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the inierests of the British empire, he is carrying on with respect to a thinks that it cannot better fulfil matter which so nearly concerns the duties which such a circum- the dignity of his Britannic majesty, stance prescribes, than by address- and the interests of his people. ing itself directly to the minister His Britannic majesty, always of his Danish majesty, to demand ready to return all the marks of from him a frank and satisfactory friendship which he may receive explanation.

on the part of his Danish majesty, In all the courts of Europe they hopes to find, in the answer of the speak openly of a confederacy be- court of Copenhagen to this retween Denmark and some other quest, only a new occasion of mapowers, to oppose by force the nifesting these dispositions. exercise of those principles of ma, In transmitting this note to M. ritime law on which the naval the secretary of state, the underpower of the British empire in a signed avails himself, with pleagreat measure rests, and which in sure, of this opportunity, to assure all wars have been followed by the him of the high consideration with maritime states, and acknowledged which he has the honour to be by their tribunals.

His very humble and His Britannic majesty, relying

very obedient servant, with confidence upon the loyalty of

W. DRUMMOND his Danish majesty, and upon the To his excellency the count faith of the engagements recently de Bernstorff, secretary of contracted between the two courts, state of his Danish ma. has not demanded from him any ex- jesty, &c. &c. planation on this head. It was his wish to wait for the moment when

Note in Answer. the court of Denmark should think The undersigned secretary of it its duty to contradict those re- state for foreign affairs, having ports, so injurious to its good faith, given an account to the king his and so little compatible with the master of the contents of the note maintenance of the good under- which Mr. Drummond has done standing which had been re-esta- him the honour to transmit to him blished between the two countries. on the 27th instant, is authorised to

At present the conduct and the return the answer which follows: public declaration of one of the The court of London must have powers, which it is pretended have received very incorrect information, entered into this confederacy, do to have been able for a moment to not permit his majesty to preserve presume that Denmark had conany longer towards the rest the ceived projects hostile against it, same silence which he has hitherto or incompatible with the mainteobserved.

nance of the good understanding The undersigned therefore finds which subsists between the two himself bound to demand from his crowns; and the king is much excellency count de Bernstorff, a obliged to his Britannie majesty for plain, open, and satisfactory an. having furnished him with the opswer on the nature, object, and ex. portunity of contradicting, in the tent of the obligations which his most positive manner, reports as ill Danish majesty may have con- founded, as contrary to his most detracted, or the negotiations which cided sentiments.

The

very

The negotiation which is carry- tery to any one of the object of her ing on at St. Petersburg between negotiation, upon the nature of Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Den- which some suspicion has been inmark, has no other object than the fused into the court of London; renewal of the engagements which but she has not thought that she in the years 1780 and 1791 were departed from the usual forms, in contracted by the same powers for wishing to wait the definitive result the safety of their navigation, and of it, in order to communicate an of which a communication was at official account of it to the powers that time made to all the courts of at war. Europe.

The undersigned, not knowing His majesty the emperor of that any of the powers engaged ia Russia having proposed to the this negotiation has made a declapowers of the North to re-establish ration, or adopted measures relathese engagements in their original live to its object, at which Great form, Denmark has so much the Britain might take offence or umless hesitated to consent to it, as, brage, cannot without ulterior exfar from having ever abandoned planation reply to this point of Mr. the principles professed in 1780, she Drummond's note. has thought it her duty to maintain Much less does he conceive in them, and claim them upon all oc- what respect the engagement takea casions, and not allow herself to by the previous convention of the admit in respect of them any other 29th of August last can be conmodifications than those which re- sidered as contrary to those which sult from her treaties with the belo Denmark is about to enter into ligerent powers.

