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butable to the deep anxiety that we rious properties have been affixed to are all feeling for the greatest mea our episcopal sees, and are legally sure of the efficiency of the Church, enjoyed by those occupants who were as well in external as in its more in appointed before the ecclesiastical ternal development.
commissioners endeavoured to secure Men whose minds have never a re-adjustment of their future inknown, or who have thrown off the comes. Yet it is no less true, we fear, shackles imposed by a blind and from the facts which are now too freignorant adherence to the prestige of quently brought forward, that those ancient claims and arrangements, are
who have taken the sees subject to beginning to manifest a resoluté de these re-arrangements, do still really termination to reject what is altoge enjoy far more than was ever contemther wrong or useless, and to remodel plated. But, whether they do or do what clearly demands and is suscep not, the evil remains unredressed, in tible of safe re-arrangement.
What bishops having to manage and square our forefathers have done in civil
accounts arising from the settlement matters has, during the last quarter of purely secular matters. All this of a century, been treated with but cries for speedy and complete reform. little ceremony by those who have The Church in the present day espeprofessed to feel that the lapse of cially, has the most urgent need of time, further enlightenment, and in men for the high and responsible creased experience, fully warranted office of its rulers who are not entanthe application of remedial mea- gled with such irreconcilable duties
as bargaining for fines, and the temThe time has now arrived when our poral stewardship of lands, or other episcopacy must be dealt with in the property. The temptations which the way which shall give greater promise possession and control of such matof stability and real efficiency to the ters bring with them, ought not to be Establishment, than the basis on allowed to subject ministers of Christ which it at present rests. Our bishops to their unholy and secularizing inare losing the confidence and attach- fluence. ment of the laity; and their influ The difficulties in the way of a ence, as heads of the Church in this perfect transfer of our episcopal procountry, is to a great extent paralyzed perty into the hands of proper trusby the unfortunate position in which tees, may be very great, yet they are they are placed in two particulars : not so great as to deter those who first, their revenues, and the source are in reality the best friends of the from which they are derived; secondly, Church from attempting to cope with the rank they occupy.
so plain a duty. It is not desirable With regard to the first particular, that the pages of the Christian Guarit were easy to cull from many eccle- dian should be occupied with the desiastical reports and other sources, tails of the various sources from which facts which would tell most strongly the episcopal revenues are derived ; against that system which has for so the present debates in both Houses long a period rendered the bishops of Parliament, on the accusations of liable to something stronger than a improper appropriations, and the exsuspicion of having more than ade- planations and letters which such quate incomes for ruling ministers of charges have elicited, are quite of Christ's Church. Their ordinary and sufficient force to show how imperapublished incomes may vary from tively that measure at least of reform an inconsiderable to a large yearly is called for, which shall place our amount; but, besides these, there bishops upon a far higher and more have been ways and means in the spiritual footing than that which these shape of fines upon the re-letting of partial disclosures of their moneythe respective properties of the sees, matters gives to them. which have been understood to have It is no sufficient answer to the uryielded very large additional sources gent objections against the present of revenue. It is true that these va sources or amounts of episcopal int
comes, that our prelates bestow largely lative position, claims, and duties of the proceeds in deeds of munificence the two characters, has, most unwiland charity; the world, and even the lingly, brought us to the conclusion Church, is naturally apt, where all is that they are in many ways incomconcealment or uncertain, to exag- patible. We say unwillingly, because gerate the amount received, and can we not only ourselves desire to avoid never rightly or fully know the man the slightest unnecessary change, but ner of its expenditure.*
are deeply averse to say or write anyThe system is altogether so bad, that thing which shall causelessly unsettle if the episcopate is to stand well with the minds of our brethren, as to the the Church and the country, and to customs and constitution of the be really a blessing to both, it must Church and country. What man can cheerfully, by the consent of its pre- sketch with truth and fulness the chasent members, abandon all claims to racter and relative duties of a ministhe management and incomes of the ter, — and, above all, a ruling miproperties of sees, and be content to nister of the true sanctuary, of which be placed on the same footing as to our own Church rightly claims to income, as are the judges of the be a part? If St. Paul, after miland.
