Sivut kuvina

been founded upon particular con- all the countries of the north of ventions between his Prussian ma- Germany, and even at that of the jesty and the senate of Hamburg, states of his Prussian majesty. he does not think himself called (Signed)

CARYSFORT. upon to take part in that discussion; but he feels hinself authorised to

Second Note, from the same.

Berlin, č.aim, in favour of the subjects and

Nov. 18, 1800. vessels of the king his master, all

The undersigned, extraordinary the rights to which they have a just envoy and minister plenipotentiary pretension in a neutral port belong- of his Britannic majesiy, thinks ing to a republic, whose connexions himself obliged again to address with the states of his majesty are

himself to his excellency count very antient, and generally known— Haugwitz, relative to the intenno convention made between the tion of his Prussian majesty in takcity of Hamburg and his Prussian ing military possession of Cuxhaven. majesty being capable of invalidat. When the undersigned had the hoing or altering his rights.

nour of transmitting to his excelIn consequence of these consi- lency the verbal note of the 16th, it derations he dares hope that his was not exactly known “ that the Prussian majesty may still suspend Prussian vessel brought into that the occupation of Cuxhaven, until port had been restored." The fact the two courts shall have the means being now certain, as well as the of entering into mutual explana- zeal manifested by the senate of tions, more particularly since such Hamburg to fulfil the wishes of an occupation, in the actual circum- the king; the surprise and constances, might give room to ill-dis. sternation excited from the moment posed minds to attribute to his when the orders for marching a dePrussian majesty views not less op- tachment of troops were known, posite to the sentiments of justice would be raised to their utmost and moderation which govern all height, if it were ascertained, that, his measures, than to the friendship notwithstanding the complete satisand the good harmony which sub- faction given to his Prussian masist between him and his Britannic jesty on all the points respecting majesty.

which he thought proper to comAt all events it will not escape plain, he should not appear less ats the wisdom and humanity of his tached to his determination of causmajesty, that the entrance of a nu- ing Cuxhaven to be occupied by merous corps of troops into a village, his troops. In fact, it appears at both poor and with a small extent first sight that this occupation would of territory, would probably aug- be so calculated to give the most ment the misery of the inhabitants; serious alarms to all commercial ani that the city of Hamburg hav- nations, that, without alluding ta ing always possessed that place, so the interpretations which calumny indispensably necessary to the navi- might be desirous of giving to the gation of the Libe, all which may measure, strong hopes are entertrouble that possession, derange an- tained from the justice and moderaçient customs, and infinence the tion of his Prussian majesty, for that pilots there at present to seek a reason only, that he will coine to refuge elsewhere, would strike a the resolution of not carrying it into sensible blow at the commerce of cffcci.


The undersigned would not, added to the unjust refusal of the however, think he had executed his magistracy of Hamburg, which duty, should he neglect to repre- dictated to the king the resolution sent to his excellency the lively of causing a body of his troops to alarms which necessarily result occupy the port of Cuxhaven, and from the uncertainty in which the the bailiwick of Ritzebuttle. This affair remains. The reiterated as- measure was executed the moment surances which the undersigned has it was determined upon, and it is no received from his excellency of the longer capable of being revoker, friendship and good wishes of his the example of what has taken Prussian majesty towards the king place imposing on his majesty the of Great Britain, do not allow him necessity of effectually wa ching to believe that any misunderstand. over the maintenance of that neu. ing can arise between the two trality which he has guarantied to courts; but he cannot avoid think- his co-estates. The king cannot ing that the enemies of humanity imagine that his Britannic majesty, and of public tranquillity will en- after participating, in his character deavour to turn to their purposes of clector of Hanover, in the adthe alarm which is generally dif- vantages and benefits of this happy fused, in order to scaller discord neutrality, can conceive the smallest among the powers, which should alarm at seeing a Prussian garrison all unite and maintain the safety enter into the port which England and independence of Europe at has fixed on as her point of comlarge.

munication with the north of Ger(Signed) CARYSPORT: many. Being thus placed under

the immediate guarantee of the Answer of Count Haugwitz.

