The Theory and Practice of Banking, Nide 1

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Longmans, Green, 1892 - 1152 sivua
 

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to Property
27
Property in Laud
28
Personal Credit
29
Every Sum of Money is equivalent to the Sum of the Present Values of an Infinite Series of Future Payments
30
Definition of Value
32
On Money and Credit
33
On the Want which gave rise to the use of Money
34
Nature of Money
35
Honey is General Credit
36
Gold and Silver Money are Metallic Credit
40
On Credit
41
Money and Credit are Rights to demand something to be paid or done by some person
43
Reason why Paper can supersede Metallic Money
44
The Distinction between Money and Credit
45
On Barter Sale or Circulation and Exchange
46
On the Meaning of Circulating Medium
48
On the Meaning of Currency
49
The Different Forms of Currency
51
On the Channel of Circulation
52
The Fundamental Concept of Monetary Science
54
On Securities for Money and Convertible Securities
55
On Price
57
The Term Value of Money has Two Distinct Meanings
58
On Production
59
Three Different Classes of Producers
61
On Consumption
62
Great contest between the Bank and the South Sea Company in 1720
66
Obligations under the Feudal System 235
67
On Payment Discharge and Satisfaction
68
There is no such thing as Absolute Capital
74
On the Conversion of Floating into Fined Capital
80
Third AmbiguityOn the double meaning of the words
88
On CtmJu Ho in lioman Law 291
90
Theophilus on the Mutuum and Commodatum
98
Reciprocal Demand is the Origin of Value
104
Value is a Ratio or an Equation
105
SECTION II
118
Even where Labour has been bestowed on anything which
128
Section III
135
The Bullion Committee condemns the policy of the Bank
138
CHAPTER III
142
Meaning of the Market Price of Gold and Silver
148
Introduction of a Gold Coinage in England
155
The System of Credit Banking and Bills of Exchange
159
A On the Family Ledgers of Roman citizens
163
On Transferable Documents of Debt
169
On the Creation of Obligations
176
On the Error made by some Mathematicians in terming
182
All Sciences deal with Quantities and Operations
188
Example of the Application of the Positive and Negative
194
SO A Person exercising any Profitable Business is an Economic
196
Unilateral and Bilateral Contracts
202
The Sale of Debts made free
209
Contract between Lord and Vassal 211
216
22
222
Respondentia Bonds held assignable
228
action Assignable
235
Bills and Notes were Deeds or Specialties in English Law
236
Signature substituted for Seals
237
Modern doctrine due to Loi d Keuyon
238
On the Origin of the Dogma that Chosesinaclion are
239
Lord Mansfield founder of Mercantile Jurisprudence 210
244
The Author selected by the Law Digest Commissioners to prepare the Digest of the Law of Bills of Exchange
248
The Case of Crouch v The Credit Foncier of England
252
Points of Conflict between the principles held in this case and those in the Authors Digest
256
The Case of Goodwin v Rubarts
259
hosesinaction made Transferable by Statute
263
Section IV
265
Meaning of Instrument of Credit 205
266
Eevival of Banking in Europe
267
The Statute of Merchants
269
Promissory Notes payable to bearer iu common use in the time of Edward IV 2i9
271
The word Bill included Deeds
272
Bank Post Bills
274
On Bills of Exchange Drafts and Promissory Notes
275
Definition of a Draft
277
Definition of a Promissory Note 27rt
278
Upon Indorsement
279
On Banking Instruments of Credit
281
Bankers Notes and Cheques
283
On the Extinction of Obligations 83 On the Limits of Credit 28
285
On the Extinction of Obligations
287
On Release or Acccptilatio
288
The Release of a Debt in all cases Equivalent to a Donation or Payment in Money
289
ways
292
When + 100 cancels 100 and when it does not 202
293
or Novatio
294
On Delrgatio
295
or Compensation 2 6
297
On the Quantity of Credit compa el to the Quantity of Money
299
Two Branches of the System of Credit
300
CHAPTER V
302
Debts made transferable
304
Credit used by Foreign Merchants
305
Exaggerated Ideas of the Security of Real Bills
306
On Accommodation Bills 807
307
Distinction between Bills of Exchange and Bills of Lading
311
CHAPTER VI
313
On the Meaning of the word Bank
314
Meaning of Bank in English 31U 4 Meaning of the word Banker 31 S 5 On the Currency Principle
321
On the Mechanism of Banking
324
On the Common Error respecting Deposits
327
In Banking Language a Deposit and an Issue are the same
330
On the method of Utilising Banking Credits
331
Operations by means of Cuvmics
332
On the Legal Relation between Banker and Customer
333
4
334
Error of the Common Description of Banking
336
On the Clearing House
337
On the Caution necessary in applying Mathematics to Eco nomics 319
339
On the Scotch System of Banking
341
On Cash Credits
344
Cash Credits granted in aid of Persons
345
On Cash Credits granted to promote Agriculture and other Public Works
347
CHAPTER VII
372
On Banking Discount
373
Table of Profits
374
To find in what Time a Sum of Money will double itself at Simple Banking Discount
375
Figures exhibiting differences of Discount and Interest D75 6 To find the Amount of a given Sum in any Time at Com pound Banking Discount
377
To find in what Time a Sum of Money will double itself at Compound Banking Discount
378
Formula for the Amount of a Sum at Interest and Discount Simple and Compound
379
To find the Profit on Discounting at more frequent intervals
380
CHAPTER VIII
381
On the Nominal Exchange
382
than it your
384
On Inconvertible Paper Money
386
Lord Kings Law of Paper Money 887
387
On the Real or Commercial Exchange
389
instead of by tale 4 58
