Sivut kuvina

terms of this new armistice, or no- emigration. The general list of tify the commencement of hosti- emigrants, such as it was print. lities the following day.

ed, presented a nomenclature of Whatever might have been the 155,000 individuals, or collections intentions of the emperor on leav- of individuals, such as whole famiing Vienna, of tempting once more lies, without distinction of names; the fortune of war, a nearer review which generallist was formed from of the state of his forces, and the partial lists framed by local authoperemptory demand of general Mo- rities, such as departmental and reau, led him to favor more pacific municipal administrations; and to sentiments. The interview be- 'which was added a supplement tween the archduke John and ge- which had not been printed, makneral Lahorie ended in an arrange- ing together the complete list of ment for another armistice, of which those who were accused of emia the principal conditions were the gration. delivery of the three fortresses of The legislative assembly, the naUlin, Ingoldstadt, and Philipsburg, tional convention, and the cominto the hands of the French; and mittees of legislation of the conthe sending M. Lehrbach as pleni- vention, had struck off definitively potentiary to Luneville from his a considerable number of those imperial inajesty. The lines of de- who were inscribed: the directory marcation for both armies continued had annulled 13,000 names; and to be the same as were fised by the since the revolution of the 18th of last armistice. The present ar- Brumaire 1200 more had been exmistice, which included also the cepted. Such was the state of the armies in Italy, was to terminate list when the minister of police in forty-five days, if no definitive made a report to the consuls, in arrangements were taken in the which he represented the various mean time. This treaty was signed abuses of power which had conat Hohenlinden, the 20th of Sep- tributed to the formation of this tember, 1800.

general list, and pointed out the The great probability of an ap- means by which they might be reproaching peace, not more from medied.

In consequence of this the splendid victories which had report, t'ie government, by a debeen obtained by the French in the cree, reduced this formidable precourse of this campaign than from scription to a very moderate size, the total inability of the imperial by confirming all that had been court to carry on the war, afforded done by antecedent authorities, and the French government the means by striking out of the list all indiof reviewing and correcting still viduals who were inscribed under further the internal evils of the the qualifications of labourers, jourstate. One of the greatest abuses neymen, workmen, artists, and all of the revolution during its various others exercising mechanical prophases, and particularly in the reign fessions, servants, and others reof terror, had been the facility with ceiving wages, and the wives and which one part of the inhabitants children of all persons thus qualified. of the French republic had con- Of these descriptions the number signed the other to misery and ruin, was very considerable, amounting by inscribing their names on regi- according to different statements, sters which were called lists of to upwards of forty thousand. The

next cláss was that of persons who the interior; and as the flood-gates had been inscribed collectively, and of mercy were thrown so wide without individual denomination; open, numbers availed themselves such as those who had been indi- of the general disposition which cated in general, as heirs or child. had been evinced in their favour ten of some person whose name who had no right by the decree to had been inserted, women emin participate in the indulgence. This grants who had abandoned their decree was however accompanied husbands, minors, knights of Malta, by restrictive articles, such as the such persons as had left France injunction on the emigrants to take before the 14th of July 1789, the the oath of fidelity to the governnames of such as had been executed ment, to remain during the war, by judgment of the revolutionary and a year after the peace, under tribunal, ecclesiastics who had been the inspection of the constituted banished, and all such persons as had authorities of the places where they been continued on the list after pre. should reside; but as they brought cedent revisions of commissions, with them for the most part the were included in this act of elimi- samedispositions of hostility against nation, and definitively struck off. the republic which they had been

New lists were ordered to be habituated to feel while absent, formed, in which were inscribed these restrictions were in general as real emigrants, and definitively but very little attended to; and expelled from the territory of the though some received the proffered French republic, those who had boon with thankfulness, the greater borne arms against France; such part, as was naturally to be exas since the departure of the French pected, found new causes for disprinces had continued to inake part content on seeing their confiscated of their civil or military establish- estates in possession of others; ments; such as had accepted from since the law, though it adınitted these princes, or the persons at war their return, confirmed the confis. with France, place; of ministers, cation, except of such domains as embassadors, negotiators, or agents; had not been soll, and which were such as had been preserved on the returned to the former owners. list by the present government, The negotiation between the on the report of the commission diplomatie agents of the United established tice the examination of States and the French government, claims; and, finally, such as had which had lasted several months, made no reclamations previous was now brought to a terniination. to the establishment of ihe said By this treaty, which was negoticomission, in consequence of aied as if a regular war had taken the proclamations and invitation place, it was agreed among the which had been made by the go- other articles, that henceforth a vernment.

