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ANTIQUARIAN AND PHILOSOPHICAL RESEARCHES.
ANCIENT CITY DISCOVERED. 4,* portant particulars respecting it. The first In the year 1772 excavations were made, effects were perceived on the 21st of Oct, by order of the Prench Goverument, in between, ten and eleren P, M, when the the small hill of Chatelet in Champagne, wountain, amidst violent shocks, which on the site of a Roman town destroyed in were felt at Trogong, began to throw up the wars of Attila, 'but preserved in part from the suminit red hot stones in imby being covered with earth. Many of mense quantities and a great mass of lava. the curious articles there found are pre. Happily, the wind blowing from the Southserved in Paris in the house of Abbé Ter. west, carried all these infamed bodies to. san, a veteran of fourscore, who'is occa. wards the unighabited mountains, and the pied in getting engravings from them for inhabited districts were spared. The erupgeneral circulation. An official report bly tiog lasted till noon of the 24th. Besides M. Grignian presents some interesting de the principal crater at the summit of ibe tails respecting this excavation. The ré. mountain, its sides at different heights "mains of about 90 houses, eight small also exiited fire and smoke for several crypis or subterraneous cha pels, with ta days after she eruption. On the 28th of number of cellars, cisterns and wells, were
October M. Rienwardt attempted to asdiscovered. The streets, which were re
cend the mountain, which was very trou. gularly paved, and quire straight, were blesome and dangerous, on account of ooly from 15 to 20 feet in width * the its height and steepuess, and the heaps of pavement, where the stone's were uneven, lopse and sharp stones, as well as the heat was cemented with river pebbles, or gras of the ground, and the rolling down of vel. The houses were oblong, and were
stones from the summit. It became more founded on a bed of stones bound together difficult as they ascended higher, M. with fime. Only the better houses had Rienwardt had left Trogong at day-break, crypts, which were all nearly of ove form, and nearly reached the summit at two some only 7 feet by 8; others 9 by 15 o'clock in the afternoon. The barometer the descent to them was by stune stairs, stood then at 25.35 English inches, and and the light was admitted by two open
the thermometer at 75° of Fahrenheit. ings. The cisterns were in diameter from He now boped, with another effort, to 6 to 8 feet; in depth 15 to 18. Some cir. reach the spot where the eruption took cular openings, resembling wells, but pro. place; but was obliged to desist, and to bably drains (as there are no springs in leave this dangerous place, by the coming the hill), were found ; in none of which loose of a large mass of the upper heap of was water found, except one, the deepest stones. The Goenging-Goenloer is part was 65 feet. Many fragments of beauti. of a chain of mountains, alınost all situ. ful pottery were found in them, thrown in, ated in a direction Norih.east to Southas is supposed, by the slaves, to conceal west. The mountain of Agon to the N.E. their awkwardness from their masters. is nearly of the same height as the Vol. Water-pipes made of wood, some of them cauo, which is near 3,100 English feet bound with iroi, were found; also medals, above Trogong, and 5,200 English feet fragments of statues, goblels, spoons, of above the level of the sea. various shapes-some oval; others circu-. i! ELECTRICITY OR THE HUMAN BODY, ler; lamps, rings, pins, amulets, weigh
Dr. Hartmann, of Frankfort, on the ing-scales, sprgical instruments, locks Oder, bas published in a German Medical and keys. The keys were some of copper, Journal a statement, according to which some iron, the smaller on rings, and many she is able to produce al pleasure an eMux of them like those now in use. Wheels, of electric matter from his body towards nails, dishes, knives, and seissars, were. osher persoos. We hear the crackling, likewise found; also many pieces of irup see the sparks, and feel the electric shock. which had escaped decay by being cover- He has now acquired this, faculty to so ed with hard lime ; likewise pieces of high a degree, that it depends solely on bone, and style for writing on wax tables, his own pleasure to make an electric spark of from 3 to 4 inebes in length. Many issue from his fingers, or io draw it from fragments of glass were collected, and of any other part of his body. Thus in this . quality which showed that the manufac. electrical man, the will has an influence ture was by no means in a state of infancy. on the developement of the electricity,
which had not hitherto been observed, exERUPTION OF A Vorcano.
cept in the electrical eel. M. Rienwardt, Director of the Affairs (B13N DIAMOND.-An exceedingly fine relative to Agriculture, Arts, and Sciences, specimen of diamond crystallised has been was lately iu the Goverument of Preang found in the sand of a sinall streain in the during a violent eruption of the volcano of North of Ireland. It is of the species Goenoing, and in a leuler dated Batavia, called by Japidaries the yellow diamond, of Wor, 9, 1318, has communicated manyi. extrenie beauty, and remarkable size.
