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we have only a few observations the quarter. We cannot justly of one or two spots that were seen compare this price with that of the in all that time, and those were preceding eight years, as some of only observed for a short continu- the former years of scarcity would ance. However, on examining come into that period; but the the table of the prices of the quar- cight years immediately following, ter of ninc busliels of the best or that is, from 1685 10 1691, both highest priced wheat at Windsor, included, give an avéráġe price of marked'in Dr. Adam Smith’s va- no more than 1l. 178. 11d. The luable Inquiry into the Nature and difference, which is as full five to Causes of the Wealth of Nations*, four, is well deserving our notice. we find that wheat, during the " A third but very short period, time of the twenty-one years above is from the year 1686 to 1688, in mentioned, hore a very high price; which time Cassini could find no the average of the quarter being spot in the sum. If both years be 21. 108.5; il. This period is much included, we have the average too long to suppose that we might price of wheat, for those three bafely compare it with a preceding years, 1i. 158. Ojd. the quarter. or following one of equal duration. We ought not to compare this Besides, no particulars having been price with that of the three pregiven of the time preceding, ex- ceding vears, as two of them becept that spots in the sun, a good long to the preceding period of while before, began to grow very scarcity'; but the three following scarce, there might even be fewer years give the average price for the of them than from the year 1650 to quarter of wheat Il. 128. 103d, or, 1670. Of the twenty-one years as nearly eleven to ten. immediately following, we know " The fourth period on record, that they certainly comprehend is from the year 1695 to 1700, in two short periods, in which there which time no spot could be found were no spots on the sun; of these, in the sun. This makes a period more will be said hereafter: but, of five years; for, in 1700 the including even them, we have the spots were seen again. The average price of wheat, from 1671 average price of wheat, in these to 1691, only 21. 45. 4şd. thc quar. years, was 3l. 33. 34. the quarter. ter. The difference, which is a 'The five preceding years, from little more than as nine to eight, is 1690 to 1694, give 21. s. 41. and therefore still a proof of a tempo- the five following years, from 1700 rary scarcity.

to 1704, give 1l. 175. Ind. These “Our next period is much bet- differences are both very consifer ascertained. It begins in De- derable ; the last is not less than cember 1676, which year therefore five to three. we should not take in, and goes to “ The fifth period extends from April 1684; in alt which time, 1710 to 1713 ; but here there was Flamsteed, who was then observ- one spot seen in 1710, none in 1711 ing, saw no spot in the sun. The and 1712, and again one spot only average price of wheat, during in 1713. The account of the these eight years, was 21. 78. 7 d. average price of wheat, for these

** See book i. chap. xi.”


four years, is 21. 178. 4d. the which can only be ascertained quarter. The preceding four by future observations, I forbear years, from 1706 to 1709, give enteriny further into a discussion the price 21. 35. 7d. and the fol- of it. lowing years, from 1714 to 1717, “ It will be thought remarkable, it was 21. 68, 9d. When the as

When the as- that no later periods of the disaptronomical account of the sun for pearance of the solar spots can be this period, which has been stated found. The reason however is above, is considered, these two obvious. The perfection of indifferences will be found very con- struments, and the increased iumsiderable; the first of them being ber of observers, have produced an nearly as four to three.

