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any suitable power. I prefer a chain beam, and the end of this rope is taken fastened to the fore-end, 10 the m:in, or on-board the vessel when floated over the keel-beam ; the purchase, a wheel and carriage, in order that, by bauling it in, pinion. If a pall or palls are attached the block may be drawn in and jambed to the carriage, the end of which can fast beneath the bottom of the vessel ; drop into the tooth of a rack laid on the and, to prevent these sliding blocks from inclined plane, it will prevent the car- springing back, a pall or palls are atriage from running back, if the chain or tached to the outer end of the blocks, rope should break. To fix and steady which fall into the teeth of the rack laid the vessel upon the carriage, blocks may upon each of the cross-pieces. And be applied beneath her bottom in any further, to steady the vessel, if it should way that may be most convenient. In Mr.
be necessary, several shores may be M.'s, carriage-blocks are fitted upon the fastened by joints or hinges to the sidecross-pieces thereof, with grooves, re- beams of the carriage, or to the ends of bates, or are otherwise guided, in which the cross-pieces, which may project over they slide to or from the keel of the the side-beams, the joints or hinges are vessel; these blocks are made up to dif- at the lower-end of the props, so that ferent heights and forms, corresponding their upper ends may be turned outwards to that part of the bottom of the vessel clear of the vessel while floating in, and beneath which each one is intended to afterwards turned in and applied to the apply; to each sach sliding block, a sides of the vessel above the water, and rope is fixed, which, being carried across may be spiked thereto, or cleats may the middle beam below the vessel's keel, be nailed to her sides close above the topis reeved through a block, sheave, or end of snch shores. eye-bolt, attached to the opposite side
PROCEEDINGS OF PUBLIC SOCIETIES.
LITERARY SOCIETY OF Belus's tower (which is four miles from
Hillah in a direct line) there are no more PRESENT State of the RUINS of BA- Inounds on the bank of the river for the
BYLON. By CAPTAIN EDWARD FRE: distance of twelve miles above the tower, DERICK.
when you are shown a small heap of NHE
our last Number, whilse they inform called by the Arabs the hummum or bath. us of what Capt. F.saw, will doubtless have I strongly suspect this to be the remains great future importance in guiding travel- of a modern building, from the size, co. lers to the site of these famous ruins of lour, and general appearance of the bricks, the East; and he shews the way to them which, in iny opinion, bear not the slightaccurately. He observes, " that the est resemblance to those I had previruins of the mounds lie on the left, a ously seen. This spot, I should imagine, short distance off the direct road from had not been visited by any traveller, as Hillah; and a traveller merely sees Belus's it lies at a great distance from the main tower as he rides along, and must turn road froin Hillah to Bagdad; indeed, no out of his way if he wishes to examine one mentions ever having seen it. it, which will occupy a longer time than “ These are all the mounds, or ruins, as travellers generally have leisure for, as they are called, of Babylon, that are geappears from their own acknowledg. nerally shown to travellers under the ge. ments, not to notice their dread of being neral denomination of Babel. I bow, surprised by the wandering Arabs. ever discovered, after much inquiry, that
As to the other travellers who have there were some heaps on the right bank, visited this celebrated spot, it would be at the distance of some miles from Hilcarrying complaisance too far to place labi, between the village of Karakoolee implicit confidence on their relations, as and the river. I accordingly rode to they appear merely to have passed over them, and perceived that, for the space the ground, and sometimes not even to of about half a mile square, the country know that they were amidst the ruins, was covered with fragments of different until their guides told them it was Babel kinds of bricks, but none of them led me they were riding over. They of course to conclude that they were of the same had no time to examine the heaps of size and composition as those found rubbish. Other travellers visited only either at Belus's tower, or the mound one bank of the Euphrates, not caring to mentioned to be situated between it and risk meeting with the Arabs while gratify. Billab; 1 therefore returned, somewhat ing their curiosity on the other. From disappointed.
