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Civil government of God.

be brought down to hell: for if the mighty works which have been done in thee, had been done in Sodom, it would have remained until this day. 24 But I say unto you, That it shall be more tolerable for the land of Sodom, in the day of judgment, than for thee. -12:41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and behold, a greater than Jonas is here. [Lk. 11: 31, 32.]

Lk. 12: 47 That servant which knew his lord's will, and prepared not himself, neither did according to his will, shall be beaten with many stripes. 48 But he that knew not, and did commit things worthy of stripes, shall be beaten with few stripes. For unto whomsoever much is given, of him shall be much required; and to whom men have committed much, of him they will ask the more.

Jn. 3: 19 This is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil.

Heb. 10: 20 If we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, 27 But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries. 28 He that despised Moses' law, died without mercy under two or three witnesses : 29 Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? [See 161, 348.]

CIVIL GOVERNMENT.

310. Divine authority for civil government.

Ex. 18: 25 Moses chose able men out of all Israel, and made them heads over the people, rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. 26 And they judged the people at all seasons: the hard causes they brought unto Moses, but every small matter they judged themselves.

Num. 11: 11 And Moses said unto the LORD, Wherefore hast thou afilicted thy servant? and wherefore have I not found favor in thy sight, that thou layest the burden of all this people

16 And the LORD said unto Moses, Gather unto me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tabernacle of the congregation, that they may

upon me?

Expediency of.

stand there with thee. 17 And I will come down and talk with thee there; and I will take of the spirit which is upon thee, and will put it upon them: and they shall bear the burden of the people with thee, that thou bear it not thyself alone. [Dt. 1: 9–18.]

Num. 27: 15 Moses spake unto the LORD, saying, 16 Let the LORD, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation, 17 Which may go out before them, and which may go in before them, and which may lead them out, and which may bring them in; that the congregation of the LORD be not as sheep which have no shepherd. 18 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take thee Joshua the son of Nun, a man in whom is the spirit, and lay thine hand upon him ; 19 And set him before Eleazar the priest, and before all the congregation: and give him a charge in their sight. 20 And thou shalt put some of thine honor upon him, that all the congregation of the children of Israel may be obedient.

Dt. 16: 18 Judges and officers shalt thou make thee in all thy gates, which the LORD thy God giveth thee, throughout thy tribes: and they shall judge the people with just judgment. 19 Thou shalt not wrest judgment; thou shalt not respect persons, neither take a gift: for a gift doth blind the eyes of the wise, and pervert the words of the righteous.

Pr. 8: 12 I wisdom dwell with prudence. 15 By me kings reign, and princes decree justice. 16 By me princes rule, and nobles, even all the judges of the earth.

Ac. 13: 20 After that, he gave unto them judges, about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet.

Rom. 13: 3 Rulers are not a terror to good works, but to the evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the power? do that which is good, and thou shalt have praise of the same: 4 For he is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid ; for he beareth not the sword in vain : for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil. 5 Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake. 6 For, for this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. 311. Erpediency of civil government with penalties.

Dt. 13: 10 Thou shalt stone him with stones that he die; because he hath sought to thrust thee away from the LORD thy God, which brought thee out of the land of Egypt from the house of bondage. 11 And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is among you.

Qualifications and duties of rulers.

19:18 The judges shall make diligent inquisition: and behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; 19 Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother: so shalt thou put the evil away from among you. 20 And those which remain shall hear, and fear, and shall henceforth commit no more any such evil among you.

2 Ch. 9: 8 Blessed he the LORD thy God, which delighted in thee to set thee on his throne, to be king for the Lord thy God: because thy God loved Israel, to establish them for ever, therefore made he thee [Solomon] king over them, to do judgment and justice.

Pr. 20: 8 A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment, scattereth

away all evil with his eyes. 26 A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them.

Is. 1: 26 I will restore thy judges as at the first, and thy counsellors as at the beginning: afterward thou shalt be called, The city of righteousness, the faithful city.

1 Tim. 1: 8 We know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully ; 9 Knowing this, that the law is not made for a righteous man, but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and for sinners, for unholy and profane, for murderers of fathers, and murderers of mothers, for manslayers, 10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for menstealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing that is contrary to sound doctrine.

Pr. 26: 3, and 20: 30. [See 494.] 312. Qualifications of civil rulers.

