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passages. Exod. xiv. 31. And the people feared the Lord, and believed the Lord and his servant Moses. 1 Sam. xü. 18. And all the people greatly feared the Lord and Samuel.' 1 Chron. xxix, 20, And all the congregation blessed the Lord God of their Fathers, and bowed down their heads, and worshipped the Lord and the king.' 1 Tim. v. 21. • I charge thee before God, and the Lord Jesus Christ, and the elect angels, that thou observe these things,' &c. The two last of these passages are peculiarly striking. The people of Israel are said to have worshipped the Lord and the king at the very same time, although no doubt they made a great and necessary distinction betwixt them in their minds : and St. Paul joins the elect angels with God and the Lord Jesus Christ, in a solemn adjuration; but had no intention in doing so to lead any person to suppose, that they were equal in nature or dignity. To the second question we answer, that to be baptized in the name of a person is no proof that that person is God.For the Israelites are said to have been all baptized unto Moses in the cloud and in the sea.' i Cor. x. 1, 2. and in Acts xix. 3. we read of persons that were baptized unto John's baptism. Now being baptized unto Moses and unto John, implies the very same thing as being baptized in the name of Moses or John. For a like form of speak. ing is applied to Christ. Rom. vi. 3. Know ye not, that so many of us as are baptized
sis unto Jesus Christ, were baptized unto his death.' Gal. ii. 27. - For as many of you as have been baptized as unto Christ, have put on Christ. From these two places it is plain, that to be baptized unto Christ, or in the name of Christ, has the same meaning: and consequently to be baptized unto Moses or unto. John, must be equivalent to being baptized in the name of Moses, or John also. This being the case, it clearly follows, that there is no more reason for suppos. ing Christ to be God, because we are commanded to be baptized in his name, or into the profession of the doctrines he taught, than there was for supposing Moses, or John the Baptist, to have been divine persons, because their disciples are also said to have been baptized in their
or into the profession of the respective doctrines they also taught. That to be baptized in the name of a person does not imply that that person is God, may be
further proved, from the question St. Paul puts to the di. vided and contentious part of the Church of Corinth. 1 Cor. i. 13. ' Is Christ divided ? was Paul crucified for you, or were ye baptized in the name of Paul?' This supposition of the Apostle would have been impious, if baptizing in the name of a person had necessarily implied the divinity of that person, in whose name baptism was performed.
It is somewhat surprising, that we never find this form of baptism which St. Matthew records, to have been after. wards repeated or made use of by the Apostles. Con. verts and proselytes are said simply to have been baptized in the name of Christ, or in the name of the Lord Jesus. Acts ii. 38. Then Peter said unto them, repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.' ' Acts x. 48.' And he commanded them to be baptized in the name of the Lord.' Acts xix. 5. < When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.' See also Acts viii. 16. Rom. vi. 3. Gal. iii. 27. These passages have induced some to think, that baptism in the name of Christ alone is sufficiently valid; and that the words of Christ in St. Matthew, are only a summary of Christian doctrine, but not a precise form or rule, that it is always necessary to follow. In short to sum up all we have said upon this subject, baptism in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, does not imply or suppose the divinity of any person here mentioned, but the Father alone, of whose sole divinity we are well assured from the uniform testimony of the scriptures : but it only signifies the sincere belief, profes. sion, and acknowledgement of those doctrines, or of that religion, which the God and Father of all commanded and authorized his Son Jesus Christ to teach to mankind; and which he confirmed and attested by the Holy Spirit, or those miracles, signs, and wonders, which he enabled Christ and his Apostles to perform. This being the true and genuine explication of the passage in St. Matthew : baptizing in the name of the Lord Jesus singly, may be considered as equivalent to the repetition of our Lord's words : inasmuch as acknowledging Jesus to be the Mes. siah, implies a belief in the one God and Father of all who
sent him, and invested him in this office, and also in those miraculous powers and wonderful endowments, by which he was qualified for the discharge of it.
