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obedience, would characterise Mr. Grey's own expression, we
their tempersi positions incon- ought to be more than ever jealous
sistent with the tree constitution of of France. This was the policy
this country. As to an asylum for and system of our wisest and best
solliers' children, he fully approv- administrations, and the best that
ed it, and was glad to hear they could be pursued. He wished the
were not all to be military. This British officers as superior to the
would be repugnant to Christianity, French in military science, as they
and inconsistent with the British certainly were in courage, honour,
constitution. He remarked also on zeal, and loyalty.
the time the measure was brought Mr. James Martin disapproved
forward. At the beginning of the the measure entirely, even the asy-
session, when the failure of the ex- lum for soldiers' children. He was
pedition to Holland, and those of convinced that all thus educated
Ferrol and Cadiz, were fresh in must become soldiers. This he
mind, no such plan was proposed: regarded as an hereditary military
now, at the close, when our arms cast in the country, and a gross
were distinguished by the most he- violation of its constitution. He
roic courage and excellent disci- thought our proceedings for several
pline, this measure was introduced. years past had tended to its de-
When needed, it was not mention- struction, and the substitution of a

At any rate, such an expense military government.
should be deferred till the country

Sir William Elford supported the had recovered itself from war. Its measure, arguing that all the in, officers had been trained in the best fluence Mr. Grey had assigned school, that of experience, in the to emulation would be answered course of nine

years; therefore the thereby. measure

unnecessary, and Mr. Hussey warmly opposed it. years must pass ere we should He averred, that though the army want officers again, He was sorry mighi be improved by this instituto hear Mr. Yorke, respecting tion, he should dislike an army peace, on a former night; namely, composed from it. This college that we could not hope for one sin- was to give military science to the cere and solid, but only an armis- pupils : he asked if our colleges in tice; convenient only at present, general taught science? – he bebut not allowing the reduction of lieved but few would say so. He our force. He hoped when peace thought the promotion of military was made, no more jealousy would science should be left solely to esist between the two nations : emulation. He opposed such a this peace

would be as solid, se- measure twenty years ago, which cure, and permanent, as any con- was then given up. This should cluded with a rival nation.

meet his opposition in every stage. The secretary at war explained, The secretary at war showed a stating, that his language respecte difference between the present case ing the peace had been misrepre- and that alluded to. As to the pasented by Mr. Grey. He said only, tronage of the proposed bill, the that at present we could not hope thirty staff-officers were to be apfor a sincere peace-at best, only a pointed by the commander-in-chief: hollow, suspicious, and armed in the junior class, fifty by the East. peace. He said, that, according to India company from among their 1801.




cadettes; one hundred from the some exultation the late victories sons of officers who hard distinguish- by sea and land ; and added, that ed themselves; and the rest to be they derived at the present moappointed by the commander-in- ment peculiar value in his majesty's chief- the exercise of this latter estimation, from their tendency to power subject to the inspection of facilitate the restoration of peace parliament: therefore no danger on fair and equitable terms. could be feared froin it.

The above declaration, so soThe different resolutions were lemnly made to both houses of then put, and agreed to without a parliament, added to the strong division.

professions of the minister himself, On the 2d of July the session had the happiest elect-it inspired was terminated by commission, his a confidence that peace would be majesty being at the time absent at sincerely sought by the new admiWeymouth. The lord-chancellor nistration; and the people of Engaddressed the two houses in an ap- land were happily not disappointpropriate speech. He noticed with ed.

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General l'ict of Domestic Affairs. Consequences resulting from the Change

of Ministry. State of Politics on the Accession of the new Ministry to Office. Difficulties in obtaining Peace. The Northern Confederacy. Expedition under Sir lyde Parker. Battle of Copenhagen. The British Fleet appear off Carlscrona-Result of the Negotiation there.

