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had taken, met the attack as if he from bodies of reserve which had had intended only to keep himself not yet been brought into action. on the defensive; and this hesita- The defeat of the centre drew on tion in the French general was eventually that of the wings. The construed by the Austrians into an French remained masters of the indisposition to come to a decisive field, with cighty pieces of cannon, action. This error, however, was 200 caissons, 10,000 prisoners, and pot of long duration. While the a considerable number of officers, Austrians, confident of victory, among whom were three generals. assured at least of compelling the This battle was called the battle French to abandon the field, were of Hohenlinden. endeavouring to force Moreau to This victory was decisive of the some determinate purpose, they campaign in favour of the French; were astonished to find a French but in order to prevail on the imdivision in their rear, led on by perial cabinet io offer again or Richepanse and Decaen. It was accept terms of peace, it was nefor this moment of surprise and cessary to follow up with vigour confusion that Moreau waited ;- this important conquest. Moreau, this moment of hesitation in the without losing time, or suffering Austrian army was the signal of his the retreating army to muster its attack : the French generals Gre. scattered forces, or recover from nier and Ney poured down their its surprise, marched directly upon divisions on the Austrian lines, and the Inn, which he crossed (9th met half way those of Richepanse December) at Neupesen, between and Decaen. These last divisions, Rosenheim and Kuttein. The Aue having innumerable obstacles to en- strians, who were in a state to make counter, had performed prodigies of but little resistance, retreated to valour. Richepanse, cut ofl'from the Stephenkirch. The dispositions rest of his division, without looking of attack made by. Lecourbe led behind him, had marched with five them to make a further retreat beor six battalions directly into the lind the Salze; and the French, midst of the Austrians. The im- without much opposition, entered perial army, surprised, broken over. Salzburg. Continuing the purwhelmed, and panic-struck, endea- suit, the French came up with the voured to retreat; but, ingulfed remains of the imperial army sucin defiles and woods, and sur- cessively at Neumark, Vonaklarounded by enemies, no mode of pluch, and Lambach; at each of rallying or escape presented itself. which passes engagements took In the space of a league and a half place, which ended always in the the carnage was horrible; the cen- further destruction of the Austrian tre of the Austrian army had dis- army, and in the taking of cannon appeared or perished.

and considerable numbers of prie But though the centre was de- soners, among whom was the prince stroyed, the right and left wings of Lichtenstein and his staff. were yet sufficiently strong to keep The battle of Hohenlinden, and the victory in suspense. The com- the passage of the Inn, had thrown: bat had lasted eight hours; and, not only the court of Vienna, but after the affair seemed to have been the capital also, into the greatest completely decided, the French had confusion; and in proportion to the to sustain several vigorous attacks presumption of the former, was

now its terror and drear of seeing there was no safety for the Austrian the French soon at the gates. One monarchy but in peace at any rate, resource was still left, since that and on any conditions; since in the of arms had proved fruitless ; and space of twenty days the army had of that the imperial cabinet was lost seventy leagues of ground, sufficiently prudent at this crisis to 25,000 prisoners, 15,000 killed or take advantage. Prince Charles, wounded, 140 pieces of cannon, who had been dismissed from the immense magazines of every decommand of the army at the open- scription, while the enemy was in ing of the campaign, and who re- a position to dictate orders to the treated into honourable exile, as capital. governor of Bohemia, because he

During former campaigns, Mohad freely declared his opinion re- reau had been considered in the specting the events of the war, light rather of a prudent than an which the result had justified, was enterprising general. He had at once more resorted to, as the sa- different periods exhibited great viour of his country. The court had proofs of his skill in preserving flattered itself that his presence and from destruction retreating or routa efforts would once again established armies, and had deservedly, an equilibrium of force with the acquired the reputation and title of French, and conceived hopes that the French Fabius. The events of its military affairs were yet re- this campaign had exhibited him trievable. This charm was now dis- under a new form, that of an ardent solved; the prince, though adored and daring chief, who nevertheless by the army, found that this pres- by the most profound combination tige was departed; and the soldier and extensive foresight made forof every rank hailed his return, not tune a faithful auxiliary. To any as the hero who was to lead them other person than Moreau, the to victory, but only as the herald position he held at the moment