with the neutral and united powers Very far from wishing to inter- of the North; and in all cases in rupt those powers in the exercise which he shall find himself cailed of rights which the war gives them, upon to combat or remove the Denmark introduces into the new doubts that shall have been congotiation with her allies none butceived with respect to the good views absolutely defensive, pacific, faith of the king, he shall consider and incapable of giving offence or his task to be very easy, as long as provocation to any one. The en- this good faith shall be introduced gagements she will make will be into the reproaches or the suspicions founded upon the strictest fulfil. advanced against his majesty. He ment of the duties of neutrality, and flatterz hinself that the English goof the obligations which her treatiesvernment, after having received the impose upon her; and if she wishes required explanations, will have the to shelter her innocent navigation frankness to allow that the provifrom the manifest abuses and vio- sional and momentary abandonlence which the maritime war pro- ment, not of a principle the ques. duces but too easily, she thinks she tion with respect to which remained pays respect to the belligerent undecided, but of a measure whose powers by supposing, that, far from right has never been nor ever can wishing to authorise or tolerate be contested, cannot be found at those abuses, they would, on their all in opposition to the general and side, adopt measures best calcu- permanent principles, relative to lated to prevent or repress them. which the powers of the North are Denmark has not made a mys upon the point of establishing a co

operation,

operation, which, so far from being love of justice, and by a reciprocal calculated to compromise their desire to promote whatever may be neutrality, is destined only to for the public advantage of their strengthen it.

respective states, have to that effect The undersigned would fain be determined to give a new sanction lieve that these explanations will to those principles of their neu. appear satisfactory to the court of trality, which are in their nature London; and that the latter will indissoluble, and to require that do justice to the intentions and sen- they may be respected by all powers timents of the king, and particu- interested in their preservation. cularly to his majesty's invariable With this view their majesties. desire to maintain and cement, by have, by their declaration of the all the means in his power, the 15th August to the northern friendship and good understanding courts, who are equally concerned tvhich subsist between Denmark in the maintenance of those general and Great Britain.

regulations anciently recognised, He has the honour to offer to Mr. given them to understand how Drummond the assurance of his most sincerely it is the object of their distinguished consideration. hearts io restore, in its full inde.

(Signed) BERNSTORFF. pendence, the general right of all Copenhagen, Dec. 31, 1800. nations to convey their ships and

merchandise freely, and without CONVENTION OF THE

being subject to the control of

the powers at war. His Swedish NORTHERN POWERS.

majesty imparted his wishes and Convention for the Re-establishment his sentiments to his great allies,

of an Armed Neutrality between and an happy conformity of their His Niajesty the King of Sweden, mutual interests has induced them of the one Part, and His Majesty to adopt the resolution of re-estathe Emperor of all the Russias, of blishing that system of an armed the other Part, concluded and neutrality which was attended with signed at St. Petersburg, the 4th such advantages during the Ameri(16th) of December, 1800, ac- can war, and to renew its benefi, cepled and ratified by Ilis Swedish cial principles in a convention Majesty on the 20th December, adapted to the present circums, and by Ilis Imperial Majesty of all stances. To this end his majesty the Russias on the oth (2017) De- the king of Sweden, and his impeer, in the sanre Year.

rial majesty of all the Russias, have In the Name of the Most Holy nominated as their plenipoten.

and Undivided Trinity. tiaries, namely, his Swedish maIn order that the freedom of the jesty, baron Curt von Stedingk, navigation and the security of the ambassador extraordinary to his inerchandise of the neutral powers imperial majesty of all the Rusmay be established, and the prin- sias, lieutenant-general, chamber. ciples of the laws of nations be lain of the queen dowager, colonel fully ascertained, during the con- of a regiment of infantry, knight, tinuance of the present maritime and commander of the order of the war, his majesty the king of Swe- sword, and knight of the French den, and his majesty the emperor order pour les mérites militaires ; of all the Russias, actuated by their and his imperial majesty of all the

Russias,

Russias, baron count Theodore agreed, that the present article von Kostopsin, his right tristy privy shall be without prejudice to the councillor, member of the council particular stipulations of former principale, minister of the college ireaties with the powers at war, by of foreign affairs, director-general virtue of which, the things above of the posts of the empire, grand mentioned are allowed or prohi-, chancellor and grand cross of the biteda sovereign order of St. John of Je- Ill. And whereas it is rerusalem, knight of the first class of solved, That whatever, by virtue the orders of St. Andrew, St. Alex- of the foregoing article, can be ander Newsky, and St. Anne, deemed contraband, shall he ex. knight of the order of St. Lazarus, cluded from the commerce of neude l'Annonciude, of St. Morrice and tral nations; in like manner bris St. Lazarus, of St. Ferdinand and majesty the king of Sweden, and St. Hubert; who, after exchan. his imperial majesty of all the Rusging their respective full powers,

