Sivut kuvina

convinced that he may implicitly jesty a new proof of his confidence rely on the friendship of his Prussian and particular respect; and he is majesty. It is true that, in relation firmly convinced that his majesty to Great-Britain and Ireland, there the king of Prussia will approve can be no similarity between the of his steady resolution to denorthern powers and Prussia. Those fend the rights and interests of his powers are connected with his ma- crown. jesty by the stipulations of mutual Nevertheless, whatever sentitreaties, which are less favourable ments the Prussian government may to their interests, and which more entertain in regard to the new or less modify and soften the rigour principles themselves, yet it is too of the general law; whereas be- just, and knows too well what tween his majesty the king of sovereigns owe to their people, and Great-Britain and Prussia no treaty to one another, to favour for a of commerce exists, and all inter- moment the design to employ force course between them is regulated in order to induce his Britannic by the general principles of the majesty to acknowledge a code law of nations, and established which the latter deems inconsistent usages.

with the honour and security of his If, however, his majesty were to crown). consider his own sentiments, and

(Signed) CARYSFORT. the incessant wish he has shown Berlin, Jun. 27, 1801. to preserve the friendship of a mon. arch with whom he is connected by Note 11. presented on the 1st of Feh. so many ties, he could not at allanti

1801, to llis Excellency the State cipate the possibility of a difference

and Cabinet Minister, Count which might not easily and speedily

Haugroitz. be terminated by an amicable discussion. The repeated assurances The undersigned ambassador exof such sentiments on the part of his traordinary and minister plenipoPrussian majesty, which the under: tentiary of his Britannic majesty signed has been empowered to has the honour to address himself transmit to his court, confirm this to count Haugwitz, by command agreeable anticipation; and the of his court, in order to communiknown principles which have con- cate to him the following particustantly directed his majesty the lars: king of Prussia, do not tend to The spirit of patience and of countenance the supposition that moderation which prevails in the the latter has entered into the con- note of lord Grenville to count federacy, or can enter into the con- Kostopsin, will not escape the nofederacy, to support by force prin- tice of his excelleney. ciples in common with other pow- A solemn treaty between the ers, whose hostile views against his two powers had given the respecBritannic majesty have been openly tive subjects of each a complete seproved.

curity for the prosecution of their The king, at the same time, trade; and even in case of a rupwhile he has given it in charge to ture it had been agreed that not the undersigned to make these ex- only no embargo should be laidd, planations, could have no other ob- but that the subjects on both sides ject than to give his Prussian ma- should have a whole year to carry away their efects, and to arrange called upon to make any

away Note whicha,

observatheir affairs in the country. .

tions upon it. Notwithstanding these sacred The undersigned has received stipulations, the ships of British orders to make known to the court subjects in the Russian ports are of Berlin that this conduct, on the detained, and their property, in an part of the emperor of Russia, has extraordinary manner, upon vari. put an end to all correspondence Qus pretexts, sequestraled or sold. between the courts of London and Their persons are likewise put St. Petersburg; and the connexion under arrest, and a wunber of between the extraordinary violence British sailors, have been forcibly committed upon the person and taken out of their ships, and been property of his majesty's subjects, sent under guard and in the midst and the conclusion of a hostile of winter into the interior of the confederacy, which the emperor of country.

Russia has formed, for the express In consequence of these new and avowed purpose of introducing acts of violence, lord Grenville, those innovations into the maritime secretary of state for foreign affairs, code which his Britannic majesty received bis majesty's order to ad- has ever opposed, has at length dress a second note to count Kos. produced a state of open war be. topsin, in which bis majesty stated tween Great Britain and Ireland his having appointed a commissary and Russia. to superintend the safety and the It will not be useless to remark wants of his unfortunate suisjects; that the emperor of Russia, at the a circumstance which is usual even present crisis, cannot be considered among the

powers that are actually as a neutral power, because he was at war. Lord Grenville in that at war with Great-Britain before paper likewise formally insisted on he himself was at peace with the execution of the treaty of 1793. France. But, though he made the strong and The undersigned shall have done just remonstrances which such cir- justice to the charge with which te cumstances demanded, yet liis ma is intrusted, when he declares, in jesty's constant disposition again to the name of the king, his master, Testore the former connexion and that his majesty, on weighing the good understanding between the present circumstances of Europe, Two crowns has been in vain. is willing to forbear demanding