The archduke, with of signing this last armistice would whatever hopes he might have have appeared tremendous. He flattered himself at the moment of had plunged himself and his army his recall, saw, on his arrival at the into the very heart of Austria, leavarmy, how utterly those hopes were ing behind him, on his right, the destitute of foundation. Before he Tyrol filled with troops, which decided, however, on making a sub- amounted to 30,000 men, on his mission, which, from the circum- left the divisions of Klenau, Simbstances of the French army and his schen, and Riskenfield, besides the own, he presumed must be almost legion of Bohemia, forming more unconditional, he resolved than 50,000. He was now a hunmaking a last attempt. The at dred leagues advanced before the tempt was unlccessful, the Aus armies of Italy, and the Lower strians met with a most severe Rhine under Augereau. Of the defeat, and, after losing 7 or 8000 movements of the former he was men, withdrew in disorder behind yet uncertain ; and the Gallo-Batathe Ens. This new event at length vian army, from the opposition it convinced the imperial cabinei of met with, and the many desperate the truth of what the archduke had and bloody engagements which re-iterated in his correspondence took place, had great difficulty to from the time of his recall, that keep its positions in the neigh


of peace.

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bourhood of Forckheim and Nu- Austrians had made extraordinary remberg. It was in this situation efforts for the defence of this river. glorious indeed, but attended with After a valorous attack (28th Deno common danger-that Morealı cember), and no less obstinate re. accepted (27th December) thesistance, this passage was eff.cted armistice that was offered, on con- at Menzabano, but with an incredition that peace should without dible loss of men on each side ;-a any further delay follow this third the French made 8,000 prisoners. cessation of hostilities.

The army under Brune, aided by the The winter campaign had but army of the Grisons, which, after just opened in Italy, when this third painful marches across the mounarmistice took place. In the inter- tains, had descended into Italy, val between the second and third continued its march, crossed the (18th October), the French, under Adige with the same loss of men the pretext that the rising in mass on cach side, and took post at Viof the Tuscans under the orders of cenza (8th January). Continuing general Sommariva was an infrac- their pursuit, the French crossed tion of the private convention made the Brenta, and found the Austrian at Castiglione, after summoning army re-intorced, and drawn up in this general to disperse this irregular the plains of Salvaroza, where both army, had entered Florence and sides prepared for a decisive ens Leghorn. The insurgents had gagement, which was to determine withdrawn to Arezzo, which, after the fate of the Venetian territory. a most obstinate resistance, was It was in this position that the taken by assault ; and the whole armistice which had taken place in body, except three hundred who Germany prevented the further took refuge in the citadel, and and useless effusion of blood in capitulated, were put to the sword. Italy. A convention for the cessaThe Austrians some time after took tion of hostilities was agreed on at possession again of Arezzo, and Treviso (16th January) between threatened Florence; but the rup- the generals Bellegarde and Brune, ture of the armistice announced by ' by which the Austrians, retiring the army of the Rhine obliged behind the Tagliamento, ceded them to concentre their forces, to to the French the fortified places await. more serious operations. they had lett behind them untaken, The Mincio was the line which including Mantua, which was given divided the two armies; and as the up by the subsequent convention at invasion of the Venetian territory Luneville. was the object of the French, the

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C H A P. XI.

Internal Regulations in the French Republic. Numbers and Powers ng Frestices

of the Peace abridged. Proposal for the Erection of special Tribunals. Plot for the Murder of the chief Consul. Infernal Machine. Punishment of two Persons asserted to be concerned in that Plot. Arbitrary Proceedings of the French Government. Plnt attributed first to the Jacobins, and then to the Royalists. Some of the latter erecuted. Law passed for establishing special Tribunals. Negotiation at Luneville. Terms of the Treaty. Peace with the Elector of Buraria. Secret History of the Confederacy of. the Northern Pruers against Great-Britain. Terms of the Quadruple Alliance. Attuirs of Naples. Proceedings of the French Legislature. Discussions on various Luws proposed by the Government, subtersive of the Trial by Jury. Law for regulating the Election of Representatires.


