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Civil Penalties.

be, are ordained of God. 2 Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. 5 Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only for wrath, but also for conscience' sake. 6 For this cause pay ye tribute also: for they are God's ministers, attending continually upon this very thing. 7 Render therefore to all their dues: tribute to whom tribute is due; custom to whom custom; fear to whom fear; honor to whom honor.

1 Tim. 2: 1 I exhort therefore, that, first of all, supplications, prayers, intercessions, and giving of thanks be made for all men : 2 For kings, and for all that are in authority; that we may lead a quiet and peaceable life in all godliness and honesty. 3 For this is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour.

Tit. 3: 1 Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work.

1 Pet. 2: 13 Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake: whether it be to the king, as supreme; 14 Or unto governors, as unto them that are sent by him for the punishment of evil-doers, and for the praise of them that do well. 15 For so is the will of God, that with well-doing ye may put to silence the ignorance of foolish men: 16 As free, and not using your liberty for a cloak of maliciousness, but as the servants of God. 17 Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king.

315. Civil penalties divinely appointed.

Gen. 9: 5 Surely your blood of your lives will I require: at the hand of every beast will I require it, and at the hand of man; at the hand of every man's brother will I require the life of man. 6 Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall his blood be shed: for in the image of God made he man.

Ex. 21: 12 He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death. 13 And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee. 14 But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbor, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die. 15 And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. 16 And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death. 17 And he that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death.

Jewish Capital Offences.

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Num. 35: 30 Whoso killeth any person, the murderer shall be put to death by the mouth of witnesses: but one witness shall not testify against any person to cause him to die. Moreover, ye shall take no satisfaction for the life of a murderer, which is guilty of death: but he shall be surely put to death. 32 And ye shall take no satisfaction for him that is fled to the city of his refuge, that he should come again to dwell in the land, until the death of the priest. 33 So ye shall not pollute the land wherein ye are: for blood it defileth the land and the land cannot be cleansed of the blood that is shed therein, but by the blood of him that shed it. 34 Defile not therefore the land which ye shall inhabit, wherein I dwell: for I the LORD dwell among the children of Israel.

Dt. 19: 18 Behold, if the witness be a false witness, and hath testified falsely against his brother; 19 Then shall ye do unto him, as he had thought to have done unto his brother. — 25: 1 If there be a controversy between men, and they come unto judgment, that the judges may judge them; then they shall justify the righteous, and condemn the wicked. 2 And it shall be, if the wicked man be worthy to be beaten, that the judge shall cause him to lie down, and to be beaten before his face, according to his fault, by a certain number. 3 Forty stripes he may give him, and not exceed: lest if he should exceed, and beat him above these with many stripes, then thy brother should seem vile unto thee.

Pr. 20: 26 A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them. 28: 17 A man that doeth violence to the blood of any person shall flee to the pit; let no man stay him.

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Ac. 25: 10 Then said Paul, I stand at Cesar's judgmentseat, where I ought to be judged: to the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very well knowest. 11 For if I be an offender, or have committed any thing worthy of death, I refuse not to die: but if there be none of these things whereof these accuse me, no man may deliver me unto them. I appeal unto Cesar.

Rom. 13: 4 He is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain: for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil.

316 Capital crimes under the Mosaic code.

1. Murder.-Num. 35: 16 The murderer shall surely be put to death.

Penalty for opposing it.

2. Blasphemy.-Lev. 24: 16 He that blasphemeth the name of the Lord, he shall surely be put to death.

3. Manstealing.- Ex. 21: 16 He that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death. 1 Tim. 1: 9.

4. Idolatry. Ex. 22: 20 He that sacrificeth unto any god, save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly destroyed. [Dt. 17: 2.]

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5. Enticement to Idolatry. Dt. 13: 6 If thy brother entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve other gods: 9 Thou shalt surely kill him.

6. Adultery.-Lev. 20: 10 The adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be put to death.

7. Sodomy and Uncleanness.

Lev. 20: 13 If a man also lie with mankind, as he lieth with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination: they shall surely be put to death. 17-20.

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8. Incest. - Lev. 20: 14 If a man take a wife and her mother, it is wickedness: they shall be burnt with fire. [V. 21.]

9. Bestiality. Lev. 20: 15 If a man lie with a beast, he shall surely be put to death. [16.]

10. Witchcraft.· Ex. 22: 18 Thou shalt not suffer a witch

to live.

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11. Smiting Parents. Ex. 21: 15 He that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death. [See 54.] 12. Cursing Parents. Ex. 21: 17 He that curseth his father or his mother, shall surely be put to death. [Lev. 20: 9.] 13. Disobeying Parents. - Dt. 21: 20 This our son is stub born and rebellious, he will not obey our voice; he is a glutton, and a drunkard. 21 And all the men of his city shall stone him with stones, that he die.

