Sivut kuvina

appeared in sight, which was commenced in the heginning of the standing to the shoals of Corril. At summer, were conducted with this juncture the wind failed her, equal ability and moderation. We and the Venerable was able to had always predicted, that a mibring her to action, and had nearly nistry of a truly English spirit, with silenced her, when the loss of the English honesty and franknessa mainmast obliged the captain of ministry who depended not on the Venerable to desist; and this stratagem, but int:grity, would be ship, which was an eighty-four, successful in any negotiation for escaped along with the rest. the restoration of peace. The dis

In the course of the summer an solution of the Northern confedeexpedition was fitted out, under the racy, and the successes in Egypt, command of admiral lord Nelson, had removed the most powerful for the purpose of destroying the obstacles ; and administration had harbour and shipping of Boulogne; the wisdom not to loso the favourbut, like all the other expeditions to able opportunity which these cirthe coast of France, it ended only cumstances presented. The negoin discomfiture and disgrace. On tiation was carried on with a pruthe 4th of August lord Nelson found dent reserve. The agents, lord the enemy's vessels (consisting of Hawkesbury and M. Otto, did not brigs and flats, lugger-rigged, and enter the list as prize-fighters, and a schooner, twenty-four in num- call in the whole of Europe to deber), anchored in a line in the front cide on the diplomatic skill which of Boulogne. The wind being fa- they respectively evinced. The rourable for the bombs to act, he objects in dispute were discussed made the signal for battle, and with temperance, as if discussed gave orders to direct their shells at by men seriously bent on bringing the vessels, and not at the town. them to a happy termination. Not After a severe engagement, how. even the persons who were in offiever, the noble admiral was com- cial situations, except those immepelled to retreat. Lord Nelson diately concerned, were acquainted imputes his failure to the darkness with the state of the negotiation; of the night, with the tide and half and the lord-mayor of London was tide which separated the divisions the first person out of the cabinet of the British fleet, The loss in to whom the result was communikilled and wounded amounted to cated. Thus no unfair advantage about 130.

could be taken; and this treaty Why the British ministry en- stands almost singular on our regaged in no offensive operations of cords, since, at a period when the greater importance has since been practice of gambling in the public explained io the complete satisfac- funds was, from the wide extention of the nation. Ii was because sion of public credit, more predothey were occupied with a matter ininant than at any previous crisis, of much higher consequence, and not a single instance occurred of because they wisely anticipated the any sinister practice whalever. event. Attached to no party, we The treaty, thus honourably confeel a sincere pleasure in giving ducted, was in every part consishonour to whoin honour is due; tent with justice, and with an enand we cannot but allow that the larged and wise system of policy. negotiatiops with France, which The great object in all pacific ar


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rangements should be to leave as is not always an easy task; and it little cause of regret and dissatis- is the less easy if any degree of potisfaction to the respective parties litical liberty form a constituent part as possible. Great-Britain did not of that government. Time will want colonial possessions: almost evince whether France is made all new acquisitions of that descrip- really more powerful by the adtion must have interfered with the dition of the Netherlands and the interest and advantage of those she other countries which she has acalready possesses; and the state of quired by the war. We think we the French West-India islands ren- see in them the seeds of discontent dered them most dangerous and and disorganisation ; but we may improper connexions. Great-Bri- be mistaken. tain gained some acquisitions by By the preliminary articles which the treaty, which were of conside- were signed at London on the 1st rable importance without being bur- of October, 1801, by M. Otto on densome or dangerous; while the jus- the part of the French republic, and tice and moderation of her demands lord Hawkesbury on the part of were such as were well calculated to his Britannic majesty, Great-Briinspire contidence in those nations tain agreed to the restoration of all with whom she had been unfor- her conquests, the island of Tritunately engaged in hostilities. nidad and the Dutch possessions