“Having now gratified my curiosity in that the Euphrates had anciently fowed examining every mound or spot described between Belus's tower and the other large either by Rennell, or pointed out by the mound lying about three quarters of a natives as belonging to Babel, I next be. mile to the west of it, mentioned in this gan to search for the remains of the ditch account as the one with the walls of a and city-wall that had encompassed Ba- large house still standing in it, and che bylon, which was the principal object of decayed tree; for, where the remains of my journey, and still remained to be ac- the palace could have been situated, if complished. Neither of these have been not at this mound, I am at a loss to conseen by any modern travellers, nor do jecture. But if we admit that the river they give any intimation that they had may have changed its course from what even looked for them. All my inquiries it held in those ancient times, and that it amongst the Arahs on this subject com- now flows to the westward of both the pletely failed in producing the smallest palace and the tower, instead of passing effect. Desirous, however, of verifying between them, as it is said to have done, the conjectures of Major Rennell, I com- the positions of the palace and tower are menced my search, first by riding five then exactly marked by these miles down the stream, and next by fol. mounds; for, with the exception of lowing the windings of the river sixteen Niebuhr's watch-tower, mentioned in my miles to the northward from Hillah, on first day's excursion, there is not a single the eastern side of the river. The west- mound on the western bank to be found, ern I ranged exactly in the same manner, nor do the natives ever procure any bricks and discovered not the least appearance from that side, though the principal parç or trace of any deep excavation running of the town of Hiliah is situated on it. If in a line, or the remains of any rubbish this cunjecture be admissible, then the or mounds that could possibly lead to a ancients and moderns agree in their acconclusion that either a ditch or wall bad counts of this far-famed city with rrgard existed within the range of twenty.one to the site of its two principal edifices; miles. On the western bank, in return- but if it be rejected as improbable, we ing home, I left the winding of the river, still remain as inuch in the dark as ever, and proceeded in a straight line from the when we come to look for the remains of village of Karakoolee, fifteen miles to the the palace. I shall however lay no northward and westward of Hillah, 10 stress upon what I have here advanced, the latter place. The next day I rode but only offer it as a conjecture that in a perpendicular direction from the struck me as probable, from the modern river at Belus's tower, six miles east and appearances of the river, ruins, and coun. as many west ; so that, within a space of try in their vicinity, at the time I was twenty-one miles in length, along the examining them." banks of the Euphrates, and twelve The author having taken his survey in miles across it in breadth, I was unable every thing worthy of notice, concludes to perceive any thing that could admit of with equally important observations on my imagining that either a wall or ditch the probable dimensions of the Babylo. had existed within this extensive area. nian tower, and the several kinds of bricks This leads, however, only to this conclu. found; and lastly, notices the navigation sion;-that, if any remains do exist, ıhey of the country. must have been of greater circumference “ Della Valle and Beauchamp make than is allowed by modern geographers. the square of the tower of Belus from I may possibly have been deceived, but I six hundred and forty to six hundred and spared no pains to prevent it; I never sixty feet. I paced the circumference, was employed in riding and walking less and found the four faces amount to nine than eight hours a day for six successive hundred paces, or 2,250 feet: the slope, days, and upwards of twelve on the as you descend the face, is gradual, and seventh.
generally easy. We might not have “That
part of the Euphrates which lies measured it exactly at the same place ; between Karakoolee and Hillah, a dis. but the difference which appears between tance of upwards of sixteen miles, winds us is immaterial, as a lapse of two centue extremely, and particularly where it ries may in all probability have occapasses Belus's tower a quarter of a mile sioned considerable alterations. The distant. Arguing from the well esta- altitude of the south-west angle, which is blished fact, that streams, on so soft a the loftiest part of the whole, is combottom and level a surface, in the course puted at two hundred feet. I bad no of years change their beds, we inay, means of ascertaining the truth of this, without violating probability, presume but should imagine it is fully that height. 1