AUTOMATON CHESS PLAYER. exhibitor introduces a lighted candle into Now exhibiting at Spring Gardens. the body of the chest and figure, by which The inventor of this extraordinary piece the interior of each is, id a great measure, of mechanism, was Wolffgang de Kempe- rendered transparent, and the most secret len, a Hungarian gentleman, aulic coun- corner is sbown. Here, it may be observed, sellor to the Royal Chamber of the do- that the same precaution to remove susmains of the Emperor in Hungary. Being picion is used, if requested, at the close as at Vienna in the year 1769, he offered to at the commencement of the game of Chess the Empress Maria Theresa, 10 construct with the Automaton. a piece of mechanism more unaccountable · The chest is divided by a partition, into thau any she had previously witnessed; two vuequal chambers. That to the right and, accordingly, within six months, the of the figure is the narrowest, and occuAutomaton Chess Player was presented pies scarcely one-third of the body of the al Court, where its extraordinary powers, chest. It is filed with little wheels, lerecs, excited the liveliest astonishmento M. de cylinders, and other machinery used in Kempelen, some years afterwards, pub. clock-work. That to the left contains a liely exhibited it in Germany and other few wheels, some small barrels with springs, countries. In the year 1785, M. de Kem- and two quarters of a circle placed hori. pelen visited Englaod, and at bis death, in zontally. The body and lower parts of the 1803, this Automaton became the property figure contain certaid tubes, which seem of that gentlemay's son, who sold it to the to be conductors to the machinery. After present exhibitor, a person, it is said, of a sufficient time, duriog which each specgreat ability in the science of meebanics. tator may satisfy his scruples and his cu.
The room where it is at present exhi. riosity, the exhibitor recloses the doors of bited has an inner apartment, within the chest and figure, and the drawer at which appears the figure of a Turk, as bottom; makes some arrangements in the large as life, dressed after the Turkish body of the figure, winds up the works with fashion, siuting behind a chest of three feet a key inserted into a small opening on the and a balf in length, two feet in breadth side of the chest, places a cushion under and two feet and a half in height,i lo which the left arm of the figure, which now rests it is attached by the wooden seat on which upon it, and invites any individual present it sits. The chest is placed upon four cas- to play a game of Chess. tors, and, together with the figure, may be At one and three o'clock in the aftereasily moved to any part of the room. On noon, the Automaton plays only ends of the plain surface formed by the top of the games, with any person who may be prechest, in the centre, is a raised immoveable sent. On these occasions the pieces are chess-board of bandsome dimensions, upon placed on the board, according to a pre. which the figure has its eyes fixed; its concerted arrangement; and the Automa. right arm and band being extended on the ton invariably wins the game. But at eight chest, and its left arm somewhat raised, as o'clock every evening, it plays an entire if in the attitude of holding a Turkish pipe, game against any antagonist who may ofwhich originally was placed in its hand. fer himself, and generally is the winner,
The exhibitor begins by wheeling the although the inventor had not this issue in chest to the entrance of the apartment view as a necessary event. within wbich it stands, and in face of the la playing a game, the Automaton spectators. He then opens certaiu doors makes choice of the white pieces, and alcontrived in the chest, two in front, and ways has the first move. These are small two at the back, and at the same time advantages towards winning the game, pulling out a long shallow drawer at the which are cheerfully conceded. li plays bottom of the obest made to contain the with the left hand, the right arm and hand chess men, a cushion for the arm of the being constantly extended on tbe chest, figure to rest apon, and some counters. behind which it is