The aggrandisement of France in Ceylon excepted. The Cape and the enlargement of her Euro- of Good Hope was to remain a free pean territory are circumstances port to all the contracting parties, which, however they may be re- who were to enjoy the same adgretted, were not to be remedied: vantages. The Island of Malta for, as that incomparable statesman, was to be evacuated by the British Mr. Fox, has most justly observed, troops, and restored to the order “France was made great by the of St. John of Jerusalem. Egypt war, and not by the peace.”-She was restored to the Ottoman Porte. had acquired what could not be The territory of Portugal was to be wrested from her by Great-Britain; maintained in its integrity: and the and of the only two powers able French troops were to evacuate the to contend with her on the conti- territory of Rome and Naples. nent, one (the court of Petersburg) The 'republic of the seven islands was united by a strict treaty of al- was recognised by France. The liance, and the other (that of Vi- fishery at Newfoundland was estaenna) had been reduced to the ne- blished on its former footing : and, cessity of accepting such terms of finally, plenipotentiaries were to be peace as she thought proper to named by the contracting parties, impose. Yet increase of territory to repair to Amiens, to proceed is sometimes contemplated by po- with the formation of a definitive liticians with a more anxious eye treaty in concert with the allies of than the circumstance deserves. the contracting parties. Increase of territory does not al- Thus terminated a contest the ways imply proportionate accession most dangerous and disastrous in of strength. The amalgamation of which this country was ever endifferent people with different ha- gagedama contest which we have bits, and even a difference of lan- said, and which we still believe, guage under the same government, might have been avoided in its


origin, and which at different times nation is still in a comparative state might have been terminated with of wealth and prosperity. Theoinfinite advantage to this country; retical politicians may arraign our but which would perhaps have not ancient constitution; they may probeen concluded till the country had ject reforms which would probably been drained of its last shilling, had disappoint their hopes, though it not the old ministry (who we con- is even possible that in some inscientiously believe engaged in it stances it might admit of some from fantastical dreams of ambition, amelioration, could it with safety and carried it on under the most be attempted. But, in the inean puerile and delusive hopes) been time, it may satisfy us, that under fortunately dismissed. We hope, a legislature elected by ourselves, for the sake of our country and of and by the protecting influence of mankind, never to see these men such a system of jurisprudence as employed in any public capacity. no other country in Europe can They are not ministers adapted to boast,, we can individually sit the character of the English nation : “ under our own vine and our they might be fitted for the crooked own fig-tree,” unmolested by the and intriguing politics of a despotic hand of tyranny or the machinations court, but their habits and their of fraud. Compare this happy measures we trust are as foreign to constitution with that of other counthe plain and open disposition of tries, for by this only we shall learn the sovereign as to that of his peo- to estimate its value : compare it ple. The fairness, the candour, the even with what has been the result moderation, and the constitutional of theoretical reform : compare it principles of Mr. Addington, form with the experiments on governa happy contrast to that motley con- ment, which we have lately seen! duct, that tissue of pride and mean. The time is not yet arrived for us ness, of intrigue and arrogance, to to present our readers with an anawhich we had unfortunately been lysis of that complex form of desaccustomed before; and if he per- potism established in a neighbourseveres in the same career, we have ing country: when it does, our litile doubt but he will prove one readers will feel grateful to their of the most popular ministers whom ancestors for the invaluable privithis country has seen for a series of leges which their wisdom and their years.

valour have secured to their posteWe can with pride and pleasure rity. And that we may be just to contrast the present state of this all men, when we reflect on these country, notwithstanding the diffi- blessings, and resolve to defend culties we have encountered, and them on every emergency as our the burdens we have incurred, dearest" rights,” let us not forget with that of most of the continental that to Mr. Addington and his colnations. While every thing there leagues we are at least, for the preis menacing and uncertain, we en- sent, indebted for the restoration of joy both freedom and security. The Peace and the CONSTITUTION.



Foreign History. France. Delays in the Ratification of the Preliminaries

signed by Count Julien at Puris. Prepurutions for opening a fresh Cumpaign. Positions of the two Armies. Dismission of the most meritorious of the Imperial Officers-Resignation of others. Emperor and Archduke John repair to the Army. Notification from Moreau of the Re-commencement of Hostilities. A further Armistice concluded at Hohenlinden. Internal State of France. Inspection and Reform of the Emigrant List. Return of Emigrunts. Treaty betxeen France and the United States of America. Changes in the Ministry. Negotiation for Peace with Great Britain. Proposal on the part of France for a general Armistice by Sen and Land-Rejected by the British Ministry--Rupture of the Armistice. Opening of the Winter Campaign. Attuck upan Augerenu. Capture of Aschaffenburg by the French. Morean attached by Klendu. Battle of Hohenlinden--Flight and rapid Pursuit of the Imperiul Army. Recall of Prince Charles to the Command of the Austrian Forces. Austrians again defeated. Third Armistice. French enter Florence und Leghorn. Contention of Treviso.