nutely describing the solemn duThe cry of sacrilege and innovation ties and responsibilities of the mic may be raised by those who blindly nisterial office, could say, “Who is prefer, either from inveterate prejus sufficient for these things ?'' and dices or motives of personal interest, "Give thyself wholly to them;" and things as they are to things as they that they are the servants of the ought to be: it is, however, one of the Church for Christ Jesus' sake; it is safety-valves we believe it is essential no light matter to see super-added to for the Church's stability to open, that these responsibilities and spiritual our bishops be immediately released duties, and declared position, the enfrom the care of estates and manors. tanglements of earthly business and They will then cease to be open to the high temporal rank. Twenty years accusation of a love of filthy lucre, in since we should have set down as a taking advantage of unexpected rises dissenter and a leveller, the man who in the value of episcopal property and even ventured to balance the advanhagglings for large fines for the re tages and disadvantages arising from newal of leases.
the twin character of our bishops, Upon our second particular, – the ministerial and senatorial; but years rank our bishops occupy in the State, and unprejudiced observation, with, and society in general, we also have we trust, a sincere and growing desire a few words to offer. Here we must for the spiritual character and inbe prepared to look with boldness at creased utility of the Church, has the real position which these men oc- deeply convinced us that our bishops cupy, as ruling ministers of Christ do not and cannot sustain the true and as peers of the realm; and a long dignity and spirituality of the chrisand attentive consideration of the re- tian ministry, while they are so mani
festly raised above their brethren in . It has been discovered with some astonishment that the last Archbishop of Canterbury,
We recently heard in conversation Dr. Howley, did actually receive, a year or two before his death, the round sum of £40,000 in a single year. And that the Bishops of London
scription of what is really the scriptuand Winchester had realized incomes of £24,000 and £28,000 in particular years. 'I hese receipts ral end and object of the establishviolated no law or compact, since all these pre. ment of a Christian Church in any lates held their sees before the Act of 1837
country, The conversion of sinners, passed. Still, however, the bare fact of the realization of such large sums startled most and the sanctification of God's own people. The returns of 1835, we believe, gave
people. That these purposes, in a the respective sums of £19,000, £14,000, aud £11,000, as the average incomes of the sees of Canterbury, London, and Winchester. In some largely blessed work of a large porway or other, an increase of a very extraordi.
tion of our clergy, we thankfully adnary kind seems latterly to have taken place.Record, July 241h.
mit; but we cannot and dare not
blind our minds to the fact, that with individual courtesy, and the influthe actual accomplishment of this ences of personal piety, tend to mitiwork, our hierarchy have had but too gate this evil; but these do not in little to do.
the slightest degree affect either the We have had some great and good reality of the undue elevation of binames in our English episcopacy, and shops, or the varied evil consequences they have left behind them decided arising therefrom. testimonies of what faithful men may As for the vast lay community, do for the cause of Christ's Church, whatever they know of their bishops, when invested with authority, even is mainly gathered from the few and amid the temptations of rank and far between opportunities in which affluence. When, however, we study the ceremonies of confirmation or attentively the characters, doings, consecration may bring them togeand influence, of the long list of bi- ther. They may hear them preach shops, from the Reformation to the charity sermons, and those who are present time, we cannot fail to be more than ordinarily interested in impressed with the conviction, that Church matters, may bestow some the Church has suffered, rather than attention upon the periodical charges benefited by the worldly position of the bishops to their clergy; but, which our prelates have been forced apart from these objects, there is, but to assume.