seated. This slight ioTwo lesser doors, and a green cloth screen, congruity proceeded from absence of mind contrived in Ahe body of the figure, and in in the inventor, who did not perceive his its lower parts, are likewise opened, and mistake till the machinery of the Autothe Turkish robe which covers them is maton was too far compleled to admit of raised; so that the construction both of the mistake being rectified. At the comthe figure and chest internally is dieplay- mencement of a game, the Automaton ed. In this state the Automaton is moved moves its head, as if taking a view of the round for the examination of the specta- board; the same motion occurs at the tors; add-to banish all suspicion from the close of a game. lu making a move it most sceptical mind, that any living sub- slowly rises its left arm from the cushion ject is concealed within any part of it, the placed under it, and directs it towards thin
and fingers open on touching the piece, is usually emploged in walking up and which it takes up, and conveys to any, down the apartment in which the Automa. proposed square. The arm then returos ton is shown, approaching, however, the with a natural motion to the cushion upon chest from time to time, especially on its which it usually rests. In taking a piece right side. in the Automaton makes the same motions At the conclusion of the exhibition of of the arm and hand to lay bold of the the Automaton, on the removal of the piece, which it conveys from the board; chess- men from the board, one of the and then returning to its own piece, takes spectators indiscrimioately is requested it up, and places it on the vacaut square. to place a Knight upon any square of These motions are performed with perfect the board at pleasure. The Automaton correctness; and the dexterity with which immediately takes up the Knight, and, the arm acts, especially in the delicate beginning from that square, it moves the operation of castling, seems to be the re- piece, according to its proper motion, so salt of spontaneous feeling, bending at the as to touch each of the 63 squares of the shoulder, elbow, and knuckles, and cau. chess-board in tam, without missiug one, tiously avoiding to touch any other piece or returning to the same square. The thao that wbich is to be moved, nor ever square from which the Knight proceeds making a false more.
is marked by a white counter ; and the After a move made by its antagonist, squares successively touched, by red the Automaton remains for a few moments conoters, which at length occupy all the only inactive, as if meditatiog his next other squares of the board. move ; upon which the motions of the left ario and hand follow. On giving check
IMPORTANT NAUTICAL EXPERIMENT. to the King, it moves its head as a sig. May 28th, Mr. T'reògrouse, from Corn. nal. When a false move is made by wall, made an experiment with his appa. its antagonist, wlicb frequently occurs, ratus for preserving lives in cases of shipthrough curiosity to observe in what man. wreck on the Serpentine River, at the staner the Automaton will act, as, for in- tion of the Royal Humane Society, before stance, if a Knight be made to move like many members of that Institution. a Castle, tbe Automaton taps impatiently Mr. Trengrouse stated, that various cal. on the chest, with its right hand, replaces culations had been made of the numbers the Koight on its former square, and, not of British lives lost through shipwreck, the permitting its antagonist 10 recover his lowest of which exceeded 3000 annually : more, proceeds iminediately to more one He had bimself witnessed many shipof its own pieces; thus appearing to po- wrecks, and among others, that of his Ma. nish bim for his inattention. The liule jesty's ship Anson, when upwards of 100 adrantage in play wbich is hereby gained, of her officers and men prematurely pemakes the Automatou more a match for rished within a few yards of the shore : its antagonist, and seems to have been and that this circumstance, which occurred contemplated by the inventor as an ad. in 1807, led him to contrive means to pre. ditional resource towards winning the vent such'excessive waste of human life ; game.