Death of the Emperor Paul-llis Character, Accession of the Emperor Alexander. Proceelings of the new Government of Russia. Armistice concluded With Sir llyde Parker. Negotiation between Great-Britain and RussiaTerms of the Treaty. Expedition to Egypt - Engagements there. Death and Character of Sir Ralph Abercrombie. Successes of the British Army. Reduction of Cuiro-- Convention for the Surrender of the French Troops there. Final Conquest of Egypt. Varal Engagement off' Algesiras. Attack upon Boulngne. Negotiation for Peace with France --- Preliminaries signed. Concluding Obserrations, . ' N reporting the proceedings of tomed to have their minds intent

the imperial parliament in a upon public transactions, who have connected narrative, we have pur- not looked into the interior of casued our visual practice, and the binets, have not learned to expect debates will not be found uninter- great events from caues apparentesting; but the events which oc- ly trivial. It is, however, a great curred out of parliament, though truth, that all the little passions of the detail will be shorter, will be men are car jed into the career of found to be of still greater impor- political life; and often what aptance.

pears the effect of deep designing Those who have not been accuse policy is no more than the ebulli. tion of humour, of resentment, of conducted, in all respects, with a envy, or of fear. Though com- degree of method, regularity, and monly regarded as a circumstance impartiality, to which those who of little moment in this country, a transacted business with the serchange of ministers is in reality a vants of the crown had been matter of great magnitude, since strangers before ; and if Mr. Adthe character of the moving power dington and his colleagues did not is changed; and on the character aspire to the useless glory of shakof the men who direct the national ing the senate by the thunder of councils the measures will depend. 'their eloquence, of appearing as There are no prescribed rules for the first declaimers in Europe, they the conduct of statesmen, there is proved themselves something betno recipe for the government of a ter - men of business. nation; but the man will always To repair the errors of their appear through the disguise of the predecessors was not an easy task. minister. Rash, insolent, vain, Peace with France at this time apand sanguine, measures of an in- peared even more impracticable temperate character were only than at any former period of the congenial to the persons who lately war. The disgust excited by the filled the highest offices of state haughty rejection of Bonaparte's To restore peace and tranquillity, overture, on his assuming the gomen of a more sober and cautious vernment, was heightened by the temperament, of a less hanghty breach of a treaty honourably and and daring spirit, were required: beneficially concluded by a meriand, perhaps, having less of what torious (and we think an authois thought to be political reputation rised) officer, and by an order as to support, and an humnbler opinion wantonly issued as ii was mean!y of their own talents, the new ad- revoked, for seizing the fishingministration were less fearful of boats off the coast of France. Even descending from the high preten- the accredited agent of the French sions which had been previously government had found his situation advanced. It was no longer the so little correspondent with his idle ambition of the British cabinet wishes, that his recall had been to direct the councils of Europe; determined. France and they had consequently leisure strengthened by the alliance of and disposition to consult the im- Russia; and a formidable confedemediate welfare of the British na. тасу of the maritime powers of the tion.

North threatened the dissolution of The reader must have observe the naval empire of Great-Britain. ed, in the communications and To these we may add, the evils speeches of the new ministers, in of a famine actually existing, and the course of the debates, a frank- exaggerated by the probable exclu. ness and moderation to which hission of our vessels from the granary ear for some years past must have of Europe. been unaccustomed. The saine To prevent the active co-opera• character they carried into their tion of Denmark with the designs transactions with foreign nations; of Russia, an armament was titted and it has been remarked, that out in the British ports, consisting from the period of their accession of seventeen sail of the line, three to office the public business was frigates, and about twenty bomb.


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ketches, gun-brigs, &c. under the an explicit answer from his Swedish command of sir Hyde Parker and majesty relative to his intention of lord Nelson. This fieet sailed from adhering to or abandoning the hosYarmouth on the 12th of March, tile measures he had taken in conand triumphantly passed the Sound, junction with Russia. An official which was deemed impossible, and answer to this demand was comreached the capital of Denmark.- municated from the king of SweThe Danes appear to have made den to sir Hyde Parker, intimating very formidable dispositions. Be- that his Swedish majesty would not fore the city was stationed an fail to fulfil the engagements enarmed flotilla, consisting of ships tered into with his allies; but that of the line, galleys, fire-ships, and he would not refuse to listen to gun-boats. These were Ranked equitable proposals.made by depuand supported by extensive bat- ties furnished with proper authority teries on the two islands called to regulate the matters in disthe Crowns, the largest of which pute. mounted fron fifty to seventy pieces