little in the office and duties of our Let us look at this question in the episcopacy, as at present constituted, light of God's truth, and with minds either to secure the regard of the unclouded by prejudice. Let us com- laity, or to deepen in them those pare the rank and income of our principles of faith and holiness, for bishops, with that station and those the more perfect exemplification of means which we really believe to be which they have a natural right to in accordance with the mind of Christ, look to their spiritual rulers. the Chief Bishop of the Church, and For the right and more efficient not according to those false and vi- exercise of episcopal duties, we want sionary notions by which even the more bishops; but the order, both in most spiritual Churchmen seek to,ex station and emolument, must be far cuse and to continue the present different from what now exists. The anomalous state of things. It were property of the Church must be gaeasy to run over a long catalogue of thered into the hands of other and. the many ways in which the subject more suitable trustees, who, by a we are treating of operates prejudici- faithful and judicious management of ally, independently of its striking in- its revenues, shall be enabled to diconsistency with Scripture. What is vide them amongst a much larger the relative position, what the inter- body of the episcopate, and yet have course, the counsel, the comfort, car somewhat of value to spare for that ried on and given between the bishops most invaluable, yet miserably paid and their clergy? The most favour- body, the working clergy, ably inclined apologist for things as An episcopate so extended in numthey are, cannot be in any measure ber, and reduced to its scriptural posatisfied at the broad line of separa sition in rank, may not be a desirable tion unavoidably drawn by the pre- body to rank with peers of the realm; sent system between those, of whom yet would it, and the Church geneChrist declared, “All ye are bre rally, gain inconceivably by this apthren.' The working clergy must parent loss of earthly dignity; while be fully sensible of the countless some other and more consistent plan evils arising from the distance at must be devised, to prevent the Church which they are kept from those to from being without a voice or a prowhom they ought only to look up as per representation in the legislature unto fathers in Christ, Doubtless, of the country. there are many instances in which
THE EXCHANGE. AN EXTRACT FROM DR. HAMILTON'S “ROYAL PREACHER." “ He that loveth silver shall not be satisfied with silver.”- Read EccLEs. v. 9-20;
vi. 1-9. This passage describes the vanity of goods increase, they are increased that riches. With the enjoyments of fru- eat them; and what good is there to gal industry, it contrasts the woes of the owners thereof, saving the bewealth. Looking up from that con- holding of them with their eyes ?” It dition on which Solomon looked down, is so far well, that rank involves a reit may help to reconcile us to our lot, tinue, and that no man can be so if we remember how the most opulent selfishly sumptuous, but that his luxof princes envied it.
ury gives employment and subsisi. In all grades of society, human tence to others. On the other hand, subsistence is very much the same. it is also well that riches cannot retain “The profit of the earth is for all; in exclusive monopoly the pleasures the king himself is served by the they procure. A rich man buys a field.” “What hath the wise more picture or a statue, and he is proud than the fool?” Even princes are not to think that his mansion is adorned fed with ambrosia, nor do poets sub- with such a famous master-piece. But sist on asphodel. Bread and water, a poor man comes and looks at it, the produce of the flocks and the and, because he has the æsthetic inherds, and a few homely vegetables, sight, in a few minutes he is conscious form the staple of his food who can of more astonishment and pleasure lay the globe under tribute; and these than the dull proprietor has experiessentials of healthful existence are enced in half a century. Or, a rich within the attainment of ordinary in- man lays out a park or a garden, and, dustry. “The profit of the earth is except the diversion of planning and for all.”
remodelling, he has derived from it 2. When a man begins to amass little enjoyment; but some bright money, he begins to feed an appetite morning a holiday student, or a townwhich nothing can appease, and which pent tourist, comes, and when he its proper food will only render fiercer leaves, he carries with him a freight “He that loveth silver shall not be of life-long recollections. The porter satisfied with silver.” To greed there at the gates should have orders to inmay be “increase," but no increase tercept such appropriating sight-seers; can ever be “abundance." For, could for, though they leave the canvas on you change all the pebbles on the the walls, and the marble in the galbeach into minted money, or conjure lery,--though they leave the flowers into bank-notes all the leaves of the in the vases, and the trees in the forest; nay, could you transmute the forest, – they have carried off the solid earth into a single lump of gold, glory and the gladness; their bibuand drop it into the gaping mouth of lous eyes have drunk a delectation, avarice, it would only be a crumb of and all their senses have absorbed a transient comfort, a cordial drop, en- joy for which the owner vainly pays abling it to cry a little louder,-Give, his heavy yearly ransom. give. Therefore, happy they who 4. Amongst the pleasures of obhave never got enough to awaken the scurity, or rather of occupation, the accumulating passion, and who, feel- next noticed is sound slumber. “The ing that food and raiment are the ut- sleep of a labouring man is sweet, most to which they can aspire, are whether he eat little or much; but the therewith content.
abundance of the rich will not suffer 3. It is another consideration which him to sleep.” Sometimes the wealthy should reconcile us to the want of would be the better for a taste of powealth : that, as abundance grows, so verty; it would reveal to them their grow the consumers, and of riches less privileges. But if the poor could get perishable, the proprietor enjoys no a taste of opulence, it would reveal to more than the mere spectator. “When them strange luxuries in lowliness.