Ex. 18: 21 Thou shalt provide out of all the people, able men, such as fear God, men of truth, hating covetousness; and place such over them to be rulers.

Dt. 1: 13 Take you wise men, and understanding, and known among your tribes, and I will make them rulers over you. 15 So I took the chief of your tribes, wise men, and known, and made them heads over you, captains over thousands, and captains over hundreds, and captains over fifties, and captains over tens, and officers among your tribes.

2 S. 23: 3 The God of Israel said, the Rock of Israel spake to me, He that ruleth over men must be just, ruling in the fear of God. 313. Duties of civil rulers.

Dt. 1: 16 I charged your judges at that time, saying, Hear the causes between your brethren, and judge righteously between

Duties of Rulers.

every man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him. 17 Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's. [Dt. 16: 19.] 17: 15 Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee whom the LORD thy God shall choose. 18 And it shall be when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests and Levites. 19 And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them: 20 That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment to the right hand or to the left. 19:18 The judges shall make diligent inquisition: and behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother ; 19 Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother. — 25: 1 If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that the judges may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked. 2 And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to his fault.

Ps. 82: 2 How long will ye judge unjustly, and accept the persons of the wicked ? 3 Defend the poor and fatherless : do justice to the afflicted and needy. 4 Deliver the poor and needy: rid them out of the hand of the wicked.

Pr. 16: 12 It is an abomination to kings to commit wickedness: for the throne is established by righteousness. — 20: 28 Mercy and truth preserve the king: and his throne is upholden by mercy. - 29: 14 The king that faithfully judgeth the poor, his throne shall be established for ever.- 31: 4 It is not for kings, O Lemuel, is not for kings to drink wine; nor for princes strong drink: 5 Lest they drink, and forget the law, and pervert the judgment of any of the afflicted.

Jer. 22: 2 Say, Hear the word of the LORD, O king of Judah, that sittest upon the throne of David, thou, and thy servants, and thy people that enter in by these gates : 3 Thus saith the LORD; Execute ye judgment and righteousnes.s, and deliver the spoiled out of the hand of the oppressor : and do no wrong, do no violence to the stranger, the fatherless, nor the widow, neither shed innocent blood in this place. 15 Shalt thou reign, because thou closest thyself in cedar? did not thy father eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? 16 He judged the cause of the poor and

Duties of Subjects.

needy; then it was well with him: was not this to know me? saith the LORD.

Ezk. 45: 9 Thus saith the Lord God; Let it suffice you, O princes of Israel: remove violence and spoil, and execute judgment and justice, take away your exactions from my people, saith the Lord God. 10 Ye shall have just balances, and a just ephah, and a just bath. — 46: 18 The prince shall not take of the people's inheritance by oppression, to thrust them out of their possession; but he shall give his sons inheritance out of his own possession : that my people be not scattered every man from his possession. 314. Duties of subjects toward civil rulers.

Ex. 22: 28 Thou shalt not revile the gods, nor curse the ruler of thy people. [Ac. 23: 4, 5.]

Dt. 17: 9 Thou shalt come unto the priests the Levites, and unto the judge that shall be in those days, and inquire; and they shall shew thee the sentence of judgment: 10 And thou shalt do according to the sentence, which they of that place which the LORD shall choose shall shew thee; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they inform thee: 11 ACcording to the sentence of the law which they shall teach thee, and according to the judgment which they shall tell thee, thou shalt do: thou shalt not decline from the sentence which they shall shew thee, to the right hand nor to the left.

Ec. 8: 2 I counsel thee to keep the king's commandment, and that in regard of the oath of God.

Mat. 17: 24 When they were come to Capernaum, they that received tribute-money, came to Peter, and said, Doth not your Master

pay tribute? 25 He saith, Yes. And when he was come into the house, Jesus prevented him, saying, What thinkest thou, Simon? of whom do the kings of the earth take custom or tribute? of their own children, or of strangers ? 26 Peter saith unto him, Of strangers. Jesus saith unto him, Then are the children free. 27 Notwithstanding, lest we should offend them, go thou to the sea, and cast an hook, and take up

the fish that first cometh up: and when thou hast opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them for me and thee. — 22: 20 He saith unto them, Whose is this image, and superscription? 21 They say unto him, Cesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Cesar, the things which are Cesar's; and unto God, the things that are God's. Rom. 13:1 Let every soul be subject unto the higher pow

For there is no power but of God: the powers that

er's.

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