account of solar spots, which, from “ The result of this review of their smallness, or their short apthe foregoing five periods is, that, pearance, would probably have from the price of wheat, it seems been overlooked in former times. probable that some temporary If we should in future only reckon scarcity or defect of vegetation has the years of the total absence of generally taken place, when the solar spots, even that remarkable sun has been without those ap- period of scarcity which has fallen pearances which we surmise to be under my own observation, in symptoms of a copious emission of which nevertheless I have now light and heat. In order, hors and then seen a few spots of short ever, to make this an argument in duration, and of no great magnifavor of our hypothesis, even if the tude, could not be adinitted. reality of a defective vegetation of “ For this reason, we ought now grain were sufficiently established to distinguish our solar observaby its enhanced price, it would tions, by reducing them to short still be necessary to show that a periods of symptoms for or against deficiency of the solar beams had a copious emission of the solar been the occasion of it. Now, beams, in which, all the phenothose who are acquainted with mena we have pointed out should agriculture may remark, that wheat be noticed. The most striking of is well known to grow in climates them are certainly the number, much colder than ours; and that a magnitude, and duration of the proper distribution of rain and dry openings. The increase and deweather, with many other circunó crease of the luminous appearance stances which it will not be neces of the corrugations is perhaps full sary to mention, are probably of as essential; but as it is probable much greater consequence than the that their brilliancy may be a con absolute quantity of light and heat sequence of the abundance of tho derived from the sun. To this I former phenomena, an attention shall only suggest, by way of an- to the latter, which is subject to swer, that those very circumstances great difficulties, and requires the of proper alternations of rain, dry very best of telescopes, may not be weather, winds, or whatever else so necessary. may contribute to favor vegetativă • What remains to be added is in this climate, may possibly de. but short. In the first of my two pend on a certain quantity of sun- series of observations, I have beams, transmitted to us at propet pointed out a dcficiency in what times; but, this being a point appears to be the symptomatic disposition of the sun for emitting return of such seasons as, in the light and heat: it has lasted from end, will be attended by all their the year 1795 to 1800*. That we usual fertility. have had a considerable deficiency “The subject, however, being so in the vegetation of grain, will new, it will be proper to conclude, bardly require any proof. The se- by adding, that this prediction cond series, or rather the com- ought not to be relied on by any mencement of it, for I hope it will one, with more confidence than last long, ha3 pointed out a favour- the arguments which have been able return of the rich appearance brought forwards in this paper of the sun. This, it I may venture may appear to deserve." to judge, will probably occasion a

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Case of a young GENTLEMAN, who recovered his Sight when

seven Years of Age, after having been deprived of it by CATARACTS, before he was a year old; with REMARKS, 'By Mr. JAMES WARE, SURGEON.

[From the same Work.) ASTER W. the son of a held before him at different di

respectable clergyman, stances; and she was soon convincCastlecary, in Somersetshire, was ed, that he was unable to perceive born in the year 1793 ; and, for any of them. A surgeon in the many months, appeared to be a country was consulted, who, on healthy perfect child: his eyes, in examining the child's eyes, discoparticular, were large and rather vered an opacity in the pupils, prominent. When about six months which was so considerable, that he old, he began to cut his teeth; did not hesitate to pronounce there which was attended with great was a complete cataract in each. pain, and frequently with violent A description of the child's situconvulsive fits. About the end of ation was then sent to me, with a bis first year, a number of persons request that I would point out those passing in procession near his fa- steps which its parents should puriher's house, accompanied with sue. The case was so evident, that music and flags, the child was I could not hesitate in saying, that taken to see them; but, instead of the removal of the opaque crystallooking at the procession, it was line humour, from the place it occu: observed that, though he was evi- pied behind the pupil, was the dently much pleased with the music, only method by which the child his eyes were never directed to the could obtain his sight; and, attachplace from whence the sound came. ed as I was, at that time, in all His mother, alarmed by this disco- cases, to the operation of extractvery, was naturally led to try whe. ing the cataract, in preference to ther he could see silver spoons, and that of depressing it, I added, that other glaring objects, which she I did not think he would be fit for

« * This perind should properly have been divided into two small ones; but, for want of intermediate solar observations, I have joined the visible deficiencies in the illo. iminating and heating powers of the sun, from the year 1795 10 1796, and again froin 1798 to 1800, into one."


the operation, until he was at least I found it impossible to fix the eye, thirteen or fourteen years old. This in order to extract the cataract, advice being approved, all thoughts without employing a degreeof force of assisting his sight were, for the which might have been highly inpresent, relinquished. He soon disc jurious. I therefore relinquished covered a great fondness for music; my intention of performing the his memory was very retentive of operation in that way, and deterthe little stories that were read or mined to make use of the couching recited to him; and, in every way, needle; being prepared, either to it became evident that he had a depress the cataract with this inmind capable of receiving infor- strument, if it was sufficiently solid mation. As soon as he could speak, for the purpose, or, it it was soft or it was also observed, that when an fluid, (which I rather expected.) object was held close to his eyes, to puncture its capsule largely, so he was able to distinguish its co- as to bring the opaque crystalline lour, if strongly marked; but, on into free contact with the aqueous no occasion, did he ever notice its and vitreous humours. In order to outline or figure. In November,' fix the eye for this operation, I was 1800, his parents took him to Bris- not afraid to make use of a speciatol; whither they went for the pur- lum oculi; since a pressure, which pose of seeing the works carried on

