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THE GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE,
For M A Y, 1819.
MISCELLANEOUS CORRESPONDENCE. Mr. URBAN,
May 8. Perpetuity, however, being but a YOMPLAINTS of the want of Li vague term, her Governmeni, in be
terary patronage are universal; nevolent kindness lo Literary men, but, like most other universal como determined to give them something plaints, they are entirely without more certaio and defined. Accord. foundation : at least they are and ingly, in a Statute of her 8th year bave been so within these united it was enacted, FOR THE ENCOURAGEkiogdoms from nearly the commence- MENT OF LEARNING, that they should ment of the last century wn to the possess an absolute term of 14 years, present time *.
with a renewal of an equal period, Since the introduction of printing, provided their natural life, no matthat æra in which Authorship as- ier for their literary one, should sursumed, according to Parliamentary vive the first term. language, a tangible shape, the exe-: But on second thoughts this was culive power has been successively considered by her Majesty's advisers placed in the bands of men and wo- as probably leading tv plethora, and men, of widely varied dispositions and consequently to idleness, and thereextent of ability. Some of these in fore, in order to counteract that tepcarly times were inclined to patronize dency, it was most graciously ordain. literature, but from want of sufficiented, that every Author should give capacity they failed to produce any nine copies of the best paper of his remarkable effect. It was reserved work, to save opulent bodies of men for the wisdom of Queen Anne, who from the expense of purchasing +, and reigned during the Augustan age of also the Archbishop of Canterbury, Britain, aided by the advice of her &c. were authorized to put a proper Privy Council, and seconded by the price upon books, if any person should concentrated talents of her wbole do- complain that they were loo high. minions, to discover and to correct Highly indeed ought Authors to the errors of former times.
esteem this very particular advanUntil the commencement of her tage! which has never been extended reign, so glorious in Arms and Li- to other inventors and makers, who teralúre, it had been held, that by have always been suffered to make the Common Law, every Author pos- the most of the whole of their invensessed a perpetuity in his Works. tions, and to cloy and ruin themselves
* I hope and trust that my readers hold opinions totally different from this, as that is the only chance we can have of our ideas ever meeting. If they move in parallel lines they never can coincide; but if they diverge, they must, when the circle is completed, touch in some point or other.
+ The exquisite reason for this was not understood until the year 1817, when it was considerately supplied by a Memorial from one of the Scotch Universities. From that it may be learned, that it is a convenience to bave English productions gratis, in order to leave the funds at liberty for the purchase of foreign publications. Now it is certain that notbing can be devised more encouraging to British Authors, nor could any thing have convinced the Committee of the absurdity of the Petitions against the Bill then before them for the promoting of British Literature, if this Scottish reasoning had failed of its effect. The sagacity of the Committee would not suffer it to fail; though some of the opposers attempted to turn it into ridicule, by declaring that it proved to them the veracity of Sir Callaghan O'Brallaghan in his famous buast, that little Terence Flaberty O‘Brallaghan went over from Carrickfergus, and peopled all Scotland with bis own hands.
with the profits, without the wisdom solute, with 14 other in posse, were of the Legislature troubling itself better than a perpetuity, then 28 about tbem, or their welfare. And, years absolute, with a reversion like. what is still more extraordinary, the wise, must be twice as good at the welfare of the two Universities was least, as it must extend their interest jo this respect unprovided for by the so much further beyond the perpeAct, and they were left to depend upon luity. the vague perpetuity, to the great an- So far all was clear; but this iqnoyance of the one, wbich, no doubt, quiry unfortunately led them to make would have been gratified by matbe- some search into the meaning of permatical certainty, and probably with. petuity, and finding that it extended out any feeling of gratitude from the through the duration of the world, other, which must be incapable, on provided the British Government account of the pature of its pursuils, should so long exist, they began to of understanding the extent of its loss question whether any advantage were from this neglect.
really given ; as their inodesty would This indulgence to Authors was not permit them to hope that their thought amply sufficient for the En- works would make so gear an ape couragement of Literature, until the proach to immortalily; or if that 41st of the King, which added the could with reason be looked for, they further guard against repletion, of had no means of ascertaining the futwo other copies, making the whole ture value of their copies, as they number eleven.