that he was still porsuing his plan, and It is of importance that the person had matured it so far as 10 produce the matched against the Automatou should
apparatus under examination then, and be attentive, in moving a piece, to place which, from its portability (being all conit precisely in the centre of its square ; tained in a small chest), was calculated otberwise the figure in attempting to lay for, and julended to become, a convenient hold of the piece, may miss its hold, or part of every vessei's equipment, ihus even sustain some injury in the delicate putting the means of preservation into the mechanism of the fingers. When the per- seainen's owo hands, and thereby enabling sun bas made a move, no alteration in it them to assist themselves wherever or cao take place ; and if a piece be touch- whenever distress might assail them. ed, it must be played somewhere. This Mr. Trengrouse fired two small rockets. role is strictly observed by the Automa- with lines attached to them, neither of tou. If its antagonist hesitates to move which went across the warer, but shewed for a considerable time, it taps smartly on the principle of his plan, and went far the top of the chest with the right hand, enough indeed to have opened communiwhich is constan:ly extended upou it, as catiou with the shore, in scores of cases if testifying impatience at his delay. which have receotiy occurred apon our
During the time that the Automaton own coasts. is in motion, a low sound of clock work Mr. Trengrouse then fired a larger runniog down is heard, which ceases soon rocket, which went in fine style to a consiafter its arm returns to the cushion; and derable distance over the lofty trees on then its antagonist may make his move. the opposite side of the river, laking with The works are wound up at intervals, after it ope ball of live, npwards of 200 yards
long, , of was of that size and son as judge how many important applications
eine man who was in a boat about the middle may be made of this process. Navigaof the river, to haul the boat to sbore. tion, medicine, unwholesome inanufacBy, this line a larger one from a reel in tories, will derive incalcuable advantages the
e apparatus chest) was hauled across the froin it. This explains who meat merely river, and by it a sbip's hawser, strained dried in a stove does not keep, while tbat from Iwo trees across the waler, and iwo which is smoked becomes unalterable. Tollers applied (which are so constructed We have here an explanation of the theory as to be put on after the rope was fast at of hams, of the beef of Hamburgh, of each end), and obtained great applause smoked tongues, &c. &c. from several naval officers, who minutely LADY'S VELOCIPEDE.-A model of a mea examined them. To the books of the locipede, intended for the use of ladies, rollers was suspended a chaise volante, into is now exhibiting at Ackermann's, in Lonwhich a man got, having on one of Mr. don. It resembles Johnstone's machine, Trengrouse's life spensers (being a sort of but has two wheels behind, which are cork jacket, of his own contrivance); in wrought by two levers, like weavers' this he was hauled along the rope with treadies, on which the person impelling great rapidity will about half way across
the machine presses alternately with the river, when, either through some de- walking motion. These move the axle by fect or by some accident, the havling line means of leather straps round the cramps; broke, and prevenied further process in and the wheels being 6xed revolve with it. this part of the experiment. The man The lady sits on a seat before, and directs then disengaged himself from the chaise, the velocipede as in the original invention. and the buoyancy of the spen er kept bim, head and shoulders, above water ;
PEDESTRIAN CHARIOT.--Mr. Howell, of he then swam about, and afterwards got Bristol, has invented a machine, of inte into a boat and rowed very freely, shew. nitely greater power and utility tban the ing, that the speriser being on did not
Velocipede. Its chief attractions are its materially interrupt the use of his limbs in simplicity and perfect safely, being eli. the water or out of it; while its buoyancy even children. The wheels, which are
gible for the conveyanee of ladies, and affords preservation from drowning, and upwards of six feet in diameter, run pa. its construction protects the body from blows of Agating wreck, or from blows rallel to each other; and as the seat is against rocks, &c.
befow the centre of gravity, the rider can Mr. Trengrouse's missile line was also ing projected to on thich admits of be equilibrium. From the increased circulis some considerable dis. ference of the wheel, and the consequently
decreased friction of the axle, a greater tance, from der of his a very a
0 Vantageous man.
line. It may be degree of velocity may be given, with a rebdered a preservative in cases of boats this renders it of ibuch greater facility of
considerably diminished imperus ; and, upsetting in harbour, or passing from oner vessel to another, or alongside, or of nien
management, leither on the level road or falling overboard, &c.
the most rapid descent. The machine Pet PYROLIGNEOUS Acid.
may be constructed no carry two or three A letter from Paris says, "A discovery of persons, with a portmanteau or other considerable importance engages at. This luggage. moment ite attention of the physicians
, the A1N-JACKET. - Mr. Charles Kendal chetnists, and"the government of France. lately made an experiment on the Thames A 1 person has discovered of the efficacy of his air-jacket, or life.
acid, abiained by preserver, which completely succeeded. the disrillation of wood, has the property
Ile went of tra Prerenline composition and pu, through London Bridge with great ease,
substances. It is and on to the London Docks in 20 misufficient to pluoge meat for a few mo. uutes, walking upright in the water, ac. ments juto this acid, even slightly empy.' companied by his man all the way. reumatic, to preserve the meat as long as POTATOES. -A Correspondent suggests you may desire.1 Catlets, kidneys, liver, that potatoes may be kept in excellent rabbits, i which were prepared as far back preservation as the year, by dipping them as the month of July last, are now as fresh in boiling water, as the Scotch preserve as if they had just been procured from eggs by killing the living principle; and the market. I have seen carcases washell as the germ is $0 near the skin, it would three weeks ago with pyroligneous acid, in not hurt the potatoe. One minute, or which there is yet no sign of decomposi.' iso at most would be quite suficient
.. tion. Putrefaction not only stops, but it This would be of great use for ship stoves. erer, retrogades. Makes exhaling infec. In an open-worked basket a ton may be Lion, sense to do so, as soon as porópoor cured in an hour,
«THE DROP OF HEAVENLY-DEW." Still toward its full meridian mounts the SYNESU HYMN. jii, ad fin.