I ,
N our account of foreign trans- campaign a second time. The im-

perial army had concentred its we left the French, who are the forces between Wassenburg and principal actors in these interesting Alt-Oatting, having its advanced scenes, masters of Germany almost guard on the left side of the Inn, · to the banks of the Inn; and of stretching its right wing to BrauItaly almost to the confines of Ve- nau, and its left to Kufstein, where nice. The preliminaries of peace, it firmed its junction with the army which had been signed by count of the Tyrol. A few corps of caJulien at Paris, in July, had been valry skirted the Inn, below Brau- . . the subject of frequent negotiations nau, to preserve the communication between the cabinet of the Tuil- with the division of general Klenau leries and the court of Vienna. on the left side of the Danube. Embarrassed as the situation of this The whole of this force consisted court was now become, the influ- of about 60,000 men: the army on ence of the partisans for the conti- the Tyrol amounted to 10,000, nuance of the war overpowered all who were seconded by an equal pacific considerations. Whatever number of volunteers of the couniry. might be the hopes or secret views The right wing of the French of that court, the refusal of the rati- army was about 36,000 inen. This fication was intimated in a note from wing skirted the mountains of the the British government, who in- Tyrol on the north side, which it sisted that a minister should be sent nienaced with three columnus of to the congress at Luneville, con- 12,000 men cach by the passes of jointly with the plenipotentiaries' Ehrenberg, Scharnitz, ard Arle

berg. The centre was composed The French and imperial armies of nearly an equal number, and were now preparing to open the was posted in a line of eight or ten


of the emperor.

leagues bevond the Iser, facing the The generals Ott and Hohenzollerni Centre and left wing of the imperial had sent in their resignations; and army. The left of the French army the only officer of distinguished taconsisted of 25,000 men, stretched lent that remained at his post wa, along the river Vils, and threatened general Wackassowich. to hein Braunau, and cut off the This situation of attairs, which car. imperial army from its inagazines, ried apprehension into the minds of on the Danube and the division of' every person interested in the safety general Klenau.

of the imperial court, soused it to The changes which had been a seeming temporary effort of per. made in the imperial armies, in sonal courage. In a rescript noticonsequence of the late defeats by fied to the diet of Ratisbon by the the French, boded still less good imperial minister, the rupture of for the future. The generals Kray, the negotiation with the Frencli, Hanendoril, Schmit, and Chateler, and the conclusion of the armistice; who were the most distinguished were declared. His imperial maof the imperial officers, and who jesty informed them, that, seconded had yielded only to a valour and by the fidelity and love of his peoimpetuosity which commanders ple, he had determined to put himmore able would have had diff- self, with his brother the archduke culty in stemning, were replaced John, at the head of the army; byothers whose names had scarcely hoping that this example, as well been heard of, and in whom little as the general danger, would reconfidence could be reposed. The animate the ancient courage of the court of Vienna had thought fit, Germany, and engage the subjects however, to dispense with the ser- of the empire to join themselves to vices of men whose misfortunes his majesty, to secure an honourwere imputed to their own mis- able peace. takes rather than to the enterprise Agreeable to the rescript of the of the enemy, and whose senti- imperial minister to the diet, the ments respecting the final issue of emperor, and his brother the archthe war were but little in corre- duke John, repaired to the army, spondence with its own. The dis- where the latter entered on his mission of these officers was fol- office as commander-in-chief. On lowed by the resignation of general his arrival in this quality, he reKinks, commander of Vienna, who ceived a letter from general Moalleged, that he could not answer reall, inclosing the instructions for the tranquillity of the capital, which had just been transmitted since the garrison was withdrawn from Paris, and which he thus lie to be sent to the army. The state terally transcribed:- Inform the of the imperial forces in Italy at general who commands the Austhis period was scarcely more fa- trian army, that the emperor revourable for the successful conti- fuses to ratify the preliminaries of nuance of the war. This army peace; and that you are obliged 10 had received reinforcements of re-commencc hostilities. You may, 25,000 men; but as it was found however, agree to an armistice of necessary to leave 10,000 men in a month, on condition that places' Vienna to secure the tranquillity of surety be immediately put into of the city, there were scarcely your possession.” Moreau sent at 40,000 more left to keep the field, the same time an officer to state the

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