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30 He must increase, but Il 33 He that hath received his must decrease.

testimony, hath set to his seal 31 He that cometh from above that God is true. is above all : he that is of the 34 For he whom God hath earth is earthly, and speaketh sent, speaketh the words of God: of the earth : he that cometh for God giveth not the Spirit by from heaven is above all.

measure unto him. 32 And what he hath seen 35 The Father loveth the and heard, that he testifieth; Son, and hath given all things and no man receiveth his testi- into his hand. mony.

36 He that believeth on the people. || Friend of the bridegroom. 33. Hath set to his seal ; hath ex. See on Matt. 9: 15. || Bridegroom's pressed his confirmed belief. By the voice ; his expressions of joy. || Is use of a seal, important documents are fulfilled ; is made complete. I seek confirmed. To seal a document is to for no higher joy, than to have been confirm it, and to declare a conviction an assistant of the Messiah, and to of its genuineness. || That God is see him becoming the great object of true; that God is worthy of confiattraction.

dence, as a God of truth. He who 30. He must increase, &c. Jesus, becomes a sincere disciple of Jesus, as the true Messiah, must be ad- expresses thereby his strong belief in vanced to still increasing dignity; God as a God of truth. while I must sink into obscurity. 34. For, &c. Because the Mes.

31. Another reason was given by siah gives truly divine instruction. John for cheerfully yielding the pre- || The words of God; the instructions cedence to Jesus; namely, the Mes which he has received from God. siah came from heaven, and is there- Compare 5: 19, 20. 8: 28. || By fore most fully qualified to be the measure; to a limited extent. "The Great Teacher; while John was prophets were considered as enjoying merely of earthly origin, and could divine influence in various degrees ; therefore teach only in an inferior to them it was dealt out, so to speak,

He that cometh from above. by measure. Not so with the MesSee v. 13. || He that is of the earth; siah. In a perfectly full manner, one of earthly origin. Such was without any limitation, was he qualiJohn. || Speaketh of the earth; that fied to make known the will of God. is, of matters comparatively plain, not His instructions then are, peculiarly, requiring that a person, in order to the instructions of God; and whoever give instruction, should have been in receives him expresses thereby his heaven, and have possessed a most confidence in God. intimate acquaintance with the de- 35. Given all things into his hand; signs of God. Compare v. 13. hath invested him with all authority

32. What he hath seen, &c. Com- and power as Lord of the new dispare v. 11. || No man receiveth his pensation. See Matt. 11: 27. Eph. testimony; that is, comparatively 1: 22. speaking, taking into view the whole 36. Compare v. 18. See life; ennation. In this remark of John, there joy everlasting life, the bliss of heavmight also have been an allusion to en. what had been said in v. 26 — “All men come to him." While some were REMARKS. 1. A correct view of ready to complain that so many re. God as the sovereign disposer, tends paired to Jesus, John thought there to make us contented with our lot. was occasion to lament that only so v. 27. fer received his instructions.

2. We best consult for our real


Son hath everlasting life: and 2 (Though Jesus himself baphe that believeth not the Son, tized not, but his disciples,) shall not see life ; but the wrath 3 He left Judea, and departof God abideth on him.

ed again into Galilee.

4 And he must needs go CHAPTER IV.

through Samaria. WI

HEN therefore the Lord 5 Then cometh he to a city

knew how the Pharisees of Samaria, which is called had heard that Jesus made and Sychar, near to the parcel of baptized more disciples than ground that Jacob gave to his John,

son Joseph usefulness and our real dignity, by 4. Go through Samaria. Jesus not arrogating to ourselves what does was in Judea, and was proposing to not pertain to us, but by cheerfully go to Galilee. The map shows that and faithfully performing what is Samaria lay between those two dimanifestly our appropriate duty. vs. visions, and of course the direct road 28-30.

from Judea to Galilee would conduct 3. Humility is essential to real a person through Samaria. worth of character. v. 30. Compare 5. Sychar. This was the same as Matt. 11:11.

the city Shechem (Gen. 33 : 18. Josh. 4. The truths of the gospel possess 20: 7), called, in Acts 7:16, Sychem. divine authority. vs. 31–35. It is supposed that the Jews, through

5. Dreadful are the consequences dislike to the city, as being a disof slighting the truths of the gospel — tinguished place for the Samaritan glorious the consequences of receiv- worship, altered the name in their ing and obeying them. v. 36.

common conversation.

