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PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION.

The preceding editions of this handbook were received so favorably that it was decided to enlarge the third edition by the addition of further “ unified details such as made the earlier editions noteworthy. There has also been included much new matter dealing with ventilation and other subjects, while other portions of the book have been revised and brought up-to-date.

It is hoped that in its enlarged form “The Naval Constructor” will continue to occupy its present position as a daily book of reference for those engaged in the design, construction and maintenance of ships.

GEORGE SIMPSON.

17 Battery Place, NEW YORK CITY,

1st May, 1914.

CONTENTS.

Section I. — Ship Calculations.
Symbols - Algebraical Signs — Displacement — Simpson's
First Rule — Multipliers for Subdivided Intervals — Proof of Simp-
son's Rule Displacement Sections:- Bottom Half-breadth — Dis-
placement Table — Area of Water Plane - Tons per Inch
İminersion — Coefficient — Immersion Passing from Salt to Fresh
Water Area of Midship Section Coefficient B— Prismatic
Coefficient — Centre of Buoyancy - Approximate Rule for Cen-
tre of Buoyancy- Centre of Buoyancy Longitudinally Trans-
verse Metacentre — B. M. Moment of Inertia of Water Plane
Longitudinal Metacentre – Centre of Flotation Approximate
Rule for L.B.M. – Moment to Change Trim — Change of Trim
Moment to Alter Trim One Inch – Approximate Rule for M.
Alteration in Trim through shipping a small weight — Tchiby-
scheff's Sections for “Lucania" — Displacement Sheet by Tchiby-
scheff's Rule— Centre Buoyancy by Tchibyscheff's Rule
L.M.C. and Centre of Flotation by Tchibyscheff's Rule — Trans-
verse Metacentres by Tchibyscheff's Rule— Effect of Form of
Water Line on Position of Longitudinal Metacentre — Effect of
Form of Water Line on Position of Transverse Metacentres — Ex-
planation of Tables on Position of Metacentres — Stability Calcu-
lation by Tchibyscheff's Rule — Tchibyscheff's Sections for Sta-
bility Levers Calculation of G.Z. by Tchibyscheff's Rule
Cross Curves of Stability — Stability Curves — Design - Block
Coefficient — Relation Coefficient Mid Area Coefficient B
Prismatic Coefficient- Area of L.W.L. Coefficient a- Inertia
Coefficient “i” – Centre of Gravity Coefficient “g” — Bilge
Diagonal Coefficient - Element Coefficient — Relation of the Co-
efficients to one another — Element Coefficients for various Types

- Coefficients for Centre of Gravity — Moment of Inertia of
Waterline Coefficient - Sheer - Contour of Stern - Figureheads
and Lacing Pieces — Rail Half-breadths — Load Line Half-breadths

· Diagram of Bilge Diagonals — Diagram of L.W.L. Half-breadths
- Body Plan of “Oceanic" — Designing the Bossing -- Fairing
the Bossing - Fairing the Oxter — Elements of Marine Engines
Engine Room Lengths - The Preparation of Specifications

Specification Headings - Freeboard – Length — Breadth —

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Depth of Hold - Coefficient of Fineness — Moulded Depth –
Freeboard — Vessels of Extreme Proportions — Breadth and Depth

- Erections on Deck — Sheer — Round of Beam — Explanatory
Notes on Application of Freeboard Tables - Additional Freeboard
for Winter North Atlantic for Well-deck Vessels - Rules for
Depth of Loading of Turret-deck Vessels — Rules for Shelter-
deck Vessels - Load Draught Diagrams — Types of Vessels -
Freeboard Marks—Freeboard Tables-Freeboards for Freight-

5— Freeboards for Spar Deckers — Freeboards for Awning
Deckers -Sailing Vessels - Kirk's Analysis — Analysis Data

- Wetted Surface Formula — Launching — Launching Periods
- Launching Curves — Camber of Ways - Declivity of Ways –
Pressure on Dog Shoes — Length of Ways— Tables of Launch-
ing Data — Calculation of Hull Weights — Ditto by Johnson's
Method — Johnson's Curves — Complete Tables of Weights of
Steel Shapes — The Transport of Cattle — Arrangement of
Stalls and Pens - Dimensions of Stalls and Pens — Board
of Agriculture Regulations - Detailed Weights of Cattle Fittings