peace were now se- or, in default of such arrangement, riously opened at Luneville, to certified to the civil tribunal of his turn back, and cast a rapid district that such matter had reguglance on the internal affairs of the larly come before him; without republic. The meeting of the which formality no action whatlegislative body had taken place ever could be brought forward. agreeably to the constitution on This attribute the law proposed the first day of Frimaire. Amidst still to leave to this officer, taking a variety of other objects, two had from him every thing that respect. particularly engaged its attention-- ed criminal affairs, of which he that of the reduction of the.number had hitherto the initiative, and and the powers of justices of the which were to devolve to compeace, and a proposition which missaries of government specially was made for the creation of spe. chosen. cial tribunals throughout the repub- The other bill, or proposition lic. The number of justices of the presented to the legislature, was peace in France were 6000, and that of the erection of special trithe government had reduced this bunals throughout the republic, sumber to 3600. Their jurisdic. The motions for forming a law of tion comprebended a space of five this nature were presented to the square leagues, and

popu- council of state by the minister of lation of 5000 souls; it was pro- police, who represented that the posed to extend the jurisdiction of existing laws were ineffectual, and each to ten square leagues, includ- the common tribunals insufficient ing a population on the average of to remedy the disorders which pre10,000, inhabitants. With respect vailed. He alleged, that the conto their power, they were to remain tinuance of those disorders ought clothed with all which had hitherto not to be imputed to his administrabeen granted them as conciliators; tion; since, though the prisons were that is, no civil cause could be filled with malefactors, the want of brought before the courts till the firmness in the judges, and of prinparties had submitted their preten. ciple in the juries, let them loose sons to' the justice of peace, who again upon the public; the audacity



of these russians, and their intimate A plan was therefore formed for connexion with those who by law the assassination of the first consul. were appointed to decide on their There were already in prison about guilt, rendering their arrest, and ten individuals accused of having their judiciary examinations, illu, made this attempt in the month sory. The observations of the mi- of September; and it appeared, nister were well founded. The by their voluntary confessions at western and southern departments the time they were arrested, that of France were at this epoch over their project was to poniard him run by hordes of robbers, consist. when he visited the opera. They ing principally of those who had were discovered at the moment of been disbanded by the royalist execution by one of their accomchiefs after the pacífication of La plices; but the lenity of the governVendée, and who, either unable or ment had hitherto prevented their unwilling to return to peaceful oc- punishment. The plan now pro. cupations, continued to make war jected, and which succeeded, exon the public. The public dili- cept against the particular object gences, and such persons as were for whom it was concerted, was by known to have made purchases of means of gun-powder, and the emigrant-property, were judged to construction of what has since be lawful prey; and the daringness been termed the infernal machine, of these ruffians was carried to such This machine was a barrel filled a height, that public functionaries with powder, into which was inwere sometimes killed on the high serted a match, so as to cause the roads, or carried off from their explosion at a calculated moment. dwellings, in order to purchase their This barrel, placed in a cart, liberty by a proposed equivalent in was drawn into the Rue Nicaise money ;-the former of which atro- in the evening (24th December), cities was committed on the bishop when a celebrated piece was to of Quimper, who was taken out of be performed at the opera, and à public carriage, and coolly assassin which it was known the consul nated near Rennes; and the latter, would attend. The Rue Nicaise on the senator Clement de Ris, being a narrow street, leading from who was not rescued from his the Tuileries to the opera, and in captors till after a fortnight's de- sight of the former, it was judged tention, and an engagement be-, that he would pass through it a tween the robbers and the regular certain time after he ascended his military force.

carriage ; but lest the velocity of his The ineffective opposition which horses, and the burning of the had hitherto been made to their match, should not keep pace 10multiplied depredations, or rather gether, the cart with the mathe encouragement which had been chine was so placed as to emgiven to them bythe spiritof party- barrass the passage. The coachsince the plundet of the public man not only drove unusualiv treasure, and the assassination of fast, as the consul had exceeded public functionaries were by this the hour of the opera, but had the faction not enumerated in the list address, in driving through the of crimes had emboldened some of street, to pass the cart which was the chiefs to strike at once at the meant to obstruct the way. The head, instead of mutilating in detail. cunsul and his suite had gained


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