The name

Sychar, as altered from Sychem, may CHAPTER IV.

be traced to a Hebrew word sounded 2. But his disciples. That is, his Sheker, which means falsehood, and disciples baptized by his authority. was used in reference to idols. It

3. He left Judea. The Pharisees may also be traced to a Hebrew word had begun to show their ill-will. Je- sounded Shikkor, which means drunksus therefore retired from Judea to a en; and, in using this name, there part of the land where their influence might have been allusion to Is. 28: 1. was not so great, and where the pros- The town lay in the valley between pect of promoting his cause was more the mountains Ebal and Gerizim. encouraging. It would have been of See Judges 9:7. It afterwards bore no advantage for Jesus to come into the name Neapolis, and at the present collision unnecessarily with the Phar- day the name Naplous is given to a isees; and the time had not yet ar- town on the same spot. || The parcel rived for his delivering himself up to of ground that Jacob gave, &c. In his adversaries. The success of John Gen. 48: 22, we learn that Jacob the Baptist, so much adapted to made a special gift to Joseph of “a weaken the authority of the Pharisees, portion above his brethren." was sufficiently unpleasant to them; a piece of land which Jacob took by and now that Jesus, who more clearly force of arms from the Amorites. In and decidedly exposed their errone- Gen. 33: 19, we read that he bought ous views and practices, was attracting a parcel of ground in the vicinity of still more attention than John, they Shechem. It was this, doubtless, would attempt, in a variety of ways, which he gave to his son Joseph, and to counteract his teaching, if not to which is here spoken of. Probably, seek his death.

during some period of Jacob's ab.

It was

6 Now Jacob's well was there. 8 (For his disciples were gone Jesus therefore being wearied away unto the city to buy meat.) with his journey, sat thus on 9 Then saith the woman of the well : and it was about the Samaria unto him, How is it sixth hour.

that thou, being a Jew, askest 7 There cometh a woman of drink of me, which am a woman Samaria to draw water: Jesus of Samaria? for the Jews have saith unto her, Give me to no dealings with the Samaridrink.

tans. sence from that spot, the neighboring with each other. But friendship they Amorites took possession of it, and did not cultivate. Most of the Jews Jacob was under the necessity of re- did indeed avoid all sorts of intergaining it by force.

course with the Samaritans. Some 6. Jacob's well. There was a well held, that it was unlawful to eat and there, which was called Jacob's ; as, drink a Samaritan's bread and wine, according to tradition, it was dug by and that a Jew might as well eat Jacob. | Thus. This word may re- swine's flesh. There were, however, fer to the circumstance that Jesus among the Jews those who did not was fatigued, and that in this fa- carry matters to such an extreme, and tigued condition he sat down. It who regarded it as perfectly lawful to might also have been used in much the purchase from them necessary articles same way as our word so is employ- of food. ed, when we say of a person, á He Various causes conspired to make was fatigued, and so he sat down." the Jews unfriendly to the Samaritans. || On the well; more properly, at, or The separation of the ten tribes from by, the well. || The sixth hour ; twelve Rehoboam's government (1 Kings 12: o'clock.

16, 20) may be regarded as the com7. There cometh a woman of Sama- mencement of the hostility. For the ria to draw water. It had long been | Samaritans originated from the remthe practice, in those parts of the East- nants of the ten tribes and the coloern world, for females to perform this nists who were introduced into their labor. See Gen. 24: 13, 14. Ex. territory by the Assyrian conqueror. 2:16.

See 2 Kings 17:6, 24, 29, 34, 41. 9. Thou, being a Jew. The woman This mixed community practised idolknew that Jesus was a Jew from his atry. The Jews were subsequently, general appearance and from his man. carried into captivity in Babylon; ner of speaking. There had, at a and after seventy years they returned, very early period, been some peculi- by the decree of Cyrus, with permisarities in the dialect of the people sion to build their temple in Jerusawho occupied the central parts of the lem. See Ezra 1:1-4. The Saland. See Judges 12: 6. || For the maritans proposed to unite with them Jews have no dealings with the Samar- in this work; but the Jews would not itans. This remark is not a part of consent to the proposal. The Sathe woman's reply to Jesus; but was maritans then endeavored to hinder inserted by the evangelist, as account- the building. (Ezra 4:1–5).

At a ing for the manner in which the still later period, when the Jews enwoman spoke. In this remark, the ex- tered into an engagement to divorce pression no dealings is simply equiva- | the heathen wives whom they had lent to the expression no friendly in- married, Manasseh, a brother of the tercourse. The fact that the disciples high priest, having married the had gone into a Samaritan town to daughter of Sanballat, governor of purchase food, shows that Jews and Samaria, would not part from his Samaritans might have some dealings wife (Neh. 13: 28); and when re


10 Jesus answered and said from whence then hast thou that unto her, If thou knewest the living water? gift of God, and who it is that 12 Art thou greater than our saith to thee, Give me to drink; father Jacob, which gave us the thou wouldest have asked of well, and drank thereof himself, him, and he would have given and his children, and his cattle? thee living water.