In the conclusion of our seventh Discourse, p. 90-102, we made some observations on the meaning of the words Spi. rit and Holy Spirit, in the Old Testament: and promised a further illustration of this subject, when we came to reply to the objections of our opponents in the New. This seems to be a proper place for introducing these additional remarks. That no argument can be formed for the divi. nity or equality of the Holy Spirit with the Father, (supposing him to be a person) from his name being joined with that of the Father, in the form of baptism, is evident from the observations we have already made. But some may think that his being joined in this manner with the Fa. ther and the Son, is a good proof of his personality. I am of opinion however, that the personality of the Holy Spi. rit cannot be proved from this conjunction. For to be baptized in the name of the Holy Spirit, appears to me to be equivalent to that other phrase in scripture, of being baptized with the Holy Spirit. It does not at all denote a person, but a gift, a grace, a qualification; and we find from a passage we quoted before, and which it is proper here to repeat 6 that the Holy Spirit or the miraculous powers, followed often as a natural consequence of baptism." Acts ii. 38. Then Peter said unto them repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost.' The devout centurion appears to have been possessed of this gift, even before baptism. Acts x. 47. Can any man forbid water that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost (or the miraculous powers) as well as we?'. This sudden effusion of the Holy Spirit, seems to have greatly surprised the Jewish Christians. Acts x. 45. “ And they of the circumci. sion which believed, were astonished, as many as came with Peter, because that on the Gentiles also was POURED qut the gift of the Holy Ghost.' St. Peter in reciting this transaction in the next chapter has the following remark. able words, Acts xi. 15, 16, 17. And as I began to speak, the Holy Ghost fell on them, as on us at the beginning. Then remembered I the word of the Lord, how
that he said, John indeed baptized with water; but ye shall be baptized with the Holy Ghost. Forasmuch then as God gave them the like Gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ, what was I, that I could withstand God.' In all these places the Holy Spirit is called a Gift, but in these last words of St. Peter, it is called the gift which God gave: and the words of our Lord are quoted where he mentions, that the Apostles should be baptized with the Holy Ghost, not many days hence.' Acts i. 5. John the Baptist also, speaks of the Holy Spirit in the same manner, Matth. iii. 11, He (Christ) shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire."
This way of speaking of our Lord, of his forerunner, and of the Apostles, seems to me to afford a clear proof, that to be baptized in the name of the Holy Ghost, and to be baptized with the Holy Ghost, are expressions of the same import and meaning: and thus every argument for the personality of the Spirit, founded on the form of baptism will be satisfactorily removed. And to us who live at a distance from those primitive times, and from whom the Holy Spirit in the extraordinary sense of the word, as de. noting miraculous operations, may be said to be with drawst; yet being baptized in the name of the Holy Spirit may still signify all those divine aids and assistances suit. able to our wants and infirmities, which, as Christians, we have a right to expect in the prosecution of our duty. But it will he still objected, that the Holy Spirit is spoken of under strong personal characters, in some places of the New Testament, such as the following, John xiv. 16, 17. ' And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another comforter, that he may abide with
for even the spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him ; but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.'Ver. 25, 26. “These things have I spoken upto you, being yet present with you. But the Comforter, (which is) the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you.'-John xvi. 7. • Nevertheless, I tell you the truth ; it is expedient for you that I go away, for if I go not away the Comforter will not come unto you; but it I depart, I will send him unto you.' Ver. 13.
"Howbeit, when he, the spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you unto all truth; for he shall not speak of him. self; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak, and he will show you things to come.' It is also said of the spirit that he imparts spiritual gifts as he pleases, 1 Cor. xii. 11. But all these worketh that one and the self same, Spirit, dividing to every man severally as he will.' We are also commanded not to grieve the Holy Spirit, Eph. iv. 30. • Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are seal. ed unto the day of redemption.' In Rom. viii. 16. “The Apostle says, the spirit itself beareth witness with our spi. rit that we are the children of God;' and Ver. 27. It is said of the spirit that, he maketh intercession for the Saints according to the will of God.' And blasphemy against the Holy Spirit is declared to be unpardonable, Matth. xii. 31, 32. Wherefore I say unto you, all manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men : but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. and whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him; but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.' Acts v. 3, 4.
Peter said to Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost
—thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.'
These are the strongest passages, for the personality of the Holy Spirit, that are to be found in all the New Tes, tament. But so far as they favour this notion, they prove at the same time, that if there is such a distinct intel. ligent agent, that he must be a being entirely subordinate to, and dependent upon, God the Father. For the Holy Spirit is described as the comforter, that the Father, is to send in consequence of the prayers of our Lord; and as he
* Many Unitarians of the Arian denomination, have held the personality of the Holy Spirit; and some who have been Socinians in other respects, have yet followed the Arian system in this respect. The excellent and conscientious Mr. Biddle, an eminent confessor for the truth, was one of these. He contended strongly for the personality of the Holy Spirit; but considered him at the same time, not as God, but as the first and most exalted spirit amongst the Holy Angels. The late Dr. Clayton, Bishop of Clogher, and the Author of the Appeal to the common sense of all Christian People, have defended the same opinion. See the Essay on Spirit, and the Appeal, &c,