firm, inviolable, and universal By this decree, which on various peace should take place between points was in contradiction with the two countries; the restitution ihat article in the constitution which of captured vessels should be made sespects emigration, the frontier on both sides, the debts contracted towns of France were soon crowded by the individuals of both nations with persons of every description of should be paid, as it no misundereroigrants, demanding passports for standing bad taken place; the com. 1801.



merce between the two nations close, indulged dispositions of disshould be free, and their vessels sipation and rapacity almost berespectively treated like those of yond any of his predecessors. the most favoured nations; and the His mal-administration became at citizens of each should enjoy all length so notorious, that the conthe rights, privileges, and immu- sul caused his dismission to be nities of the respective countries. ' signified to him; but, desirous of This reconciliation was celebrated saving him from open disgrace, by unusual demonstrations of amity sent him on an embassy to the Spain a magnificent fête given to the nish court. American ministers at the country

While the French were seeking seat of Joseph Bonaparte, one of peace by conquests in Germany, the negotiators, which was attended a negotiation for the same end was by the first consul, and other di- opened at London. In the beginstinguished members of the French ning of August 1800. M. Thugut government.

had addressed a note to M. TalleyThe French ministry, which since rand, in which he sent, by order of the consulship of Bonaparte had been the emperor, an invitation to the less subject to vacillation than un- first consul to name respective pleder former administrations, under- nipotentiaries to treat on this subwent at this period a partial change, ject; declaring at the same time, by the removal of Carnot from the that his Britannic majesty was dissuperintendance of the war-office, posed to concur in this negotiation, and of Lucien Bonaparte, the bro- as had been announced in a note of ther of the first consul, froin that lord Minto's, the English minister of the interior. By the skill, and at Vienna; which note was incluparticularly the probity with which ded in the baron Thugut's letter. Carnot had conducted this vast ma- M. Thugut proposed choosing for chine, he had not only redeemed the place of negotiation, Schalehis reputation, sullied by his asso. stadt, Luneville, or some other cenciation with the members of the tral town of France, to facilitate committee of public safety under the communications with England. the reign of terror, but had acquired Lord Minto, in his note, declared so much the confidence of the na- that his Britannic majesty was ready tion, and of the army, that his re- to send his plenipotentiaries to treat moval was considered as a public of peace in concert with the emcalamity ; nor was this sentiment peror, as soon as the French goalleviated from the nomination of vernment should have signified its his successor Berthier, who had no intention of entering into negotiasuch claims to general respect.- tion with the cabinet of St. James's. But if public opinion on this occa- The French government dispatched sion did not justify this act of con- immediately to M. Otto, commissular power, it sanctioned loudlysary for the exchange of prisoners that which was manifested in the in England, a copy of the proporemoval of Lucien Bonaparte, who, sitions made by the cabinet of Vi. though he had discovered at periods enna, with instructions to enter of difficulty and danger, much cou- into a negotiation with the English rage, ability, and strength of cha- ministry. racter, had nevertheless during his M. Ótto, in conformity to his inministry, and particularly near the structions, addressed to lord Grenville a note, in which he declared to the blockade of towns could be himself authorised to demand from applied to ports and arsenals of the ministers of his Britannic ma- France, so as to be executed in the jesty further explanations with re- manner_required. spect to the proposition commu- The French agent, in reply to nicated to the court of Vienna; ob- these objections, observed, that he serving at the same time, that it had every reason to believe that appeared impossible that at the mo. the continuation of the armistice in ment when England and Austria Germany depended on the conclutook a common part in the nego- sion of the armistice with England; tiations, France should have a su- since the French government respension of arms with Austria, garded the advantages of the mawhile she continued hostilities with ritime truce as an equivalent for England. He declared hiniself the evident disadvantages of that autorised at the same time to pro- of Germany. He dispatched, howpose and conclude a general armis- ever, a courier to Paris, to inform tice between the armies and fleets his government; during which inof the two states, by adopting mea- terval Mr. Grenville was named sures with respect to the places be- minister_plenipotentiary to Lunesieged and blocked, analogous to ville. The answer of the French those which had taken place in government confirmed that which Germany relative to Ulm, Phi- M. Otto had already given; oblipsburg, and Ingoldstadt. Lord serving also that the intervention Grenville named captain George of England rendered the question to treat with M. Otto. These com- of peace so complicated, that it was missaries met in conference, (28th impossible to prolong the armistice August,) when the former con- on the continent, unless his Brifirmed the assurance that his Bri- tannic majesty rendered it common tannic majesty was disposed to to the three powers; with the meenter into negotiations for peace, nace, that if this armistice was not and to send a plenipotentiary to concluded, hostilities would re-conLuneville ; but that as to the armis- mence in Germany. tice, he had orders to declare that The result of this negotiation such a measure, applied to naval was unfavourable to peace. The operations, had never taken place demands of the French government between Great-Britain and France respecting a maritime armistice during negotiations for peace, or were found inadmissible, and the even till the preliminaries were English ministers declared officially signed ; that such a measure could to M. Otto, that all further discus. not be looked upon as necessary; sion on that point was become and that the disputes which must superfiuous. The rupture of this inevitably take place in the execu- negotiation was followed by that tion would rather impede than of the continental arinistice, which facilitate the success of the nego- had given time only to the bellitiations: in short, that no determi- gerent powers to recruit their shatnation could be taken with respect tered forces in order to renew the to this object before the French contest. During the armistice the government had previously ex- French government had made it a plained how the principles adopted condition, that, till the definitive in the German armistice relative peace, the republican troops should


