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(From Capper's OBSERVATIONS on the Winds and MONSOONS.]


THE tables in the Philoso- that agriculture was in such an im.

phical Transactions, those proved state, even near the capital, of bishop Watson, Dr. Robertson, as to admit of an carly hay harvest; and major Hayman Rooke, all tend and I am sorry to say, that nine to prove, that the rainy season of years in ten at least, in the highly these islands commences in June, gifted county of Glamorgan, even and continues for the two or three at the present day, the hay is regusubsequent months ; and that the larly spoiled in making. But let greatest quantity of rain falls al- not this circumstance be considered most invariably in the month of as reflecting upon the farmers of July. This is the fact; let us con- that country, who are far from desider what use may be derived from ficient either in industry or a comit by the farmer.

petent knowledge of their business. • In the neighbourhood of Lon. Their country, possessing every posdon, from the great command of sible natural advantage, has not, manure and the goodness of the until lately, had any good turnpike roads, the farmer is able to bring roads; manure was to be had only forward his grass, and to mow it in small quantities; the little there sometimes at the beginning of June, was it became difficult and expenand always by the end of the sive to put on the land, and conmonth; thus he completely finishes sequently they could not bring for his hay harvest before the summer ward their grass to be cut before solstice ; the solsticial rains there- the middle of July. The rains, fore which follow, but seldom com- therefore, so beneficial to the Lonmence before this time, are don farmer were hurtful to them; tremely beneficial to him : they but as it happened almost every bring forward the aftermath, they year, they patiently submitted to swell the corn and increase thie what they considered irremediable; length of the straw; and having for being situated near the sea, finished one harvest the farmer is they supposed it the natural concompletely prepared for the other. sequence

of their cliniate and But it is only within a tew years, soil,

" But



“ But turnpike roads being now pen soon after the autumnal equi. made throughout the country, and Without dwelling much on cafe, expeditious, and cheap con- the advantages of these high winds, veyances being opened, by means which are known to strip

the trees of the canals, from the interior of their leaves, and are said to conof the country to the sea, and la tribute greatly, by the agitation of bourers of every description re- them, to the fall of the sap, I shall sorting in great numbers to the hills, beg leave to observe, that the little where they are employed to work summer of St. Martin, which fol. the mines of iron, line, and coal, lows these gales, and is probably the produce of the country will in the effect of them, continues from future be consumed on the spot, the beginning to the 22d of No, and recessarily increase the quan- vember. This interval of clear tity of manure. In the course of a weather is particularly useful to the few years, then, the valleys at least farmer and the gardener ; to the will come into a high state of cul- former in ploughing and sowing tivation, and both the hay and corn winter and summer fallows, to the harvests in Glamorganshire will be tatter in pruning and dressing 'his as early and productive as those trees after the fall of the leaf, and of

any other county of Great-Bri- when the return of the sap is comtain. The experienced farmer pleted. would not thank me for any remarks As to the winter, it is well known on the great advantages to be de- that little is to be done in the rived from having fodder of a su- country at this time, except the perior quality for his horses, cattle, carrying of manure; but it is imand sheep.

portant both to the fariner and As the solsticial rains are always gardener to remember, that the hard accompanied with westerly and weather seldom begins before south-westerly winds, the mariner Christmas, and in very severe will readily comprehend, that this winters a hard frost is generally season is unfavourable for ships out. preceded or accompanied, in the W3rd bound to the West Indies and early part of it, by a heavy fall of America, and consequently the re

Thus secured, the wheat verse for those which are homeward and herbage of every kind is safe bound from those countries. from external cold; for snow being

“ It is usual for English travellers a non-conductor of heat, the interto fix the middle of July for their nal warmth of the earth, which at summer excursions, but they must all seasons is equal at least to us constantly expect to be interrupted degrees of Fahrenheit's thermomeby heavy showers of rain. To one ter, rises, and is retained near the class of them however this circum- surface; and when the thaw takes stance may be considered as an ad-place, vegetation, having been vantage : it has lately been the preserved under this excellent fashion to visit Wales, and, amidst covering of the sheet of snow, is its wild romantic scenery, the water- found to be in a very advanced and falls are in the height of their beauty improved state. at this season.