could have no precise knowledge how From the 81h of Queen Anne down trade might be conducted alter the to the year 1816, a period of more perpeluity had ceased. than 100 years, the Legislature dealt They were also much alarmed by with Authors as a wise parent does a provision in the last clause of the with his children, when he suffers Bill, which authorized an expectation them to play with knives, that by that the Act might be repealed in the cutting their fingers now, they may then present Session; as they could learn not to cut them bereafter. Thus not understand why they were to be incautious or obluse men were per- threatened with the possibility of such mitted to prefer a perpetuity to a inestimable benefits being wilhdrawa certain period if they thought fit, the from them. only penalty inflicted upon them being Allowing the deductions lo be made the loss of a privilege, which many which this doubt and this aların may might absurdly conceive to be of no seem to require, I boldly challenge value. As the number of fools, how- all persons concerned to come forever, even amongst Authors, always ward, and, if they dare, lo deny that exceeds that of the wise, this was the Legislalure bias granted to Lilefound to expose too many to the rars characters every advantage which inconveniences of the perpetuity, and the utmost extent of its wisdom could called, in course, for the watchful possibly devise. attention of a humane Legislature. This, which was written in the
Accordingly the Parliament, now course of the last year, has been call. [in 1818] by the blessing of Provie ed forth by a recent application to dence, and the effects of a dissolution, Parliament for the repeal of a Law at rest from its labours, enacted, that which has given so much encourageno one should have liberty to ruia ment to learniog, and has so notoribimself by preferring a perpetuily to ously benefited Authors and all pera certaio and fixed length of time. sons connected with them.
For this care of their property Au- Having the most perfect reliance thors are, or ought to be, highly on the wisdom of Parliament, I begrateful.
hold this altempt with profound comOne circumstance, however, in the posure, being confident that improStalute, bas occasioned a puzzle to vident men will not be permited to those who are uwacquainted with po- ruin themselves by their folly, and litical arithinetic.
that they will not be suffered to reOn looking into the Act they found sign invaluable privileges, througb an that the definite term was enlarged ; absurd foodness for that which they and from Cocker's Rule of Three din consider as a natural right. rect, they learned that if 14 years ab. Yours, &c.
May 10. medal, and the reading of the inAC
CCORDING to the Public Pa- scription, from several clerical mem
pers, the Report of the Bank bers of the Established Church) a Committee has been presented. very severe attack is made by the
It contains, provided their state. Rev. Dr. Hales of Killessendra, on meot be correct, a plan for paying my letter of the 24th December, which for Bank Notes with Gold Bullion, is very civilly pronouoced ignorant preparatory to the resumption of and presumptuous (p. 40.); and the Cash payments.
Editor raoks the opinions of those Mr. Baring, who approves of the who doubt the authenticity of “ plan, estimates that Ten Millions in venerable and authentic a relique of Bulliou will be sufficient for every bis redemption” (page 10.) as the payment which may be necessary, cavils of scepticism, ignorance, or vaduring the three years wbich are to nity” (page 54.) Dr. Hales thinks it pass previous to the return to cash. probable that Poptius Pilale furnish
If so large a quantity of Gold be ed the medal to the Emperor Tiberequired, from what source is it to rius, during his Government (of Jube derived
dea), for Pilate thought favourably of If the Bank have it already in its Christ, and also understood Hebrew, coffers, or if the Goveroment have as appears from his inscriptions on it to give in part of its debt, all is the cross, in Hebrew, Greek, and Lawell; but if it be to be purchased, tin (page 20.); and in triumphant in what manner is it to be paid for? confulation of my objection, that the
To give Gold in exchange for Gold Samaritan and Greek characters only canpol be the intention; and the idea are found on coins considered as geof purchasing it with paper is equally nuine by Collectors, and therefore it absurd, though the absurdity be not was very improbable that the Hebrew so apparent.
should be used on the medal, the Dr. If Government cannot pay so large asserts, that “the silver shekels of a proportion of the sum due to the David and Solomon's reign, are as Bank in Bullion, or if the Bank can. exquisitely beautiful in their engravnot with a part of that quantity from ing, and elegance of the sacred chaGoveroment, and its own resources, racter, as they are genuine,” (page 40.) make out ten millions of Bullion, it on these opinions and assertivos I should seem that the Committee has shall join issue with Dr. H. I quesoverlooked a most essential part of tioo whether Dr. H. ever saw one of the Plan, and that the payment in those pieces, purporting to be Jewish Bullion is as impracticable as the re- shekels, but rainer ihink that he demption of Bank Notes by Cash. forms his opinion of their exquisite Ease me of my doubts, Mr. Urban, beauty, from bad engravings (and those el eris mihi mugnus Apollo.
of coins in Bibles we may rely on being Yours, &c.