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14. Sabbath Profanation.-Ex. 35: 2 Whosoever doeth work therein shall be put to death. [Num. 15: 32.]

15. Endangering Human Life.-Ex. 21: 29 If the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or a woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death.

317. Opposition to rightful government frequent — its penalty.

Num. 16: 3 They gathered themselves together against Moses and against Aaron, and said unto them, Ye take too much upon you, seeing all the congregation are holy, every one of them, and the LORD is among them: wherefore then

Wicked Rulers injurious.

lift ye up yourselves above the congregation of the LORD? 4 And when Moses heard it, he fell upon his face: 5 And he spake unto Korah and unto all his company, saying, Even to-morrow the LORD will shew who are his, and who is holy; and will cause him to come near unto him: even him whom he hath chosen will he cause to come near unto him. 6 This do; Take you censers, Korah and all his company; 7 And put fire therein, and put incense in them before the LORD tomorrow and it shall be that the man whom the LORD doth choose, he shall be holy; ye take too much upon you, ye sons of Levi. 32 And the earth opened her mouth, and swallowed them up.

Dt. 17: 12 The man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest that standeth to minister there before the LORD thy God, or unto the judge, even that man shall die and thou shalt put away the evil from Israel. And all the people shall hear, and fear, and do no more presumptuously.

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2 Pet. 2: 9 The Lord knoweth how to deliver the godly out of temptations, and to reserve the unjust unto the day of judgment to be punished: 10 But chiefly them that walk after the flesh in the lust of uncleanness, and despise government. Presumptuous are they, self-willed; they are not afraid to speak evil of dignities.

Jude 8 Likewise also these filthy dreamers defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of dignities.

318. Wicked rulers injurious.

1 K. 14: 16 He shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam, who did sin, and who made Israel to sin.

2 Ch. 33: 9 So Manasseh made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to err, and to do worse than the heathen, whom the LORD had destroyed before the children of Israel. 10 And the LORD spake to Manasseh, and to his people: but they would not hearken. 11 Wherefore the LORD brought upon them the captains of the host of the king of Assyria, which took Manasseh among the thorns, and bound him with fetters, and carried him to Babylon.

Ps. 12: 8 The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men are exalted. -94: 20 Shall the throne of iniquity have fellowship with thee, which frameth mischief by a law? 21 They gather themselves together against the soul of the righteous, and condemn the innocent blood.

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Pr. 28: 15 As a roaring lion, and a ranging bear: so is a wicked ruler over the poor people. 16 The prince that want

Exemplified.

eth understanding is also a great oppressor.-29: 2 When the righteous are in authority, the people rejoice: but when the wicked beareth rule, the people mourn. 4 The king by judgment establisheth the land: but he that receiveth gifts overthroweth it.

319. Disobeying the wicked commands of civil rulers justifiable.

Ex. 1: 17 The midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men-children alive. 20 Therefore God dealt well with the midwives.

1 S. 14: 44 Saul answered, God do so, and more also: for thou shalt surely die, Jonathan. 45. And the people said unto Saul, Shall Jonathan die, who hath wrought this great salvation in Israel? God forbid as the LORD liveth, there shall not one hair of his head fall to the ground; for he hath wrought with God this day.

Dan. 3: 16 Shadrach, Meshach, and Abed-nego, answered and said to the king, O Nebuchadnezzar, we are not careful to answer thee in this matter. 17 If it be so, our God whom we serve is able to deliver us from the burning fiery furnace, and he will deliver us out of thine hand, O king. 18 But if not, be it known unto thee, O king, that we will not serve thy gods, nor worship the golden image which thou hast set up.- 6: 13 Then answered they and said before the king, That Daniel, which is of the children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee, O king, nor the decree that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition three times a day.

Ac. 4: 19 Peter and John answered and said unto them, Whether it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto you more than unto God, judge ye.—5: 27 When they had brought them, they set them before the council: and the high priest asked them, 28 Saying, Did not we straitly command you, that ye should not teach in this name? and behold, ye have filled Jerusalem with your doctrine, and intend to bring this man's blood upon us. 29 Then Peter and the other apostles answered and said, We ought to obey God rather than men.

GRATITUDE.

320. Gratitude exemplified and rewarded.

2 S. 9: 6 David said, Mephibosheth. And he answered, Behold thy servant! 7 And David said unto him, Fear not: for I will surely shew thee kindness for Jonathan thy father's sake, and will restore thee all the land of Saul thy father: and

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