13 Jesus answered and said 11 The woman saith unto unto her, Whosoever drinketh him, Sir, thou hast nothing to of this water, shall thirst again : draw with, and the well is deep: 14 But whosoever drinketh of quired either to put her away or to and streams, in distinction from water cease having any connection with the deposited in a cistern. The woman Jews' sacred rites, he preferred the understood the phrase in this latter latter, and went over to the Samari- sense. Thou hast nothing to draw

His father-in-law, Sanballat, with; thou hast no bucket. || Whence built for him a temple on mount Ger- then, &c. Perceiving that he had no izim, in which he officiated. By va- vessel which he might let down into rious expedients other Jews were the well, she saw no means of his prodrawn over to the Samaritans. Jews, curing water from this well, as the too, who had transgressed the laws, well was deep. This well was supsought refuge among the Samaritans. plied by a running fountain, and was Thus disputes arose between them, highly valued as furnishing water in and particularly respecting the proper abundance. She did not believe he place of worshipping God. The Sa- could procure any elsewhere in all inaritans regarded as sacred only the that region that would be equal to it. five books of Moses; and they dif- She therefore regarded his remark fered from the Jews in not receiving about living water, and that, too, prothe traditions which the Jews re- fessedly better than what the well garded as authoritative. The Samar- contained, as scarcely worthy of conitans also indulged unfriendly feelings fidence. towards the Jews. See Luke 9: 53. 12. Art thou greater, &c. SupProbably, however, the Samaritans posing him to be a mere were less bitter in their hostility. man, and being proud of the early

10. The gift of God; the benefit ancestors of the nation (for both Sawhich God has put within thy reach, maritans and Jews cherished the most of conversing with the Messiah, and profound respect for the worthies of seeking blessings from him. || Lio- mentioned in the books of Moses), ing water. By this phrase "Jesus she appealed to the well-known charmeant spiritual and immortal bless- acter of Jacob, as showing that a betings, such as are necessary for the ter and more abundant spring of water welfare of the soul, as water is could not be found in the region than necessary for the well-being of the what that well contained. body.

13, 14. Jesus answered, &c. Withii. The woman did not apprehend out directly correcting her mistake, the meaning of Jesus, but supposed and without formally comparing himthat he was speaking of natural water, self with Jacob, Jesus asserted, in of a superior quality, which he could metaphorical language, that the relief give to her. In addition to her want which the water of Jacob's well could of spiritual perception, as causing her give was only temporary, and was alto misapprehend his meaning, the ways followed by a return of thirst; term living water might signify, either but that the relief which his blessings a supply for one's spiritual wants, or would bestow would be permanent, running water, like that of fountains, enduring even to eternity ; that the


the water that I shall give him, and said, I have no husband. shall never thirst; but the water Jesus said unto her, Thou that I shall give him, shall be in hast well said, I have no hushim a well of water springing up band : into everlasting life.

18 For thou hast had five 15 The woman saith unto husbands, and he whom thou him, Sir, give me this water, now hast, is not thy husband: that I thirst not, neither come in that saidst thou truly. hither to draw.

19 The woman saith unto 16 Jesus saith unto her, Go him, Sir, I perceive that thou call thy husband, and come art a prophet. hither.

20 Our fathers worshipped in 17 The woman answered this mountain ; and ye say, that person who should receive his bless-ty of his conversation and general ings would have in him a source of appearance he had gained her esteem. everlasting happiness. || A well of He wished her to know that he was water; more strictly, a fountain, a the Messiah, and through her to benespring of water. || Into everlusting fit the people of the place. He soon life; not furnishing a temporary sup- excited in her mind the belief that he ply, but an ever-during supply, as was a divinely commissioned teacher; supporting everlasting life. The wa- and this belief he speedily directed to ter of an earthly fountain bubbles up the point which he had in view. for the support of the animal life, 18. Is not thy husband. The conwhich yet must soon end; the water nection in which this remark is made, of the spiritual fountain bubbles up shows with sufficient clearness that for the support of the soul's life, the woman was living in an unlawful which will never end. The blessings manner. of which Christ spoke, would furnish 19. That thou art a prophet. Men a satisfaction that would endure to divinely commissioned as religious eternity, leaving to the happy receiver teachers, were regarded as possessing, no want unsupplied, and nothing to by virtue of their office, knowledge wish for, filling him with good, for superior to that of others. Hence the time and eternity.

knowledge which Jesus had shown 15. Sir, gire me, &c. The woman of her character elevated him in her did not yet apprehend our Lord's esteem as one who was at least a meaning. She was not accustomed prophet. to think on such subjects and had 20. In consequence of her now scarcely any elevation of mind. Per esteeming him to be a prophet, she haps, too, some word in the last re- thought him capable of settling the mark of the Saviour, on which the question which was agitated between meaning of the whole depended, was the Jews and the Samaritans respectcapable of being variously understood, ing the proper place of worship. Our especially by a person of a grovelling fathers worshipped in this mountain. disposition.

From the time of Manasseh's going 16. Jesus, perceiving that the wo- over to the Samaritans (see on v. 9). man did not apprehend his meaning, and officiating in the temple which changed the topic of conversation. his father-in-law, Sanballat, had built His remarks, however, would not for him, the Samaritans had become be lost. Hereafter, she would recall strongly attached to mount Gerizim them, and understand them by the aid as the place of worship. The temple of further light from heaven. 'He well on mount Gerizim was at a subseknew her character, and by the gravi- quent period, by compulsion of the

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