Della Valle mentions two kinds of bricks, The circular boats made of reeds, and in furnace-baked and sun-dried; and Beau. form of a shield, which attracted the nochamp met only with the former. I saw tice of Herodotus so much, and which, in both these, and another sort of deep-red, his time, were used on the river between apparently high-baked, the colour of an Babylon and Armenia, differ hardly at English brick. This latter is in the great- all from those in use at the present day; est abundance at Niebuhr's watch-tower, which perfectly agree with the descripand generally has an inscription on it, but tion given by that venerable historian. in a small character. I could not procure Another curious anethod of navigation any of this kind whole; they were always exists in these times, which is noticed as in small pieces. The tower of Belus, early as the time of Xenophon. Merthe mound opposite to it, and the watch- chants in Armenia, when embarking on tower, had these two kinds used in their the Tigris, collect a great number of construction ; but the large clay sun-dried goat-skins, which, having inflated, they brick was to be found only at Belus's fasten together, forming a kind of square tower, the whole interior body of which raft; these are from fifty to a hundred in was composed of it; and the employment number; over them are placed mats, of reeds and bituinen as a cement, ap- then the merchandize, and upon the cop pears to have been but seldom intro- of all, the owners and
It is duced in other parts of the ruins, except then set adrift, and, floating down the at the one denominated the tower of stream, it occasionally strikes against Belus, where it was universally seen as islands and shallow parts of the river, the the cement for the sun-dried brick, and bottom of which being of a sost nature, at every course ; whereas, at Aggurkeef, seldom destroys the skins. near Bagdad, which is certainly a Baty. “The Auwing of the tide at Korna is a lonish building, it is found at every sixth, singular sight: ic prevails against the seventh, and eighth course, though the stream of the Euphrares, but finds the same sort of brick is used in the building. current of the Tigris too powerful ; and, The reeds and bitumen were evidently as you stand at the confluence of the two but seldom used with the furnace-baked, rivers, you see the flood-ride flowing up which I observed most generally ce- the Euphrates on the one hand, and mented with a thin layer of lime and forced back by the strength of the Tigris sand. Tue dimensions of the bricks on the other, forming, by this contrary were,-clay sun-dried, four inches seven- direction of two currents, a violent eddy tenths thick, seventeen inches and a half between them. The tides of the Persiait broad; furnace-baked, three inches thick, Gulf are sensibly felt in the Euphrates twelve inches broad, and generally weigh- twenty miles above Korna, or one hun. ed thirty-one pounds.
dred and forty miles from the mouth of “ The Euphrates, as far as Knona, which the river. The depth of the river at file is one hundred and twenty miles from lah, from what I could collect from the the head of the Persian Gulf, is navigable vatives, exceeds forty, feet when nearly for vessels of three hundred tons, and full: at the time I saw it, the surface of from thence to Hillah, boats not exceed the stream was within ihree feet of the ing eighty can come up during six in onths edge of the bank, and must, I should in the year. Their construction is singu. conceive, have been fully of that depth. lar: they have one very large mast with It had arrived very nearly at its greatest a latteen sail; the body almost a ball height, this being the period of its annual moon, no keel, and a rudder of the most swell. It is broader, but not so rapid, as awkward shape: the hull is extremely ill the Dijla or Tigris: that part of it beconstructed, the ribs and planks being tween Karakoolee and the mounds was roughly nailed togei her, and the outside very narrow :
after which, as it apcovered with bitumen. When they are proaches Hillah, it widens considerably, going to Korna or Bussora from Hillah, and cl vse to the mound it forms a sudden they sail of the wind be fair, or float bend, Howing almost between the tower down the streain if it be foul. In re. of Belus and the large monnd opposite turning or ascending the streann, they !o it; which appearance and formation ha one end of a long rope tied to the induced me to bazard a donjecture that head of the mast, four or six men take it might formerly have passed between hold of the other end, and by this means them, instead of running to the westpull ber against the current,
ward of them both, as it now does. The “ It is curious to observe, notwithstande inundations of the river do not tend to ing the lapse of ages, bow some local fertilize the land; the cultivation is car. customs and usages continue in practice. ried on entirely by irrigation, the water MONTILY MAG. No. 337.
being thrown up into a trough by means liquor passed under that denominatione of a very siinple machine constructed on The Babylonians, however, might have the edge of the bank, and easily worked possessed the art of extracting the sap, by one man; thence it is conducted and making a liquor of it, or a wine, as through narrow channels to any part of Herodotus would have called it, by ferthe fields. The perpendicular mud pile nientation, an art which the Arabs of Jars upon which the cross-bar rests are The present day are unacquainted with. about two feet in diameter, and the “Hillah, which is in lat. 32° 28' N., ote basket that takes up the water is of an served by Niebuhr, and said to be builo oval form, three feet long by sixteen or on the site of ancient Babylon, is a goodeighteen inches broad, made of reeds, sized town, containing from ten to twelve and covered with bitumen.