would have been highly dangerous in the school for the indigent blind in extracting the cataract, might in that city, and in order that they be applied on the present occasion might ascertain whecher their son, with perfect safety. Conformably who was then arrived to his seventh to my expectation, the cataract was year, could be taught any thing of a soft consistence; in consethat would be useful or amusing. quence of which, I was not able to Here he very quickly learrt the depress it, and contented myself ait of making laces. But his pa. with making

making a large aperture rents, having brought him so far through the capsule, by means of from home, thought it adviseable which the crystalline was brought to extend their plan, a nd make a into contact with the other huis visit to the metropolis, for the sake mours, a considerable part of it of giving me an opportunity of in- coming forwards, and showing itspecting his eyes, and of hearing selt directly under the cornea. whether my opinion continued the This being the immediate reo same as that which I had written sult of the operation, it could not to them six years before. About a be expected that any improvement month previous to the time of their should be made in the sight of the arrival, a Portuguese boy, four patient at that time. In a few teen years old, had been put under days, however, the opaque matter my care, who was in a similar si. was wholly alsorbed ; the pupils tuation; and, in this case, notwith. became clear; and the lad recostanding all the efforts I could use, vered the sight of both his eyes *.

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« * It should be remarked, that the sight obtained by children who are born with cataracts, is seldom so perfect as that which those recover, after the operation, who are afflicted with the disorder later in life. In consequence either of some remainiog apacity in the crystalline capsule, uhich hinders the free adınission of the rays of light, or of a greater tenuity in the remaining bumours of the eye, children requirc, in general, a much deeper convex glass to enable them 10 see minute objects ; and, at the same iire, they are obliged to hold thein much nearer their eyes than older persons.'


Encouraged by the success which handkerchief tied loosely over his followed this operation, I was in, eyes, when he told her that under duced to retract the opinion which the handkerchief, which had slipI had formerly sent to Master W.'s ped upward, he could distinguish latlıer, (which opinion I had given the table by the side of which she under the impression that the cata. Was sitting: it was about a yard ract should be extracted,) and I and a half from him; and he obnow proposed, that an attempt served that it was covered with a should be made to afford relief to green cloth, (whieh was really the one eye, at least without further case,) and that it was a little further loss of time; this attempt, in the off than he was able to reach. No way above mentioned, being prac- further questions were asked him ticable with as much safety at his at that time; as his mother was present age as at any future period; much alarmed, less the use thus and, if it proved successful, it would made of his eye might have been give the young gentleman the be- premature and injurious. Upon nefit of vision five or six years examination, I found that it was sooner than his friends had been not more inflamed than the other encouraged to expect, by my for. eye; and the opacity in the pupil mer letter on this subject. They did not appear to be much dimiwere naturally much pleased with nished. Desirous, however, to as. this alteration in my advice; and certain whether he was able to the child himself appearing to pose distinguish objeots, I held a letterbesess a great degree of fortitude, I fore him, at the distance of twelve performed the operation on the left inches, when he told me, after a eye, on the 29th of December last, short hesitation, that it was a piece in the presence of Mr. Chamber of paper; that it was square, which lain, F. A.S. doctor Bradley, of he knew by its corners; and that Baliol college, Oxford, and Mr. it was longer in one direction than Platt, surgeon, in London. It is it was in the other. On being denot necessary, in this place, to en- sired to point to the corners, he did ter into a description of the ope- it with great precision, and rearation. It will be sufficient to say, dily carried his finger in the line of that the child, during its perfor- its longest diameter. I then showed mance, neither uttered an excla- him a small oblong band-box comation, nor made the smallest mo- vered with red leather, which he tion, either with his bead or hands. said was red and square, and pointThe eye was inmediately bound ed at once to its four corners. After up, and no inquiries made on that this, I placed before him an oval day with regard to his sight. On silver box, which he said had a the 30th, I found that he had ex- shining appearance; and, presently perienced a slight sickness on the afterwards, that it was round, bepreceding evening, but had made cause it had not corners. The obno complaint of pain, either in his servation, however, which appearhead or eye. On the 31st, as soon ed to me most remarkable, was as I entered his chamber, the mo- that which related to a white stone ther, with much joy, informed me mug; which he first called a white that her child could see. About bason, but, soon after, recollecting an hour before my visit, he was himself, said it was a mug, because standing near the fire, with a it had a handle. These experi


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