His Britannic majesty antici- from the court of Prussia that sucpates the sentiments which the which was stipulated by king of Prussia will entertain when treaty, though he considers the he is informed of the unheard-of and casus fæderis as completely coming unjustitiable manner in which his within those circumstances in which Britannic majesty's remonstrances they stand; and that his Britannic were heard by the court of Saint majesty cannot doubt that Ire will l'etersburg. The note of count receive from his ally all the proofs Kostopsin to lord Grenville, of the of friendship which the events of 2016 of December, O. S. a copy of this new war would have required. which the undersigned is ordered The undersigned has the honour to communicate to count Haugwitz, to be, &c. will enable bis Prussian majesty to

(Signed) CARYSPORT, judge whether the undersigned is Berlin, Feb. I, 1801.


Note transmitted in the 12th of ther the northern courts had actu

February, by the Prussian Minister ally concluded the confederation Count Haugwitz, to Lord Carysfort, which had been reported; and the English Ambassador at Berlin. whether Prussia had acceded to it?"

The undersigned, state and cabi- —the king conceived that the renet minister, has laid before his spect which sovereigns owe to each Prussian majesty the two notes other, and the liberty possessed by which lord Carysfort, envoy extra- every independent state to consult ordinary and minister plenipoten- its own interests, without rendering tiary from his majesty the king of an account to any other power, Great-Britain and Ireland, has done authorised him to withhold any him the honour to transmit to him communications relative to himself on the 27th of January and Ist of and his allies, and contented himFebruary last.

self with answering, that as he had The undersigned, having it in seen without interfering the concommission to return an explicit nexions which England had entered and circumstantial answer, is under into without consulting him, he conthe necessity of informing lord Ca- sidered himself as entitled to the rysfort, that his majesty cannot see same confidence; and that if the without the utmost grief and con- king of Great-Britain thought it his cern the violent and hasty mea- duty to support the rights and insures to which the court of London terests of his kingdom, his Prussian has proceeded against the northern majesty considered it as not less his naval powers. Error alone can duty to employ every means in the have given occasion to these mea- defence of the rights and interests sures, as the assertions in the note of his subjects. of the 27th sufficiently show. In This answer might have sufficed that it is said that the maritime a-few weeks since; but in the sialliance has for its object to annul tuation in which affairs now are, the treaties formerly concluded the king thinks himself called upon with England, and to prescribe to make an explicit declaration to laws to her with respect to the the court of London, relative to principles of them; that the neutra- the spirit of the treaty, which has lity is only a pretext to impose these probably been attacked because it laws on her by force, and to establish was not known, and which is far a hostile alliance against her. from having the offensive views of

Nothing, however, is farther which the contracting parties have from the above-mentioned negotia. bcen arbitrarily accused. They tion, than the principles here sup- have expressly agreed that their posed. It is founded in justice and measures shall be neither hostile, moderation; and the communica- nor tend to the detriment of any tion of a copy of the convention to country, but only have for their such of the belligerent powers as object the security of the trade and had the justice and patience, to navigation of their subjects. They wait for the same, will prove this have been attentive to adapt their beyond the possibility of a denial. new connexions to present circum

When in the beginning of Janu- stances. ary the minister of his Britannic The strict justice of his majesty majesty officially proposed to the the emperor of Russia has even in undersigned the question--"Whe. the detail proposed modifications


which alone might be sufficient to which had never been acknowledged indicate the spirit of the whole. It by the tribunals of Europe, and the has since been determined that the object of which was hostile to Engtreaty shall not be prejudicial to land.” those treaties which had been be- The conclusion is totally false, fore concluded with any of the bel- and as little authorised by the anligerent powers.