king, it will be the more effectually The undersigned minister of put out of the reach of all violation, state, and of the cabinet, is au- and the troops of his majesty will thorised by the orders of the king to have no other duty to perform than completely tranquillise the anxieties that of causing the laws of good and apprehensions which my lord order and equity to be respected. Carysfort, envoy extraordinary and The utmost confidence may be minister plenipotentiary of his Bris placed in the prudent disposition of tannic majesty, expressed to him in the reigning duke of Brunswick, his two notes of the 16th and 18th who is invested with the command November. The Prussian vessel, of the line of demarcation. the Triton, has, it is true, been re- But, if more particular assurances stored to its owner; but the modebe requisite upon this subject, the of release was, in every respect, as king feels a pleasure in giving them irregular as the proccedings which by the present communication to had previously taken place with re- lis Britannic majesty, and in despeci to it; and after an examina- claring 10 him, in express and potion of all the circumstances relative sitive terins, that the present order to the incident which forms the of things will in no respect insubject of complaint, there appears terrupt the freedom of coinmerce throughout the whole a manifest in- and navigation in the port of Cuxu fraction of the principles of the neu- haven; nor, ahove all, the contitrality of the north of Germany nuation of the correspondence with It is this superior consideratio 1 England. On the contrary, the

(14) officer officer commanding the troops of scribe rules to the British empire the king garrisoned in the bailiwick on a subject of the greatest import, of Ritzebuttie, will make it his duty ance; to force those rules upon to give it every possible facility. Great-Britain ; and, for that end,

On the whole, the proceeding before any of the powers who have which the king hàs, from necessily, concurred in it have given tho been obliged to follow, does not smallest intimation to his majesty to admit of any equivocal interpreta- enter into a league, the object of tion. It has no other object than which is, to renew pretensions the maintenance of the system of which Great-Britain at every tiina which he is the author and de- has considered hostile to its rights fender; and this object skall not be and interests, and so declared whenexceeded. Ilis views and conduct ever an opportunity presented have procured him the confidence pretensions which the Russian of all Europe, and they never will court has abandoned, not only in be found inconsistent; and though fact, but which, by a treaty actually it is not to be anticipated that this in force, Russia is bound to oppose, other powers will be disposed to and the execution of which treaty misconceive the purity of his views his majesty is entitled to insist in the present case, yet his majesty, upon. reserves to himself the privilege of When a ship of war belonging explaining himself further and in a to his Danish majesty resistew by suitable manner to those who may be force the execution of a right, intitled to such explanation. which the king of Great-Britain and (Signed) HAUGWITZ. Ireland, by virtue of the clearest

and most express stipulations of his Note 1.-Presented on the 27th Jarr., treaties with the court of Denmark,

1801, by the English Imbassudor had demanded, his majesty on that at Berlin, Lord Carysfort, to llis occasion contined himself to the Ercellency the Prussian State and adoption of such measures as the Cabinet Minister, Count Poudlaug. protection of the trade of his sub: zvitz.

jects required to be given against As the undersigned ambassador that measure of hostility which this extraordinary and minister plenipop conduct on the part of an olticer tentiary has been directed by his bearing his Danish majesty's comcourt to communicate to the Prus- mission seemed to show. An amic sian ministry his majesty's noie, cable arrangement put an end to which, by command of his majesty this dispute ; and the king flattered the king of Great-Britain and Ire himself, not only that all misunderland, was presented to the ministers standing on that subject was reof Denmark and Sweden, he cannot moved, but amity bein'een the two di-charge this commission, without courts was anew strengthened and likewise expressing his sincere sa- confirmed. tisfaction in being authorised to de- In this situation of affairs his clare, how thoroughly his majesty majesty must have learnt with na is convinced that Prussia can never less astonishment than concern that have sanctioned the

the court of Copenhagen was emwhich have given rise to the above ployed in negotiations to renew the recited note. Those measures hostile confederacy against Greatopenly disclose an intention to pre: Britain which took place in 1780,



and that also great preparations hostile disposition, than that those were going on in the ports of Den- engagements were not postponed mark Under these circumstances till it was ascertained whether Ruse the king must have been compelled sia was not to be considered as a to call for explanations from the belligerent power. Such forbearcourt of Denmark. At this mo- ance was the more to be

expected, ment he received information that a and particularly from the court of confederacy was signed at Peters- Copenhagen, as, by an express artiburg; and the answer of the Danish cle of the league of i7so, the Danish minister left no doubt respecting ports and havens in Norway were the object and nature of diis con- placed at the disposal of Russia for vention, as he declared in the most the purpose of facilitating the pro: express manner “ that these nego- secution of hostilities out of the tiations had in view the renewal of Baltic. those relations which had been en- When therefore the king was intered into between the same pow- formed by one of the contracting ers in the years 1780 and 1781,” parties, that the object of the neadding, “that his majesty the em- gotiations which has been begun at peror of Russia had proposed to the Petersburg, without giving the least northern powers the renewal of intimation, and which al last, ac, their connexion in its original cording to the information received form.”

