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thing under another name, says, "The wisdom from above," (which is no other than this law, written in our heart,) "is first pure," chap. iii. 17, wym, chaste, spotless, eternally and essentially holy. And consequently when it is transcribed into the life, as well as the soul, it is, (as the same Apostle terms it, chap. i. 27,) Ipnoxɛia nadaga xa auarios pure religion and undefiled; or the pure, clean, unpolluted worship of God.
3. It is, indeed, in the highest degree, pure, chaste, clean, holy. Otherwise, it could not be the immediate offspring, and much less the express resemblance, of God, who is essential holiness. It is pure from all sin, clean and unspotted from any touch of evil. It is a chaste virgin, incapable of any defilement, of any mixture with that which is unclean or unholy. It has no fellowship with sin of any kind. For "what communion hath light with darkness?" As sin is, in its very nature, enmity to God, so his law is enmity to sin.
4. Therefore it is, that the Apostle rejects with such abhorrence, that blasphemous supposition, that the law of God is either sin itself, or the cause of sin. God forbid, that we should suppose, it is the cause of sin, because it is the discoverer of it: because it detects the hidden things of darkness, and drags them out into open day. It is true, by this mean, (as the Apostle observes, ver. 13,) " Sin appears to be sin." All its disguises are torn away, and it appears in its native deformity. It is true, likewise, that "sin, by the commandment, becomes exceeding sinful." Being now committed against light and knowledge, being stript even of the poor plea of ignorance, it loses its excuse as well as disguise, and becomes far more odious both to God and man. Yea, and it is true, that "sin worketh death by that which is good," which in itself is pure and holy. When it is dragged out to light, it rages the more: when it is restrained, it bursts out with greater violence. Thus the Apostle, (speaking in the person of one, who was convinced of sin, but not yet delivered from it) "sin taking occasion by the commandment," detecting and endeavouring to restrain it, disdained the restraint, and so much the more "wrought in me all manner of concupiscence," ver. 8: All manner of foolish and hurtful desires, which that commandment sought to restrain. Thus, "when the commandment came, sin revived," ver. 9. It fretted and raged the more. But this is no stain on the commandment. Though it is abused, it cannot be defiled. This only proves, that "the heart of man is desperately wicked." But the law of God is holy still.
5. And it is, secondly, just. It renders to all their due. It prescribes exactly what is right, precisely what ought to be done, said, or thought, both with regard to the Author of our being, with regard to ourselves, and with regard to every creature which he has made. It is adapted, in all respects, to the nature of things, of the whole universe, and every individual. It is suited to all the circumstances of each, and to all their mutual relations, whether such as have existed from the beginning, or such as commenced in any following period. It is exactly agreeable to the fitnesses of things, whether
essential or accidental. It clashes with none of these in any degree; nor is ever unconnected with them. If the word be taken in that sense, there is nothing arbitrary in the law of God. Although still the whole and every part thereof, is totally dependent upon his will so that thy will be done, is the supreme universal law both in earth and heaven.
6. But is the will of God the cause of his law? Is his will the original of right and wrong? Is a thing, therefore, right, because God wills it? Or, does he will it, because it is right ?"
1 fear, this celebrated question is more curious than useful. And perhaps, in the manner it is usually treated of, it does not so well consist with the regard that is due from a creature, to the Creator and Governor of all things. It is hardly decent for man, to call the supreme God to give an account to him. Nevertheless, with awe and reverence we may speak a little. The Lord pardon us if we speak amiss.
7. It seems then, that the whole difficulty arises, from considering God's will as distinct from God. Otherwise it vanishes away. For none can doubt, but God is the cause of the law of God. But the will of God is God himself. It is God considered as willing thus or thus. Consequently, to say, That the will of God, or that God himself is the cause of the law, is one and the same thing.
8 Again; if the law, the immutable rule of right and wrong, depends on the nature and fitnesses of things, and on their essential relations to each other: (I do not say, their eternal relations: because the eternal relations of things existing in time, is little less than a contradiction) if, I say, this depends on the nature and relations of things, then it must depend on God, or the will of God: because those things themselves, with all their relations, are the work of his hands. By his will, for his pleasure alone, they all are and were created.