And spreads the splendours of undying ΔοΣ με, φυγοϊσαν, σώματος άταν, Prom EDWARD's plume its gathering glories Θοον αλμα βαλείν επί σας αυλάς,
stream, Επι σας κόλπος, όθεν α ψυχας
And mingle in our GEORGE's brighter beam. Tipopía waya. Ada dipavía
Oh! when, above the sable warrior's crest,
That triple trophy led the embaltled west, Κέχομαι κατά γας" τσαγά με δίδα
Mor'd it not iben before his darkening "Οθεν εξεχύθην φυγάς αλήτις.
Heaven's bright and eager beraid of the By the Rer, REGINALD HEBBR, M. A. And oh! when the destroying Aogel rose,
Grant me, releas?d from Matter's cbain, On the plagued earth to pour bis phial'd To seek, o God, thy home again,
woes, Within Iby bosom to repose,
Went it not forth again? --and cross'd his From whence the stream of Spirit Aows!
(wrath? A Dew.drop of celestial, birth,
And smote him with our England's heavier Behold me spilt on nel her earth;
But who-serene alike in peace or warThen give me to įhat parent well! 1
Who fix'd the brightness of her Island From which tby Aatting waydrex sell! ADDRESS
Whát heart of virtue, and what haod of
power, Delivered at the Anniversary of Mr. Pitt's Spherd in such glory its ascendant hour!
Birth day, at the City of London Tavernd Whose was the charmed name :-oh! look May 25, 1819, By E. L. Swiet, Esq.
(tear YEARS pass away: Time speeds ibe. And read it iu his country's memoried
unwearied wing; And shadows in iis restless gathering
lo her wide triumphs read it! Every wave,
! And every fields, bring tribute to his grave; The hopes of man, bis triumpbs, and bis And rescued friends, and radquish'd foes, power;
have bent While deep Oblivion "veils the vanish'd Before our Pitt's elemal Monument. Where now Assyria's glory? Whither
Por died-he in the condict--He, our Whither the sky-heaved pride of Baby
guide, And vaidly Egypt's Kings have, toil'd for "Mid the dark dangers of the tempest died: fame,
[vame. While his exhausted spirit sought the sky Whose Pyramids enshrine their buried lo that sablime and ceaseless agony.
Where liveth now its fire? What kindred So weak, Mortality's anaided hand ! Her rock is water, and her marble sand.Sbe builds upon the wave ;-she writes in Hearis, tongues, all leap to answer :-but
Its high mysterious workings duih inberit? air; 621.14 He w [there. And Fate's dread mockery mars the record The flag that swept o'er half the antique The roof that echoed it, the strain that
Bids England, here, a silent homage paya-, world, Now falls, beneath the dust of ages furl?d; Iis triumph in our last and fiercest feld,
peald And the high throne, whence Empires Catch but the whisper of one honour'd heard their doom
name Where sleep it's terrors-la a dateless But we !' through distant centuries
Undying heir of Pitt's undying famestreaın'd afar,
One note exultant more. Ja tbat sad time, We trace the rising of our England's star; When Tyranny was Rights and Preedum Where Valour, join'd with Virtue, form'd Crime, the gem,
Our poble sires wilhetood a sceptred slave, Cradled in ALFRED's early diadem." Aud wared against the l'hrone, the Throne" Then, kindling in its height, we saw it 10 save; pour'd
(sword, Now England's Chiefs, as firm in England's Round the keen lustre of that patriot
(laws: Which ycard the bigot King; and dash'd Join with her PRINCE to vindicate her aside
[vaulting pride. And while from Pitt'e "unspotted shrine Rome's Tyrant Priest , and check'd his they turn, :
To wreathe new offeringo round that re." *** 3 * See p.517.
sal ara, Gent. Mag. June, 1819.
y! this day