by the king, had terminated in the The engagements alluded to conclusion of a convention, was no had for theic object principles of other than to renew the former maritime law which never had been confederacy to press upon his marecognised by the tribunals of Eu- jesty a new code of law to which rope, and the contracting parties he had already refused his assent ; mutually engaged to maintain them and when moreover he had the by force, and to compel by force most certain intelligence, and could other nations to adopt them. They no longer doubt that the powers of are still more repugnant to the ex- the Baltic, engaged in this transacpress stipulations of the treaties tion, were pursuing warlike prepawhich subsist between the courts of rations with the utmost activity; Stockholm and Denmark, and the when one of those powers had

placed itself in a state of actual hosThe convention which these en- tilities with his majesty; no other algagements were to renew was ne- ternative remained but either to gotiated at a time when the court submit, or to adopt measures which of Petersburg liad adopted hostile were calculated to put an effectual measures against the persons and stop to the hostile operation of a property of his majesty's subjects, league which, by the declaration of and when nothing but the extraor- the Danish court itself, was openly dinary moderation of the king could directed against his majesty. have authorised other powers not Meanwhile his majesty has not to consider him as at open war with omitted on this occasion to display that court.

his wonted justice and good-will. In such a state of things, nothing Although he felt it necessary, for certainly could be more inconsiste the maintenance of bis rights, to ent with the idea of neutrality, and secure some pledge against the nothing more distinctly indicate a hostilu attacks which were medi


British empire.

tated against his rights, yet he has of the greatness and maritime pow: taken the utmost care to giard er of his kingdoms." against loss and injury to indivi- Still later, in the beginning of duals.

November, the undersigned had Firmly convinced that his con- the honour to represent to his exduct towards neutral states has been cellency, as the minister of a power conformable to the recognised prin- connected with his majesty by the ciples of laws, whose basis and most intimate friendship, what dissanction is to be found, not in pass- agreeable consequences must fol. ing interests and momentary con- low from the attempt of the northvenience, but in the general princi- ern powers to press forward those ple of justice; of laws which have pretensions. He has never ceased been received and observed by the to renew this declaration when, by admiralty courts of all the maritime the command of his majesty, he has powers of Europe ; his majesty been the interpreter of that satisdoes not yet forego the hope that faction given to the king by the rethe courts of Stockholm and Co- peated assurances of the friendship penhagen will not take upon them of his majesty the king of Prussia, the responsibility that will fall upon and of those constant sentiments the authors of the war; that par- of perfect justice of which his maticularly they will not expose them- jesty has never for a moment enterselves to that responsibility for the tained a doubt. His excellency introduction of innovations, the no- count Haugwitz will likewise easily torious injustice of which has in- recollect the time when the underduced those powers by which they signed, intimately convinced of the were first broached to oppose them, friendly intentions of the Prussian when they found themselves at war; governinent, communicated to him, innovations, besides, which are ex- by the command of his Britannig pressly repugnant to those treaties majesty, the king's resolution to which they have concluded with allow of no measures which had for his majesty.

their object to introduce innovaThe step on which his majesty tions in the maritime law now in has resolved must have long been force; but, on the contrary, to deforeseen. The British govern- fend that system in every event, ment has never concealed that it and to maintain its entire execuconsidered the league of 1780 as tion as it had subsisted in all the hostile, and had never ceased that courts of Europe prior to the year attention with which it watches 1780. over the rights of the nation. It If the court of Denmark had immediately resisted the attempt announced in the most unequivocal to renew the principles which at manner the real objects and conthe above-mentioned period had tents of the engagements into been agitated; and the undersigned which it had entered, the declaradeclared to count Haugwitz, ai the tion of that court, that Prussia was first conference he had with him on one of the powers concerned in the his arrival at Berlin, " that his ma- negotiation, would have been sufiijesty would never submit to pre- cient to satisfy the king, and to tensions which were irreconcilable prove to him that it could have no to the true principles of public law, hostile views against his governand which strike at the foundations ment; and even still his majesty is


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