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Level lines as shown at 12, 14, 16, etc., are now drawn from the point of intersection of frame with diagonals 1 and 2, and the half-breadths taken off at these levels and finally faired-up on half-breadth, when it will be found that the resulting horizontal ribband line, besides acting as a check on the fairness of the diagonals, will show the "wind” of the shell plating wrapping into oxter and body post and insuring a natural “ snye chance of “gather” or unfairness.

The oxter underneath the ship's counter may be faired in a similar manner.

" without any

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CHAPTER III.

THE PREPARATION OF SPECIFICATIONS.

Too much care cannot be expended in the drafting of the bull specification. Clearness and conciseness should be aimed at consistent with an embodiment of all details of hull, fittings, and outfits supposed to be supplied, and all repetition or ambiguity of phraseology carefully avoided. Hampering restrictions should be left out. Know your requirements and state them distinctly. As in all other ship construction work, it will pay to have a definite routive or system in which to draft the specification. Of course, it is obviously impossible to have a standard specification which shall apply to all ships, as vessels are so diverse in their types, design, construction, and equipment as to make this an impossibility. But by keeping a routine list of headings of paragraphs before one, and taking these in rotation when drafting the clauses, the liability to omit important requirements is reduced to a minimum, besides the saving in time and distraction of thoughts through having to recollect what comes next. For this purpose the following headings have been selected which will apply to ordinary vessels. Of course, for special types these will require modifications and additions which will suggest themselves.

Specification Headings.

Title giving type of vessel.

character of erections, 1. Dimensions, moulded

number of masts. Numlength, breadth and

ber of passengers, dedepth, depth of hold, load scription of housing of draft and deadweight.

passengers, officers, and 2. Classification. The Govern

crew.

Nature of cargo ment laws to which the

and handling appliances. vessel and her equipment Location of machinery, are to conform, also full and any special features particulars of the class

of the vessel. she is to take at the 4. Material of hull and rivets. Classification Society 5. Keel, and centre girder in concerned.

double bottom ships. 3. General Description. Type 6. Bilge or side fenders and of stem and stern,

mouldings, docking keels. number of decks, laid or 7. Stem. otherwise, length and 8. Stern frame.

and spars.

ships,

9. Shaft brackets.

38. Machinery Foundations ; 10. Rudder and stock (also main, auxiliary and deck trunk and bearing).

machinery, also boiler 11. Shell plating.

saddles and shaft and 12. Inner bottom, including thrust bearing seats.

plating, side girders, 39. Sheet steel bulkheads.

Foors and margin plate. 40. Steel deck houses, other 13. Scantling in machinery

than erections. space.

41. Bridges, navigating or dock14. Peak tanks.

ing. 15. Deep tanks.

42. Steel masts. 16. F. W. storage tanks.

43. Steel kingposts. 17. Steel decks and flats.

44. Steel derricks, spars, etc. 18. Transverse bulkheads.

45. Wood masts, kingposts 19. Longitudinal bulkheads. 20. Bunkers, oil or coal.

46. Wood decks. 21. Engine and boiler casings. 47. Wood deck houses. 22. Shaft tunnels.

48. Ceiling and sparring. 23. Oil trunks, expansion.

49. Boat stowage.

in single- 50. Anchor stowage. 24. Centre keelson

bottomed 51. Watertight doors and scut25. Side keelsons

tles. 26. Hold and 'tween deck General description of joiner stringers.

work, including entrances and 27. Panting arrangements.

stairways: 28. Frames and reverse frames, 52. In passengers' quarters. in double bottom, up

53. In officers' quarters. sides and at ends.

54. In crew's quarters. 29. Floors, throughout in 55. Pantry accommodations.

single-bottomed ships, at 56. Galley accommodations.
ends and tail brackets in 57. Ice room.
double bottom ships, also 58. Sidelights and decklights;
reference to No. 12.

also borrowed lights. 30. Web frames.

59. Cattle fittings. 31. Deck beams and knee 60. Hawse pipes. brackets.

61. Bollards and fairleads. 32. Stanchions to beams.

62. Hold ladders. 33. Strong beams in E. and B. 63. Ladders to erections and space.

bridges. 34. Hatchways and coamings, 64. Davits, boat and anchor, also

in oil or cargo spaces, provision or coaling davits. covers, fore and afters, 65. Rails, bulwarks, also rail bearers, etc.

and awning stanchions. 35. Cargo and coal ports. 66. Standing and running rig36. Grain trimming hatches.

ging, including cargo 37. Chain lockers.

boom handling gear.

67. Sails, covers, and awnings. 97. Triin and stability. 68. Cement and tiling.

98. Plans to be furnished own69. Paint work.

ers. 70. Heating system.

Capacity and dead71. Lighting system.

weight. 72. Ventilating.

General arrangement. 72a. Refrigerating system.

Cabin booking plans. 73. Deck Machinery, including

Piping plans. windlass, winches and

Stability curves and capstan, also steam and

information. exhaust piping.

99. Docking 74. Fresh and salt water ser- 100. Trial trips. vico.

101. Inspection fees (class, 75. Fire, pumping and drain

etc). ing system.

102. General clause relating to 75a. Cargo oil system.

material, workmanship, 76. Scuppers, from all exposed

inspection by owners, houses, etc., and from

alterations, extras, etc. sanitary quarters. 77. Engine room and docking

Flags. telegraphs.

National colors. 77a. Steering gear.

House flags, and burgee with 78. Anchors, chains, and line

name. outfit.

International signal code. 79. Boats and outfits. 80. Flags, etc.

Boat Outfit. 81. Hose, fire and wash deck, Ash oars, thole pins or rowlocks. also fire buckets.

Rudder (lanyard). 82. Oil tanks, for lamps, etc. Tiller (lanyard). 83. Steaming lights.

Painter, 5 fathom line. 84. Lamps and lanterns, also Cable, 20 fathom line. rockets, etc.

Boat hook. 85. Navigating instruments. Water breakers. 86. Boatswain's stores.

Bread tank. 87. Carpenter's stores.

Plugs for bung hole ; 2, with 88. Cargo handling gear, slings,

chain. hooks, etc.

One anchor. 89. Cook's or galley outfit. One sea anchor. 90. Cabin outfit.

One bailer. 91. Cutlery outfit.

One mast yard and sail. 92. Crockery and glass.

One compass 4" card in case. 93. Table linen.

Four oil lanterns to burn 8 94. Bed linen and bedding.

hours. 95. Spare glasses for side-lights Four oil distributers, 1 gallon in passenger ships.

each. 96. Galvanizing.

Twelve boat hatchets.

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