sias, will and determine that all have agreed upon the following other merchandise shall be and rearticles:

main free; and in order that the Art. I. His majesty the king general principles of the laws of of Swederi, and his inajesty the nature, of which the freedom of emperor of all the Russias, declare trade and navigation, as well as the that they will strictly prohibit the rights of neutral nations, are the exportation of contraband mer. immediate consequence, may be chandise on the part of their subs placed under a competent and sure jects with every power whatever, safeguard, they have resolved no whether at present engaged in war, longer to delay that voluntary exor which may hereafter be engaged planation from which they have

hitherto been restrained by motives II. In order to prevent all of their separate and temporary doubts and misunderstandings as interests. With this view they to what shall be considered contra- liave hereby determined, band, his majesty the king of Swe- 1. That every ship may freely den, and his imperial majesty of all navigate from one harbour to anthe Russias, declare, that they will other, and on the coasts of the belliacknowledge the following articles gerent nations. as contraband, namely, cannons, 2. That the effects which bemortars, fire-arms, balls, flints, flint. long to the subjects of the belligestones, matches, gunpowder, salto rent powers in neutral ships, with petre, sulphur, helmets, pikes, the exception of contraband goods, swords, hangers, cartridge boxes, shall be free. saddles and bridles, with the ex- 3. That in order to determine ception of such a quantity of the what shall be considered above.articles as may

be

necessary blockaded harbour, such denomifor the defence of the ships and nation shall be admitted to apply their crew: al other articles not only where the dispoition and berein enumerated shall not be number of the ships of the power considered as war or paval stores, by which it is invested, shall be they shall not be subject to consis- such as to render it apparently cation, but shall pass free and with- hazardous to enter, and that every put restraint. It is also hereby ship which shall go into a blockaded

harbour;

in war.

as

a

rance.

harbour, that is evidently so block- admiralty to publish it whenever aded, violates the present conven- they shall think it necessary; and tion, as much as if the commander to this end the regulation which of the blockade had previously ad. shall contain this prohibition, unvised it of the state of the harbour, der the several penalties, shall be. and it had nevertheless endeavoured printed at the end of the present by force or artifice to obtain admisa act; that no one may plead ignosioni

4. That with regard to neutral Art. IV. In order to place the ships, except those which, for just commerce of their subjects upon the reasons, and upon evident grounds, most legal and permanent basis, shall be detained, sentence shall be his majesty the king of Sweden, pronounced without delay; the and his majesty the emperor of all proceedings against them shall be the Russias, have deemed it expeuniform, prompt, and lawful. Over dient to equip a number of ships and above the indemnity to which of war and frigates, which shall be they shall be intitled for the da. charged to see that object obtained; mage they shall have sustained, and the squadrons of each power complete satisfaction shall be given shall take those stations, and protect for the insult committed against those convoys, which their comthe flag of their majesties,

merce and their navigation may re5. That the declaration of the quire, and which shall be conformofficers who shall command the able to the course of trade of each ship of war, or ships of war, of the nation. king or emperor, which shall be V. To provide against all inconvoying one or more merchant conveniences which may proceed ships, that the convoy has no con- from any nation abusing the privi: traband goods on board, shall be lege of their flag, it is established sufficient; and that no search of as a regulation not to be departed his ship, or the other ships of the from, that every transport, be it convoy, shall be permitted. And whose it may, belonging to the the better to ensure respect to those country whose flag it bears, shall principles, and the stipulations have on board a captain and the founded upon them, which their half of the crew composed of the disinterested wishes to preserve the subjects of that country, and the imprescriptible rights of neutral passport shall be drawn up in due nations have suggested, the high and regular forin. Every transport contracting parties, to prove their which shall not observe these regusincerity and justice, will give the lations, or shall violate the comstrictest orders to their captains, as mand printed at the end of this well of their ships of war as of present convention, shall forfeit all their merchant ships, to load no right to the protection of the conpart of their ships with, or secretly tracting parties, and the governto have on board, any articles which, ment to which it may belong shall by virtue of this present convention, alone be responsible for all the loss, may be considered as contraband: damage, or inconvenience it may and for the more completely car- sustain. rying into execution this command, VI. Should it nevertheless hapthey will respectively take care to pen that the merchant ship of one give directions to their courts of of the powers should find itself in a

situation

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