It was also re- swer of the Danish court as the solved that this determination undeserved accusation, that it proshould be candidly communicated pesed to excite a hostile confez to these powers, to prove the pu- deracy against Great-Britain, and rity of the motives and views of the with that view was employed in contracting parties. But England active preparations.” would not allow them time for this. Never were measures more inHad she waited this confidential contestably merely defensive than communication, she might have those of the court of Copenhagen; avoided those intemperate mea- and the spirit of them will be less sures which threaten to spread mistaken, when it is recollected still wider the flanies of war. She what menacing demonstrations that might likewise liave received satis- court experienced on the part of faction from the correspondence the British government; in consewith Denmark, if, instead of dwell- quence of the affair of the frigate ing on two detached passages co- Freya, before it adopted those meapied into the first note of lord Carysfort, from the note of count The arbitrary conduct of EngBernstorff of the 31st of December, land on this occasion is naturally the court of London had attended explained by the lofty pretensions to the solemn declaration that wit she has so long advanced, and could never be for a moment ima- which have been several times regined that Denmark entertained any newed in the notes of lord Caryshostile projects against Great-Bri- fort, at the expence of all the marie' tain, or such as were inconsistent time and commercial powers. The with the maintenance of a good un- British government has, in the prederstanding between the two pow. sent more than in any former war, ers; and that the court of Den- assumed to itself the sovereignty mark congraiulated itself on having of the sea, and has arbitrarily formobtained an opportunity to contra- ed a maritime code, which it is exdict such unfounded reports in the tremely difficult to reconcile with most positive manner.'

the true principles of the law of This open and explicit declara- nations: it exercises over friendly tion accorded with the assurances and neutral powers a usurped juriswhich the undersigned had more diction, which it maintains to be than once given to lord Carysfort just, and endeavours to represent as on the same subject; and it is diffi- an indefeasible law sanctioned by cult to conceive, how the English all the tribunals of Europe. court could conclude, as it aticr- Never have the sovereigns of wards appeared that it did, from England permitted their subjects to the note of the Danish minister, be made amenable to this law, in “ tiat the convention of the con- the numerous cases when the abuse , tracting powers went to establish of power has transgressed the limits new principles of maritime law, of justice. The neutral powers

have made the strongest remon- most unexceptionable impartiality, strances and protesta iions; but it will be equally guided by a respect experience has shown that these are for the alliances which are a proof generaliy without effect. It is not of it. Stipulations which contain in therefore surprising, that after so themselves nothing - hostile, and many and repeated injuries they which the security of his subjects. should have had recourse to a mea- prescribed to him, bind him to have sure which may prevent them in recourse to all the means which future, and with that view have providence has placed in his power. entered into a well concerted alli- As unpleasant as the extremities ance, which may define their are to which England has prorights, and place them in a pro- ceeded, the king entertains no per relation to the belligerent pow- doubt of the possibility of a speedy ers.

return to conciliatory and pacific The maritime alliance, as it has dispositions; and in this respect been consolidated, will lead to consides in the sentiments of justice this salutary object, and the king which he has so often had the happakes no difficulty to declare to his piness to experience on other occaBritannic majesty, that he has sions from his Britannic majesty. found in it his own principles, Only by the recall and entire taking that he is intimately convinced of' of the embargo can things be reof its necessity and utility, and stored to their former state; and that he has formally acceded to England must judge whether she the convention which was will consent to afford the neutral cluded between the courts of Rus- powers this means of proceeding sia, Denmark, and Sweden, on to the overtures which they are the lóth of December last: his ready to make.--But as long as majesty is therefore among the those

shall continue, number of the contracting pow. which were adopted from hatred ers, and as such is obliged not to a common principle, and against only to take a direct part in all an alliance no longer to be feared, events which may interest the af- the hostile determination which fairs of the neutral states, but is must be the consequence will be the bound to support that convention necessary result of the treaty; and by such vigorous measures as the the undersigned has it in command course of circumstances may re. to declare to the minister of his quire.

Britannic majesty, that the king, The note of lord Carysfort re- while he testifies his concern at the fers to a subject relative to which circumstances that have occurred, his majesty conceives he is not and whiclı he has never occasioned, obliged to answer, nor even has will fulfil, in the inost sacred nan. aright to form an opinion. Disputes ner, the obligations imposed on hiin exist between the courts of London by treaties. and Petersburg, which in no manner The undersigned, while he exehave connexion with that to which cutes this command, has the honour the above-mentioned minister has to assure lord Carystort of his high endeavoured to unite them. But esteem. (Signed) as much as the conduct of Prussia

HAUGWITZ. has been hitherto guided by the Berlin, Feb. 12.




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