R.R. such), by which we can no more decide
on the execution of a coin, than on the
colour of the metal. All that I have Mr. URBAN,
Valebrook. seen are of very coarse fabric, eviA
subject of the genuineness of the ed with the graver; and I have the medal with a Hebrew inscription, authority of those most compelent to found near Cork, appeared in the decide on the question-persoos who Morning Post newspaper of the 24th have studied and collected Coins from last December ; an auswer to this, 20 to 50 years—that they never saw dated Clonmel, was given in the same a Coio, supposed to be a Jewish paper of tbe 230 Jan, which I re. shekel, which was not decidedly false; plied to on the 30th. No attempt por are they admitted into any good has been made to controvert the re- or great collection; such, for instance, marks of the last lelter; but in a as the British Museum; and I think Memoir recently published at Long. this practical knowledge is not to be man's, (edited by the Rev. T. R. set aside by the conjectures of schoEngland, a Roman Catholic clergy- lars, who, however learned in lanman of Cork, and which, besides the guages, have not had the opporturemarks of the Rev. Gentleman, con- nity, supposing they possessed the intains letters aod dissertations on the clivalion, to study coins themselves ; question of the authenticity of the and this distinction I have little doubt
will apply to all those very distin- The following extract from the ceguished and respectable individuals lebrated work of Eckhel, “ Doctrina (and for one of whom I would wish Numorum Veterum," (vol.III. p.456,) more particularly to express senti- bears equally on the question of the ments of personal respect and regard) shekels and the medal. “ Jewish who have condescended to become coins are found with two sorts of Commentators on the Cork Medal; characters; one called the Samaritan, who I believe to be as incompetent the other the square Hebrew, also to decide on the genuineness of the called the Assyrian, such as at this medal, as I know myself to be, as to day appear in editions of the Bible. the reading of the inscription. This, The genuine Jewish coins all have the however, may not satisfy Dr. H.; we first (or Samaritan) character; those will therefore try what proof or pre- with the second, or square character, sumption may be brought against bis of which there are many in all metals, shekels of David and Solomon by (such as with the heads of Adam, Daanalogy. The oldest Greek coios, the vid, and Christ,) are all the work of date of which can be exactly ascer- modern artists." lo reference to this tained, are those of Alexander the part of my subject, I inay also noFirst, of Macedon,who began his reign tice, that coins of the Emperor Tra. 497 years before Christ. We may sup- jan are found, which have been repose that the earliest Greek coins struck with Samaritan inscriptions (in were without dates; allow 300 years the same manner as the Bank dollars for this, and coinage commenced in on the Spanish) which most Greece 800_years B. C. David died probably occurred in the Jewish re1015 years B. C.; and is it credible, bellion under Hadrian; and the use that a pation, who could not build a of the Samaritan to the last period at temple without employing masons which the Jews struck coins, militales from Tyre, should yet strike exqui- against the idea of their ever using sitely beautiful coins 200 years before the square Hebrew for a numismatic the Greeks? The very supposition inscription; supposing, therefore, that appears to me the height of absur. a Jewish Christian had struck a medity. My view of the supposition, I dal of our Saviour, why are we to grant, is no proof: this I shall bring imagine he would bave had recourse from another quarter. The prophet to a language, not then, (if ever) emAmos, who is considered to have ployed for that purpose? If we at lived bel ween the years 812 to 761 this moment were to change our reB. C. in the 8th chapter and the 5th ligious opinions, and become lo fidels verse, when reproving the wickedness or Joannites, and strike medals to reof his countrymen, represents them cord the event, the probability I think as “saying, when will ihe new moon is, that we should continue to employ be gone, that we may sell corn ? and English, and not go back to the Saxon, the Sabbath, that we may set forth for any inscriptions we might place wheat, making the ephah small, and on them. the shekel great, and falsifying the Equally fanciful to me appears Dr. balances by deceit?” That is, reduc. Hales's idea that this Hebrew inedal was ing the size of the measure, by which struck by order of Pontius Pilate, or they sold their corn; and increas- even with his privity. Would a proud ing that of the weight, by which haughty Roman supersede the use of they received payment, in contraven. his own language on the inscription, tion of the weight and measure as and