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' and they are supported under all the distresses ' and calamities of this mortal life, by looking ' forward to the prize of their high calling in *Christ.'— Here' (that is, in Calvin's works, which had never been mentioned or alluded to,) it is maintained, that God has eternally fixed the destiny of every individual of the human race ; ' that he has irrevocably decreed to bestow ever"lasting happiness on some, and to consign others 'to eternal misery, without any regard to their ‘own merit or demerit. Those, who believe this

doctrine, who have this sentence continually before their


will either be in danger of falling ‘into despair, from a conviction that it is impos'sible for them to be saved, that they must inevitably suffer everlasting torment; or they will be apt to practise 'every vice to which they feel any ‘temptation, from a persuasion that they belong to 6 the chosen few, who must necessarily be saved (whatever be their conduct.'-Even this Article however does not disclaim the Calvinistic doc

trines of election and reprobation in the strongest · terms,' or in such terms as his Lordship would have used, had he not felt himself, after all, rather encumbered by the Article, for which he was employed in fabricating a more palatable substitute.

And now let me ask the reader, whether the Article may not be supposed more to favour the sentiments of those, who would by no means willingly allow that one word contained in it should be omitted or altered; or one word added to it; and who would have it speak for itself without

any comment; than it does the sentiments of those whose comments, by omissions, alterations, and


additions, in fact substitute another Article in the place of it? It may easily be perceived, that should legal authority change the Article, as it now stands, for that above given in his Lordship's words, which part of the clergy would be gratified, and which part would be grieved: and this is enough to decide the question whether it be Cal,

vinistic or Anticalvinistic, in the modern use of these words : for that it does not adopt all Calvin's views, we allow; and we add, 'No more do modern Calvinists, especially among the evangelical clergy.'


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• With respect to our liturgy, the passage in the absolution, that God ' desireth not the death of ' a sinner, but rather that he may turn from his wickedness and live ;' and the beginning of the third collect for Good Friday, 'O merciful God, who hast made all men, and hatest nothing that thou hast made, nor wouldest the death of a sinner,

but rather that he should be converted and live;' are perfectly inconsistent with the idea of partial redemption, and clearly imply, that God · has afforded to every man the means of working out his salvation.'1

The clauses here adduced from the liturgy refer to the well known passages in the prophet, “Have “ I any pleasure that the wicked should die, saith “ the Lord God, and not that he should return “ from his ways and live?” “ As I live, saith the “Lord God; I have no pleasure in the death of

the wicked; but that the wicked turn from his way and live.” “I have more delight in the Ref. 269, 270.

? Ez. xviii, 23. xxxiii. II.


repentance and conversion of the wicked, and in pardoning and saving the penitent, than in punishing the impenitent.' Thus, “I desired mercy « and not sacrifice:" I preferred mercy to sacrifice.'! The clause, hatest nothing that thou hast 'made,' is not grounded on any particular text in scripture : but certainly God hateth not any of the works which he has made, continuing to be what he made them. “God saw every thing that he “had made, and behold it was very good.” Yet after the fall it is said, “ It repented the Lord that “ he had made man, and it grieved him at his “heart.” 2 And the Psalmist says to the Lord, “ Thou hatest all the workers of iniquity.” 3 Yet, while God hates the characters of sinners, he manifests great kindness and compassion to their persons. In temporal things, “ The Lord is good

to all;" and “he maketh his sun to rise on the “ evil and on the good; and sendeth rain on the “ just and on the unjust.” 4 Yea, “ God so loved “ the world that he gave his only begotten Son, “ that whosoever believeth in him should not “perish but have everlasting life.” 5. Yet this consists with his revealed determination to punish with everlasting destruction all impenitent sinners, all “ who know not God, and obey not the gospel “ of our Lord Jesus Christ:” and it equally agrees with his foreknowledge and secret purposes respecting individuals ; for what reason can be assigned why it should not? The inconsistency of these clauses with partial, or even with particular, redemption may be admitted : but we cannot al

"Hos. vi. 6. Matt. ix. 13. Gr. 2 Gen. i, 31. vi. 6. * Psalm v. 5. * Psalm cxlv. 9. Matt. v. 45. 5 John iii. 16.

low them clearly to imply, that` God has afforded 'to every man the means of working out his sal• vation ;' because nothing is said about those means; and because a vast proportion of mankind are destitute of the light of revelation, and

perishing for lack of knowledge."—When we pray, ' Have mercy upon all Jews, Turks, infidels, (evidently including, or principally meaning idolatrous gentiles,) and heretics, and take from them all ignorance, hardness of heart, and contempt

of thy word, and so fetch them home, blessed • Lord, to thy flock, that they may be saved among

the remnant of the true Israelites, and be made ‘one fold under one shepherd, Jesus Christ out.

Lord ;' we take it for granted that, unless they receive the word of God, and believe in the Lord Jesus, and be gathered into his fold, they cannot be saved. But,“ how shall they believe " in him of whom they have not heard? and how “shall they hear without a preacher?” The whole collect implies that they who have not the word of God, “ the word of the truth of the gos

pel," are destitute of the means of salvation ; and is totally inconsistent with the sentiment that they may be saved, for Christ's sake, by obeying the light of nature, without hearing of Christ, or believing in him: nay, with peculiar energy and solemnity, it implies the contrary.

• In the prayer of consecration in the Communion Service, it is said, that. Christ, by one . oblation of himself once offered, made a full, 'perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction for the sins of the whole world;' and

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‘in delivering the elements the minister declares, ‘that the body of Christ was given, and his blood ‘shed, for every communicant; he prays for the

salvation of every communicant separately, and ' he calls upon every communicant, to eat the

bread and drink the wine, as symbolical represen'tations of Christ's body and blood, in remem

brance that Christ died, and that his blood was ‘shed for him. Is it not then the principle of our church, that Christ by his death purchased the redemption of every one of its members; and can this principle be reconciled with the Calvin‘istic tenets of election and reprobation?'!

It is indeed the principle of our church, that Christ 'purchased the redemption of every one of

its members ;' and also that he will certainly save every one of those who are truly such : and it takes it for granted that the communicants are, according to their profession, true believers. But, in the present state of things, the communicants in this land form a very small part of that multitude who are called “members of the established

church ;' that church is only a small part of the universal visible church; and the visible church does not, at this day contain more than one third of the human species, probably much less. This principle, therefore, can do little towards establishing the doctrine of universal redemption ; and I cannot see any difficulty in reconciling it with the Calvinistic doctrine of election, or even reprobation : for none suppose that any true believers will be found among the reprobate : and the communicants are addressed, and prayed for, as true

! Ref. 270.

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