Fevered with late hours and false ex sion, and as the powdered menials citement, or scared by visions, the are closing the shutters of the brilrighteous recompense of gluttonous liant room, and you see the sumptuexcess, or, with breath suppressed and ous table spread, and the fire-light palpitating heart, listing the fancied flashing on vessels of gold and vessels footsteps of the robber, grandeur often of silver, perhaps no pang of envy pays a nightly penance for the tri- pricks your bosom, but a glow of graumph of the day. As a king expresses tulation for a moment fills it: Happy it, who could sympathize with Solo- people who tread carpets so soft, and
who swim through halls so splendid ! “ How many thousands of my poorest subjects But, some future day, when the canAre at this hour asleep!--Sleep, gentle sleep! Nature's soft nurse, how have I frighted thee,
dles are lighted and the curtains That thou no more wilt weigh my eyelids drawn in that self-same apartment, it down,
is your lot to be within ; and as the And steep my senses in forgetfulness ! Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,
invalid owner is wheeled to his place Upon uneasy pallets stretching thee,
at the table, and as dainties are handed And hush'd with buzzing night flies to thy round, of which he dares not taste, Than in the perfum'd chambers of the great, and as the guests interchange cold Under the canopies of costly state, And lull'd with sounds of sweetest melody?
courtesy, and all is so stiff and so Then, happy, lowly clown!
common-place, and so heartlessly Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.". grand-your fancy cannot help flying
5. Wealth is often the ruin of its off to some humbler spot with which possessor. It is “kept for the owner you are more familiar, and “where to his hurt.” Like that King of Cy- quiet with contentment makes her prus who made himself so rich, that home.” Nay, how curious the conhe became a tempting spoil
, and who, trast, could the thoughts be read rather than lose his treasures, em which sometimes cross one another! barked them in perforated ships; but, That ragged urchin who opened the wanting courage to draw the plugs, common-gate, and let the silvery chaventured back to land, and lost both riot through,--oh, “what a phantom his money and his life :ť so a fortune of delight” the lady looked, as in is a great perplexity to its owner, and clouds of cushions and on a firmament is no defence in times of danger. And of ultramarine she floated away! very often, by enabling him to pro- What a golden house she must have cure all that heart can wish, it pierces come from, and what a happy thing him through with many sorrows. to be borne about from place to place Ministering to the lust of the eye, in such a carriage, as easy as a bird the lust of the flesh, and the pride of and as brilliant as a queen! But, life, misdirected opulence has ruined little boy, that lady looked at you. many both in soul and body.
As she passed she noticed your ruddy 6. Nor is it a small vexation, to cheeks, and she envied you. That have accumulated a fortune, and glittering chariot was carrying what when expecting to transmit it to some you do not know,-a broken heart; favourite child, to find it suddenly and death-stricken and world-weary, swept away. (Vers. 14–16.) There as she looked at you, she thought, is now the son, but where is the How pleasant to have lived amongst sumptuous mansion ? Here is the the blossomed May-trees on this comheir, but where is the vaunted heri- mon's edge, and never known the
falsehoods of fashion and the evil 7. Last of all, are the infirmity and ways of the world! fretfulness which are the frequent We have glanced at the sorrows of companions of wealth. “All his days: the rich; some will expect that we also he eats in darkness, and suffers should now descant on the sinfulness anxiety and peevishness along with of riches. And a certain class of resickness.” You pass a stately man- ligionists, inisunderstanding the Savi• Henry IV., Second part.
our's precept, “ Lay not for
up your+ Procul dubio hic non possedit divitias, sed selves treasures on earth,” have spoa divitiis possessus est; titulo rex insulæ, animo
ken of money as if it were a malignant pecuniæ miserabile mancipium. - Valerius Maximus, lib. ix. cap. 4.
principle, and have canonized poverty