- Rudder Formulæ — Spectacle Frames — Proportions of
Spectacle Frames — Propeller Struts — Simpson's Formula for
Propeller Struts — Proportions of Brackets - Centre of Gravity
by Experiment - Centre of Gravity by Calculation - Strength
of Ships — Hogging - Sagging — Curve of Weights — Curve of
Buoyancy -Curve of Loads — Curve of Shearing Stresses –
Curve of Bending Moments — Specimen Calculations for Mo-
ments of Inertia — Diagram of Strength Curves - Resistance
of Ships — The Admiralty Constant — Table of Constants for
various Types — Froude's Investigations — Law of Comparison

- Application of Froude's Law — Speed and Power Curve
Standard Curves of Power—I.H.P. by Independent Method –
Skin Resistance — Residuary Resistance Power-Form of Least
Resistance — Middendorf's Method — Table of Angles of Entrance
and Run — Table of Steamers' Data.

Section II. Strength of Materials.
Strength of Materials - Ultimate Strength - Working Load

Proof Strength Stress and Strain — Tensile Stress — Compres-
sive Stress — Shearing Stress — Bending Stress — Torsional Stress
Resilience — Elasticity-Modulus of Elasticity- Permanent Set

Moment of Inertia — Neutral Surface — Section Modulus
Moment of Resistance — Radius of Gyration - Various Stresses
and their Factors — Elements of Sections — Beam Bending
Moments - Elements of Circular Sections - Moment of Inertia
of Circular Sections — Strength of Columns — Johnson's Formula
for Columns – Least Radius of Gyration for various Sections
Values for Johnson's Formula — Pipe Pillars — Standard Pipe Elements — Steel Columns — Strength of Metals and Alloys – Physical Properties of Timber — Strength of Timber — Weight and Strength of Wire Rope — Notes on the Use of Wire Rope Strength of Chain Cables — Proof Load for Chains — Strength of Guard Chains — Weight of Chain Cables — Breaking Strength of Chains Elements of Angles — Elements of Bulb Angles — Elements of Deck Beams - Elements of Tees — Elements of Z bars — Tees as Struts — Bending Moments of Pins — Strength of Special Shackles — Riveting U. S. Navy - Standard Rivets Lloyd's Riveting Table — Tables of Strength of Riveting Ordered Lengths of Rivets — Shearing and Bearing Tables of Rivets.

Section III. — Fittings and Details. Structural Details — Keels - Bar Keel Keel Scarphs — Tack Rivets in Keels - Universal Bar - Flat Plate Keels - Centre Keelson — Keel Doublings — Stems — Stern Frames — Braces Gudgeons — Pintles — Riveting of Boss — Rudder Post — Body Post -Rudders - Single Plate Rudder - Norman Head - Rudder Arms – Coupling

Palm Coupling Bolts — Rudder StockCast Steel Rudder — Balanced Rudders — Heel Bearing Emergency Chains — Types of Rudder Carriers — Rudder Trunks Tail Plates — Propeller Struts — Area of Propeller BracketsBoss Barrel — Spectacle Frames — Bossing around Shafts Tube-end Castings — Framing — Resistance of Frames — Cut Frames — Pressed Plate Chocks — Stapled Collars — Frame Doublings — Spirketting Plate — Framing of Superstructure — Reverse Framés Floors -Stresses on Floors — Flanged Floors — Channel Floors — Water-tight Floors — Floor Brackets — End Floors - Inner Bottoms — Water-tight Compartments - Centre Vertical Girder - Side Girders — Margin Plate — Ceiling on Tanks Bitumastic Cement Manholes Tank Bleeders - Beams Beam Camber — Welded Beam Knees — Bracket Knees - Standard Beam Knees — Strong Beams — Carlings — Deck Girders Beam Collars — Hold Pillars - Built Columns – Pipe Pillars Standard Solid Heads and Heels — Fitting of Pillars - Heels on Inner Bottoms — Staggered Pillars — Hatches - Size of Hatches — Hatch Corner Doublings — Corner Angles — Hatch Fore and Afters — Bridle Beams - Standard Hatch Cleats Battening Bar — Hatch Wedges — Hatch Ledges — Hatch Lashing Rings — Hatch Covers - Lifting Rings — Web Frames — Keelsons — Intercostal Plates - Side Stringers - Bulkhead Collars — Longitudinals -- Ending of Keelsons — Bulkheads - Collision Bulkheads — Bulkhead Liners — Bottom Plaiting Bhd. — Stiffeners — Stresses

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