9. And yet it may be granted (which is probably all that a considerate person would contend for) that in every particular case, God wills this or this, (suppose that men should honour their parents,) because it is right, agreeable to the fitness of things, to the relation wherein they stand.
10. The law then is right and just concerning all things. And it is good as well as just. This we may easily infer from the Fountain whence it flowed. For what was this, but the goodness of God? What but goodness alone inclined him to impart that divine copy of himself to the holy angels? To what else can we impute his bestowing upon man the same transcript of his own nature? And what but tender love, constrained him afresh to manifest his will to fallen man? Either to Adam, or any of his seed, who like him were "come short of the glory of God?" Was it not mere love that moved him to publish his law, after the understandings of men were darkened? And to send his prophets to declare that law, to the blind, thoughtless children of men? Doubtless his goodness it was which raised up Enoch and Noah, to be preachers of righteousness; which
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caused Abraham, his friend, and Isaac and Jacob, to bear witness to his truth. It was his goodness alone, which, when "darkness had covered the earth, and thick darkness the people," gave a written law to Moses, and through him to the nation whom he had chosen. It was his love which explained these living oracles by David and all the Prophets that followed; until, when the fulness of time was come, he sent his only-begotten Son, "not to destroy the law, but to fulfil," to confirm every jot and tittle thereof, till having written it in the hearts of all his children, and put all his enemies under his feet," he shall deliver up" his mediatorial "kingdom to the Father, that God may be all in all."
11. And this law, which the goodness of God gave at first, and has preserved through all ages, is, like the fountain from whence it springs, full of goodness and benignity: it is mild and kind; it is, as the Psalmist expresses it, "sweeter than honey and the honey-comb." It is winning and amiable. It includes "whatsoever things are lovely or of good report. If there be any virtue, if there be any praise" before God and his holy angels, they are all comprised in this: wherein are hid all the treasures of the divine wisdom, and knowledge, and love.
12. And it is good in its effects, as well as in its nature. As the tree is, so are its fruits. The fruits of the law of God written in the heart, are "righteousness, and peace, and assurance for ever." Or rather, the law itself is righteousness, filling the soul with a peace that passeth all understanding, and causing us to rejoice evermore, in the testimony of a good conscience toward God. It is not so properly a pledge, as "an earnest of our inheritance," being a part of the purchased possession. It is God made manifest in our flesh, and bringing with him, eternal life: assuring us by that pure and perfect love, that we are "sealed unto the day of redemption: and he will "spare us as a man spareth his own son that serveth him, in the day when he maketh up his jewels," and that there remaineth for us "a crown of glory which fadeth not away."
IV. 1. It remains only to show, in the fourth and last place, The uses of the law. And the first use of it, without question, is to convince the world of sin. This is, indeed, the peculiar work of the Holy Ghost who can work it without any means at all, or by whatever means it pleaseth him, however insufficient in themselves, or even improper to produce such an effect. And accordingly some there are, whose hearts have been broken in pieces in a moment, either in sickness or in health, without any visible cause, or any outward mean whatever. And others (one in an age) have been awakened to a sense of the wrath of God abiding on them, by hearing, That God was in Christ, reconciling the world unto himself." But it is the ordinary method of the Spirit of God, to convict sinners by the law. It is this, which being set home on the conscience, generally breaketh the rocks in pieces. It is more especially this part of the word of God, which is av xai vegins, quick and powerful, full of life and energy, and sharper than any two-edged sword. This,
in the hand of God and of those whom he hath sent, pierces through all the folds of a deceitful heart, and "divides asunder even the soul and the spirit," yea, as it were, the very "joints and marrow." By this is the sinner discovered to himself. All his fig-leaves are torn away, and he sees that he is "wretched, and poor, and miserable, and blind, and naked." The law flashes conviction on every side. He feels himself a mere sinner. He has nothing to pay. His mouth is stopped, and he stands guilty before God.