« The mariner at this inclement “ The next meteorological general season will seldom go to sea if he fact worthy of observation is; that can avoid it; but voyages to the frequent violent gales of wind hap- West Indies may be undertaken in


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the winter, provided there is a good and the traveller, the winds which outset from the channel by the help prevail at different seasons of the of easterly or north-easterly winds. year, and which, in examining As the spring approaches, the several meteorological registers easterly winds commence: the kept in Great-Britain for upwards March winds and April showers, of fifty years, I have found to be says the honest countryman, bring almost as periodical as those in the forth May flowers; and it is sup- tropics, I shall proceed to a further posed, that the motion of the trees application of this hypothesis to at the vernal equinox contributes domestic purposes. to raise the sap and develop nature, “ Itappears that in these islands the which seems to have been in a state W. and S. W. winds prevail threeof torpor or necessary repose du- fourths of the year, and the E. and ring the winter. The prudent N. E. only one-fourth. In all parts farmer avails himself of these winds of Great-Britain the S. W. is csalso to sow his oats, barley, pease, teemed the most rainy point of the beans, potatoes, &c. The drying compass. quality of these winds, on which I “ In building houses, granaries, or have already pretty fully expatiated, storehouses of any kind, therefore, takes from tire earth what would in all parts of Great-Britain and otherwise be a superabundant de Ireland, great care should be taken gree of moisture on the surface of it. not to place buildings to the E. or

“ At this season, likewise, the N. E. of any lake or standing pool British mariner becomes particu- of water, but particularly of marshes larly active. He may undertake or fens; and where a choice his voyages to all countries situated is permitted, it would perhaps be to the southward of these islands; prudent to erect our habitations to and if bound to the East Indies in the W. and S. W. of every river particular, he may perform the and canal ; for if situated to the voyage almost to a certainty in less eastward of them, according to this than four months. The N. É. winds hypothesis, the wind will blow upon being favourable for ships outward the buildings three-fourths of the bound, they are of course adverse year, bringing with it the addito those that are homeward bound; tional moisture of the river or canal, therefore it would be prudent io and consequently will render it postpone, if possible, entrance into damp and unwholesome; whereas the channel to the end of May, or if placed westward of these sources the beginning of June.

of moisture, the air from the east." In short, the spring is the ward, which is rather too dry, in most favourable season for outward- passing over large bodies of water, bound ships, and the summer for will absorb a certain quantity of the those returning home. In the moisture in solution in the atinoautumn the winds generally incline sphere, and the dampness of it of to the W. but rather towards the N. : course will be by these means in than the S.; and in winter they are some degree diminished: but at all often from the N. E. but the heavier events, as the wind blows from the gales of wind almost always come eastward three months of the

year from the N. W.

only, a house thus situated will be " After having pointed out to the less damp than one placed to the farmer and gardener, the mariner westward, exactly in proportion to


the difference of time each different produced by the joint effects of wind blows, that is, as three to rarefaction and condensation. These nine; and for this reason every two principles acting near the midperson should recoilect that the W. dle of the South Auantic, the Pae and S. W. sides of a house are al. cific, or any other wide expanse ways the most damp.

of ocean unbroken by land, will " It seems needless to expatiate on produce two currents of air, one the necessity of applying these ob- from the E. following the course of servations in particular to situations the sun, and another nearly N. or near marshes or fens. The fatal S. from the frozen regions near the consequences of the exhalations pole. These two currents of air from these places are very well moving through nearly an equal known; and therefore I shall con- space, and nearly with equal velotent myself with having pointed city, over a surface of equal temout to those, who are unavoidably perature, at length unite, and form obliged to live near them, the most a N. E. and S. E. perennial, comeffectual means of partly avoiding monly called a trade wind. their effects. If any persons can