The termination of the contest of cannon. The attack was made is, however, not to be attributed by a division of the English fleet either to the battle of Copenhagen under lord Nelson, consisting of or to the victorious progress of the twelve ships of the line and four British fleet, but to an event which frigates. After a very severe en- had just before taken place, to the gagement, an end was put to the astonishment of Europe, and which contest by lord Nelson sponta- produced an almost instantaneous neously offering a cessation of arms, revolution in the politics of the which, it is said, was not less ne- North. On the 23d of March the cessary to his own than the ene- emperor Paul, who had played so my's forces. After the battle, it versatile and extraordinary a part appeared thåt the Danes had lost on the political stage from the peeighteen ships, among which were riod when he ascended the Russian seven old men of war of the line throne, expired suddenly. Respectfitted up for that particular occa- ing the cause and manner of his sion.

Lord Nelson next proceed- death, a cautious silence has been ed to approach Copenhagen, into maintained in Russia; nor would which sone bombs were thrown; it be safe to report what we have but an attack on the city was pre- heard even in this country. Of verted by a flag of truce, which his character, but little is to be said. was sent on board lord Nelson's His conduct was marked by an ecship; and an armistice was soon centricity which not unjustly inafter concluded with sir Hyde duced a suspicion of mental deParker by the Danish court. rangement. His benignity to Kos

On the 19th of April the British ciusko and the Polish insurgents fleet appeared off the entrance of formed an extraordinary contrast Carlscrona ; and the admiral ac- to his zeal in embarking in the quainted the governor, That the crusade against France; and this court of Denmark having conclud- again was succeeded by another ed an armistice, by which the un- change no less wonderful-in his fortunate dispute with the court of desertion of the coalesced powers, St. James's had been accommo- his alliance with Bonaparte, and dated, he was directed to require his quarrel with England. -Whatever may be urged in favour of the moderation, which formed a congeneral principle of what has been trast to the hasty violence of his called the Northern confederacy, predecessor. The claim on Malta nothing can justify the seizure of was relinquished; though it has the British vessels' and the subse- been rumoured that his imperial quent confiscation of British pro- majesty expressed a wish to be perty. It is said by some one, elected grand master of te order, ihat" justice is the law of kings;" by the free suffrages of the knights. and certainly nothing can be more Soon after, a cessation of arms, inconsistent with honour and cha- and the general outline of a pacific racter than a breach of justice in accommoilation with Great-Britain, those whose peculiar function it is were agreed on between the Rusa to administer and protect it. This sian court and sir. Hyde Parker; wanton outrage has been attempted and lord St. Helen's was dispatched to be justified by referring to the from our court with full powers to attack on French and Dutch pro- terminate the dispute. In the mean perty in the British funds at the time, the embargo on the British commencement of the war; but ships detained in the ports of Ruswe reply, whatever might be the sia was remored; and this honourreasons for that measure, one vio- able conduct was answered by a lent action does not justify another. correspondent act of liberality on As a sovereign, Paul might inspire the part of Great-Britain. Under terror ; but he could not be re- these favourable auspices the nespected. The same eccentricity gotiation commenced, and from which marked his character in his such appearances it was natural to foreign relations distinguished his conclude that each party would be domestic policy; and many of his disposed to concede a little; and acts can only be characterised as such, in truth, was the result. It the capricious outrages of a tyrant. is rather an awkward circumstance His mortal career was too soon in- in a treaty of peace to provide for terrupted to admit of a complete the events of a future war; but the developement of his character; but, present treaty comes noi precisely from what we saw, it was impossi- under that predicament: its object ble to predict that he would have was, in case of the prevalence of lived either to his own honour or hostilities among the other Eurothe benefit of his country.

pean powers, to prevent a rupture The day succeeding his decease, between the contracting parties. his eldest son, Alexander, was pro- We are not so cynical as to cavil claimed emperor of all the Russias. at the conditions: on the contrary, On the 13th the new emperor vi- we think they are such as a liberal sited the senate, and several ukases system of policy would have conof a popular nature were issued: ceded on our part, had there not one, in particular, reviving and con- even been any power in the other firming all the regulations of the parties to resist our demands. One late empress Catharine for the en- stipulation is particularly deserving couragement of industry and com- of praise; and that is, confining merce.

the right of search to the ships The conduct of the new emperor, which are employed entirely in on his accession to power, was at the service of government. Such least characterised by an apparent vessels are at least under a more



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