in Christ.

The comprehension of spiritual things is a habit or condition of mind produced by God, whereby the natural ignorance of those who believe and are planted in Christ is removed, and their understandings enlightened for the perception of heavenly things, so that, by the teaching of God, they know all that is necessary for eternal salvation and the true happiness of life.

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By the teaching of God. Jer. xxxi. 33, 34. " I will put my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall be my people : and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and every man his brother, saying, Know Jehovah: for they shall all know me, from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith Jehovah: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember their sin no more." Isai. liv. 13. 6 all thy children shall be taught of God," namely, of God the Father, for so Christ explains it, John vi. 45. “it is written in the prophets, And they shall be all taught of God: every man therefore that hath heard, and hath learned of the Father, cometh unto me.” Matt. xvi. 17. “flesh and blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.” 1 Thess. iv. 9. "as touching brotherly love ye need not that I write unto you; for ye yourselves are taught of God to love one another."

By the Son. Matt. xi. 27. 66 all things are delivered unto me of my Father; and no man knoweth the Son but the Father, neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him." Col. iji.16. “ let the word of Christ dwell in you richly in all wisdom.”

And by the Holy Spirit. John xvi. 13. “ when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth, for he shall not speak of himself.” 1 Cor. ii. 10, &c. “God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit ....the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God; for they are foolishness unto him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned: but he that is spiritual judgeth all things, yet

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