supplant it by that of a nation, established by the laws of the land. so hated and despised as the Jews I cannot imagine any other meaning were, by all around them ? and this that can be affixed to the passage in too on a medal intended for the iothe 32d chapter of Jeremiah, verse 9, formation of the Emperor, who was which is considered to have occurred not very likely to be a proficient in B.C. 599; the prophet, wben purchas- Hebrew, sacred or profane; and as to ing the field of Havameel, says he Pilate's knowledge of Hebrew, it is weighed him the money, seveoteen no more proved by one of the inscripshekels of silver. Now, if the shekel tions on ihe cross, than that of the was a weight at these latter periods, priests of Thebes is, in Greek, from can we suppose it a coin in the reigo one of the inscriptions on the tri of David :
lingular stone (brought from Rosetta)
in the British Museum ; or the Prince now fallen under my hand, in exaRegent's in Chinese, from any letter mining some of my loose papers. wbich Lord Amherst may have taken In Ovid's description of a storm, with him for our august brother at (Trist. 1, 2, 26,) we read, Pekin: por do I think it likely that
“ Nescit, cui domino pareat, unda Pilate would bave ventured to desig
maris" nale any Jew “ the King,” in au official communication to so jealous sufficiently puerile(one would imagine)
without and suspicious a tyrant as Tiberius ;
any further advance in pueand finally, was there ever a suspi- rility! Yet Lucan appears to have cion that Pilate was suspected of be- been of a different opiniou: for, while ing a Christian ; and if there was not
he adınired the conceit, and detereven this sbadow of a shade, whence
mined to imitate it, he thought it comes the probability of this medal still susceptible of improvement, and being struck by his command, or as accordingly did improve it in his way, having his sanction?
as follows (lib. 5, 602)— Let us, however, suppose all these
“ Ec dubium pendet, vento cui pareat, questions satisfactorily answered, and æquorwe have yet to remove the doubts presenting to us the curious image of wbich exist, as to the authenticity of the billow standing in suspense, and the medal. All the Greek and Roman deliberating, whether it shall obey coins and medals of that period are the will of the North wind or of the struck pieces; iodeed the only antient South. pieces, which are not struck, are the So much for imilation :--now for a very early Roman weights. Nowit uv- specimen of parallelism. fortunately happens, that these Hebrew Lucan and Florus, having to demedals, with the portrait of our Sa. scribe the same transaction—the soarviour, are all cast and repaired (i. e. ing of Marc Antony's ships (or, rather, finished with the graver); a mode of rafts) by means of ropes under water getting up medals, resorted to on the present to us, of course, the same revival of the Arts, when the old idea, though somewhat differently exmode of producing a bold relief was pressed. upknown or unresorted to. This may Lucan saysnot be visible on the Cork medal, from “At Pompeianus fraudes innectere ponto its bad preservation, but it is seen at Antiqua parat arte Cilix ; passusque a glance on the casts froin similar medals, at Mr. Tassie's, Leicester Summa freti, medio suspendit vincula square; one of which is from a me- ponto," &c. (Lib. 4, 448.) dal in the possession of a friend of Io Florus (lib. 4,2,) we find, “Rates mine, and another, I understand, in ...movâ Pompeianorum arie Cilicum, tbat of Lord Milsington ; and this, actis sub mare funibus, captæ, quasi among other reasons, induces collec- per indaginen.” tors in London, without the slightest Here would have been a fine field hesitation, to rank them as modern for the iogenuity of those “ falsi et fabrications, and as not deserving of audaces emendatores,” so justly reany attentiou from the Antiquary. probated by A. Gellius (2, 14,) for
i have, in conclusion, Mr. Urban, their mischievous audacity in corvery humbly to submit these doubts rupting the text of the classic Authors, and difficulties to Dr. H. and Mr. E. ; under the idea of correcting supposed and if “ ignorance, vanity, and pre
A critic of that stamp might sumption," really do exist in this con. have pretended to “correct” Lucan's troversy (which I would fain hope is text by altering bis not the case), I must leave it to the
Antiquâ parat arte Ciliz"... publick to decide, whether it rests to “ Ecce novâ parat arte Cilix”. with them, or with me. R.S. “because Florus, who occasionally,
borrows from Lucan, calls it a novel Mr. URBAN, West-square, May13. contrivance."-Or, on the other hand,
those of your Readers who be might have made a fancied cor. imitations and parallel passages of "novâ arte” to “nota arle," and thus authors, I beg leave to present a makiog it accord with Lucan's “ anticouple of examples, which have just quả arte"..." because, if an old prac