“ Where a considerabie body of for a moment entertain a doubt of land intervenes, particularly in the their baneful influence, I must beg tropics, new points of rarefaction leave to refer them to the first book and condensation take place, suffi. of the classical and elegant poem ciently powerful to counteract the on health by the learned and inge- former more remote, and therefore nious Dr. Armstrong, whose salu- more feeble causes; and thus the tary advice I shall not attempt to monsoon, or any other periodical disguise in the tame language of wind, will be formed. prose; nor would I wishi, by a “ But in high latitudes, near ex. partial quotation, to deprive the tesnive tracts of both sea and land, reader of the pleasure of gratifying where the points of rarefaction and himself by a general reference to condensation are more irregular the original.

but moderate, and the changes of “ Although our atmosphere in temperature much more frequent, particular places is impregnated the winds in those parts of the with noxious vapours, fortunately globe will necessarily become more for the inhabitants of these islands variable, and also less violent. they are not subject to the baneful But perhaps it will be asked, influence of poisonous winds; nor by what means opposite currents can they scarcely consider them- of air are observed in the same selves exposed to the ravages of place? or, in common lauguage, hurricanes. The tempests, which while the wind blows one way, 'sometimes are known in our iem- why the clouds apparently move pe;ate climate, can scarcely be another? The term wind, mendeemed more than storms, especi- tioned as something distinct froin ally when compared with those in the current of air in this question, the tropic. But a brief recapitula- is, I believe, the cause of all the tion of the fundamental principles doubts and perplexities, and very of our theory will best distinguish often in this inquiry misteads eveu the names and characters of every experienced philosophers themkind of wind,

selves. For my own part, I feel Al winds are supposed to be little doubt that these opposite cur

rents of air are imputable to elec- fill up the vacuum. But when all trical agency, as they almost al- the phenomena of electricity, and ways precede thunder-storms; for the various causes of heat; are perwhen a considerable portion of the fectly known, it will, I doubt not, atmosphere in the upper regions is he as easy to calculate and predict rarefied by means either of electri- the course and strength of winds, cal or common fire, the surround" as it now is to foretel the flux and ing bodies of air will suddenly rush reflux of the tides, and the regular towards the point of rarefaction to return of eclipses."


[From the Same.)


HOSE who are furnished from that side. If, therefore, the

with proper instruments, clouds to the westward in the and who carefully observe the in- morning are saturated with moisformation they afford, will not ture, which they must be to prooften be mistaken in their judg- duce a rainbow, as these clouds ment of the changes of the weather. proceed from the west towards the The barometer, the thermometer, east, they probably will produce the hygrometer, and the electro- rain; whereas, on the contrary, meter, will generally give us timely when the sun sets perfectly clear, notice of any material change in and the clouds to the eastward are the state of the atmosphere. But moist, it is a proof that the wet before we consider the best, or at clouds are past, with a westerly least the usual modes of employing wind, and the shepherd therefore these instruments, we will beg leave may reasonably expect finc weather to mention some common remarks on the following day: of the peasantry, whose professions " When it rains with an cast wind, requiring them to live much in the it probably will rain for twenty-four open air, their opinions merit very hours. This is another observation, great attention, being the result of which seems to me applicable to local observation, continued from countries situated as above menfather to son, and verified from the tioned, with land to the eastward; experience of many ages. Amongst for in general the weather is dry in the first of these is one, now esta- these countries with an east wind, blished into a proverb, that a rain- but when the cohesion of the air bow in the morning is the shop and water is broken, the rain will herd's warning, but the rainbow at not be violent, but of long duranight is the shepherd's delight. tion.

In a country with the sea or " The weather generally clears ocean to the westward, and the at noon; but when it rains at midwind from the same quarter, this day, it seldom clears up again till opinion is likely to be true; for at sun-set. The air, when dry and least nine-tenths of the rain in a warm, continues to absorb and country so situated would come retain the moisture continually


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