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take the Inn for the line of demar- from the division under Augereaut; kation, and extend their canton- another army, under the name of ments as far as Lintz. But the ab- that of the Grisons, had been formsolute refusal of the British cabinet ed, consisting of from 25 to 30,000 to treat on the conditions prescribed men, and which was extended from by Bonaparte-namely, the maritime the chain of communication bearmistice-made a rupture unavoid- tween the army of the Rhine and able, unless a definitive treaty was .that of Italy; while Augereau had framed on the basis of the prelimi- completed his division on the naries assented to by count St. Maine, by the arrival of fresh troops Julien at Paris. To this decision from Holland, and conscripts from the cabinet of the Tuileries ad. the Belgic departments. hered, after the declaration made The winter campaign opened on by count Cobentzel that he could the 24th November, by an attack on neither conclude nor negotiate a Augereau's division, who, sallying, definitive peace, but in concert drove back the assailants, and, passwith the British ministry, who ing the Maine, took possession by he hoped might be prevailed on to capitulation of Aschaffenburg. send a plenipotentiary to Luneville. Finding every probability of peace

The French government had not had vanished, Moreau' hastened flattered itself that the British court bach to Munich, where were aswould yield to its demand respect- sembled the generals Dessoles, ing a naval armistice; but if a Eblé, Richepanse, and Laborie; temporary cessation of hostilities and where, after issuing a proclawas favourable to the emperor, it mation to his army, he prepared was no less so to the French ar- again to enter the field. While mies, whose victories, though splen- Moreau was maturing his plan of did, had not been purchased with- operations, the Austrian army bad out considerable loss, though less prevented bim by a daring attack from the military taeties and con- on his left wing by Klenau, which servatory dispositions of Moreau secmed to have put the French in than it would have been under any their turn on the defensive. Promptother French general. The French ed by this success, with a confiarmy was now about to attempt a dence equal to their imprudence, great and no less perilous expedi- the imperial army was led to abantion; and it was necessary, in order don their strong positions on the to make an effective winter cam- Inn, where they might have made paign, of which the hereditary do- a long, if not an effectual resist minions were the prize, to take such ance, and march into the plain. measures as should ensure success. This march was the completion of

The deticiencies in Moreau's Moreau's plan; which was to get army were entirely made up by them dislodged from the position the successive arrivals of detach- they had taken, and which could ments of conscripts: the corps not have been effected but with a under St. Suzanne, on the Lower great effusion of blood. The AuRhine, which had hitherto con- strians following up their success, .sisted of 7 or 8000 men, was aug- marched upon the army of the mented to 30,000, and inarched French, stationed near the village in order to form the left wing of of Hohenlinden. Moreau, who the grand army, now detached waited for them in the positions he


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