390
The Time Par of Exchange
391
On Foreign Exchange
392
Effects of the Exchanges being Favourable or Adverse to London
393
Exchange between London and Places to which it Gives the Variable Price
394
On the Limits of the Variations of the Exchanges
395
Effects of the Restoration of the Coinage on the Exchanges 39i
397
Report of Mr Lown les on the State of the loin 459
400
On the Real or Commercial Exchange
401
The Mercantile System
404
Examples of Foreign Trade
405
Further Example
408
Foreign Market
409
2l Example from New York
410
Cause of Export of Bullion
411
Causes of drain of Bullion
412
Bussian and Irish Exchanges
413
Foreign Trade may not require Export of Bullion
414
Error of Balance of Trade
415
On the Rate of Discount as influencing the Exchanges
417
On Foreign Loans Securities and Itemittances as affecting thr Exchanges
418
Payment of the French Indemnity
421
The India Council Bills
427
On Monetary and Political Convulsions ns affecting the Exchanges
430
ON THE HISTORY OF BANKING IN ENGLAND UNTIL THE RENEWAL OF THE BANK CHARTER IN 1800
433
Dissolution of Parliament in 1640
434
Charles I Feizes the merchants money in the Tower
435
The Bankers lend money to Cromwell
437
Much esteemed by the Government
438
Which causes a run upon the Bankers
440
He shuts up the Exchequer 2nd Jan 1672 and seizes the Bankers money in it
441
Case of the Bankers in the Court of Exchequer and the Ex chequer ChamberJudgment of Lord Somcrs
442
Reversed by the House of Lords in 1710
443
Many projects for Banks about this time 1679
444
Plans for raising money to carry on the War with France
445
Which do uot succeed
446
The third attempt succeeds and an Act passed for the estab lishment of the Bank of England
448
Great hostility to its establishment
450
Mr Michael Godfreys pamphlet about the Bank
451
First outbreak of a speculative mania in 1094
452
Pailiauieutary proceedings to remedy the disorder
454
Reply of Locke 402
463
Locke demonstrates the futility of Lowndess plan
464
Confusion caused by the bad state of the Coinage
470
3d Committee appointed by the House of Commons to consider the price of guineasnumerous petitions
471
Resolutions of Parliament on the price of guineas
472
Partial suspension of payments at the Bank
473
The Reformation in the Coinage restores the Exchanges to par
474
Projected Land BankBank Notes at 20 per cent discount
475
Parliament undertakes to restore the public credit 10y6
476
First Issue of Exchequer Hills
478
Extract from the Bullion Report
479
Certain allegations in this exti act
482
This monetary crisis important in the Theory of the Currency
484
Writers of this period always said that Notes were at a dis count and not that iold had risen
485
The Bank in difficulties in 1701 and 1703
486
Prohibition of Banking partnerships of more than six persons
487
This clause effectual at that time
488
Disorder of the Coinage in 1708
489
Guineas finally fixed at 21 and the Mint Price of Gold at 3 17i 10J J
494
South Sea Companys proposals regardiug the Public Debt
495
Bank of Englands proposals
496
7 Proposals of the Bank and amended proposals of both
497
Bursting of the bubble mania
498
Formation of the Reserve Fund or Best
499
Renewal of the Charter in 1742 and extension of the Monopoly
500
Rebellion in Scotland in 1745 and run upon the Bank
501
Increase of Capital in 17Ki
502
Bank issues 10 and 15 Notes in 1750 02
504
Renewal of the Charter in 1781
505
Which gives rise to a great multiplication of country Bank Notes
506
Derangement of the Foreign Exchanges
507
Doctrine of Mr Bosanquet
508
Declaration of War in 1793 and commercial panic 09
510
Three different causes for a demand for guineas
511
Appointment and Report of the Committee of the House of Commons
512
Sums sent down to Manchester and Glasgow allay the panic
513
Approved by the Bullion Report
514
London Bankers discontinue the issue of Notes
515
the Bank
518
Mr Pitt pays no attention to the remonstrances of the
519
Commencement of a drain of Gold in 1795 5 19
520
Proposal of further loans remonstrance of the Ban c
521
Unscrupulous conduct of Mr Pitt
522
Mr Pitt solicits further loans from the Bank
523
Mr Pitt again demands further loans from the Bank
524
Gloomy condition of the political situation of the country in 1796
525
Great run upon the Newcastle Banks which stop payment 526
527
Great contraction of the Banks issues in February 1707
528
State of the cash in the Bank when it stopped payment
529
Provisions of the Bank Restriction Act 52 1
530
Commencement of embarrassments in 1795 which led to the suspension of cash payments in 1797 616
531
Opinion of Mr Walter Boyd
532
This crisis in a great measure owing to the monopoly of the Bank
533
Suspension of cash payments must probably have taken place at some period of the War
534
The Bank authorised to issue 1 and 2 Notes
535
The Exchanges favourable when the stoppage took place 636
537
Great scarcity in 1800
538
Cause of part of the embarrassment according to Sir Francis Baring 510
539

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Sivu 277 - A bill of exchange is an unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time a sum certain in money to or to the order of a specified person, or to bearer.
Sivu 262 - ... been given to the debtor, trustee, or other person from whom the assignor would have been entitled to receive or claim such debt or chose in action, shall be, and be deemed to have been effectual in law (subject to all equities which would have been entitled to priority over the right of the assignee if this Act had not passed...

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