2. To slay the sinner is, then, the first use of the law; to destroy the life and strength wherein he trusts, and convince him that he is dead while he liveth; not only under sentence of death, but actually dead unto God, void of all spiritual life," dead in trespasses and sins." The second use of it, is to bring him unto life, unto Christ, that he may live. It is true, in performing both these offices, it acts the part of a severe schoolmaster. It drives us by force rather than draws us by love. And yet love is the spring of all. It is the Spirit of Love, which, by this painful mean, tears away our confidence in the flesh, which leaves us no broken reed whereon to trust, and so constrains the sinner, stripped of all, to cry out, in the bitterness of his soul, or groan in the depth of his heart,
"I give up every plea beside,
Lord, I am damn'd ;-but thou hast died."
3. The third use of the law is, to keep us alive. It is the grand mean whereby the blessed Spirit prepares the believer for larger communications of the life of God.
I am afraid this great and important truth is little understood, not only by the world, but even by many whom God hath taken out of the world, who are real children of God by faith. Many of these lay it down as an unquestionable truth, that when we come to Christ, we have done with the law; and that in this sense, "Christ is the end of the law, to every one that believeth." The end of the law. So he is, for righteousness, for justification, to every one that believeth. Herein the law is at an end. It justifies none; but only brings them to Christ. Who is also, in another respect, the end, or scope of the law, the point at which it continually aims. But when it has brought us to him, it has yet a farther office, namely, To keep us with him. For it is continually exciting all believers, the more they see of its height, and depth, and length, and breadth, to exhort one another so much the more,
"Closer and closer let us cleave
To his belov'd embrace,
Expect his fulness to receive,
And grace to answer grace."
4. Allowing then, that every believer has done with the law, as it means the Jewish ceremonial law, or the entire Mosaic dispensation (for these Christ hath taken out of the way;) yea, allowing we have
done with the moral law, as a mean of procuring our justification, for we are "justified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Jesus." Yet in another sense, we have not done with this law. For it is still of unspeakable use, first, in convincing us of the sin that yet remains both in our hearts and lives, and thereby keeping us close to Christ, that his blood may cleanse us every moment; secondly, in deriving strength from our Head into his living members, whereby he empowers them to do what his law commands; and, thirdly, in confirming our hope of whatsoever it commands and we have not yet attained, of receiving grace upon grace, till we are in actual possession of the fulness of his promises.
5. How clearly does this agree with the experience of every true believer! while he cries out, "O what love have I unto thy law! all the day long is my study in it;" he sees daily in that divine mirror, more and more of his own sinfulness. He sees more and more clearly, that he is still a sinner in all things; that neither his heart nor his ways are right before God. And this every moment sends him to Christ. This shows him the meaning of what is written, "Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, Holiness to the Lord. And it shall be upon Aaron's forehead," (the type of our great High-Priest) " that Aaron may bear the iniquity of the holy things, which the children of Israel shall hallow, in all their holy gifts" (so far are our prayers or holy things from atoning for the rest of our sins!) "And it shall be always upon his forehead, that they may be accepted before the Lord," Exod. xxviii. 36. 38.
6. To explain this by a single instance. The law says, "Thou shalt not kill," and hereby, (as our Lord teaches,) forbids not only outward acts, but every unkind word or thought. Now the more I look into this perfect law, the more I feel how far I come short of it: and the more I feel this, the more I feel my need of his blood to atone for all my sin and of his Spirit to purify my heart, and to make me "perfect and entire, lacking nothing."
7. Therefore, I cannot spare the law one moment, any more than I can spare Christ: seeing I now want it as much, to keep me to Christ, as ever I wanted it to bring me to him. Otherwise, this "evil heart of unbelief," would immediately "depart from the living God." Indeed, each is continually sending me to the other, the law to Christ, and Christ to the law. On the one hand, the height and depth of the law, constrain me to fly to the love of God in Christ. On the other, the love of God in Christ, endears the law to me "above gold or precious stones:" seeing I know every part of it, is a gracious promise, which my Lord will fulfil in its season.
8. Who art thou, then, O man! that "judgest the law, and speakest evil of the law?" That rankest it with sin, Satan, and death, and sendest them all to hell together? The Apostle James esteemed judging or speaking evil of the law, so enormous a piece of wickedness, that he knew not how to aggravate the guilt of judging our brethren more than by showing it includes this. "So now," says he, "thou art not a doer of the law, but a judge!" A judge of that