thousand inhabitants, with the Euphrates “ On accountof the decayed state of the Aowing through the midst of it. The two water-courses, cultivation is confined to divisions of the place communicate by the banks of the river, and the few ca. means of a bridge of boats of a very rude nals that admit the water at the annual construction, and connected with each increase of the river:-Thus that coun- other by a couple of large iron chains, try, which has been considered the rich- and platforms of date-trees, mats, and est in the world, has more the appearance
mud. A great number of date-trees are of a desert, than of lands that had for- interspersed amongst the buildings, which, merly yielded fourhundred-fold to the in- at a distance, give it the appearance of a dustry of the husbandman.
large town situated in the midst of a “ It is worthy of reinark, that after grove. leaving Korna, which is situated forty “ The road to it from Bagdad is good, miles above Bussora, at the confluence and the surrounding country, as far as of the Euphrates and Tigris, no date, the eye can reach, perfectly flat, intertrees are to be seen on the banks of the sected with canals, which had been cut latter river; and that the sides of the formerly across the Jezzera from the former are lined with them up to Baby- Tigris to the Euphrates, but at present lon, and even a very considerable dise they can only be traced by their decayed tance above it. The date-fruit to the banks, present day constitute so essential a part “ The climate of this country has been of the food of the inhabitants, that it considered particularly clear, fine, and may, without any impropriety of either healthy, though extremely hot, from April language or ideas, be esteemed the bread to October ; and the water of the Eu of the people; and from it also a fer- phrates is held in almost as high estimaa mented liquor is inade, into which ani- tion at the present day by the Arabs, as seed is put, to give it a flavour. It is that of the Choaspes (the modern Ka. well kuown that the ancients were not roon) was regarded by the imperial lords very delicate wiih regard to the flavour of Ecbatana in ancient times.” of their wines, and that any fermented
VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL.
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign. I (T affords us great pleasure to be able ignorance or want of public feeling of
to state, That advices have been re- the silent writers. In such matiers, one ceived of the arrival of Capt. Parry's positive assertion is worth a hundred expedition of Discovery at the mouth of negatives. Besides, it is manifest, that Copper-Minc River, in the Norih Ame- if the ships had not found a passage out rican Ocean. A letter has been pub- of Baffin's Bay, by the channel so fully lished in that most respectable paper, described in Fisher's account of the first the Dublin Evening Post, from a Mr. Voyage, there was nothing to prevenç MʻTARISI, of Montreal, giving an ac- their return to Europe in October. We count of the arrival of an overland mes. entertain, therefore, no doubt of the suce senger, and mentioning the name of cessful progress of the enterprising navi. Hoffer, as the officer who employed him, gators, and that our next account of an evident corruption of the name of them will be overland fron, Kamschatka, Lieut. HOPPNER, who is with the ships, or in the publication of another narra: Doubts have been raised, because other tive of Mr. Fisher, the surgeon of Capt. Jetters from Montreal do not mention Parry's ship, in the Journal of New this; but the omission only proves the Voyages. The mouth of Copper-Mine
River is in latitude 69° and longitude of skins, but open, and each capable of 110; that is, 30 north of Iceland, and carrying from twenty to thirty people. 14° south of the norih cape of Norway. The oars were pulled'by women, but there Hlearne, Mackenzie, and others, describe
was an old man in each boat to direct tribes of Indians as living in the vicinity; them. As they brought off a great many and, as the ships are fully provided, we
children, I suppose we saw the whole conceive no doubt can be entertained tribe, amonnting to nearly 200 souls. that they are safe, and that they will live landed here in safety; find the country
August 31: York Factory. We have to enjoy the glory of the enterprise, and more pleasant than we expected; and have. the bounty offered by Parliament. been told that the difficulties of travelling
It is well known, that it was judici. in this country liave been exaggerated. ously arranged that an expedition should
Two other Books of the Historical proceed by land from Hudson's Bay, to
Memoirs of Napoleon, by Himself, are. meet the nautical expedition, and co. operate with them. The following letter pected soon to appear. The other is re.
in Europe ; and one of them may be ex. from the land expedition, has appeared farded by the cupidity of the person in one of the journals:
who undertook to convey it to Europe; Aug. 27, 1819; at sechs After passing the southern part of and who demands, as a personal douceur Greenland, named Cape Farewell, we for the right of publication, no less than met with much ice; but, as it did not lie 4,000 pounds sterling. 'thick, little difficuliy was experienced in Mr. FORSTER, the much-admired au. forcing a way through it; nor did it prove thor of Essays on “ Decision of Characso great an impediment as the contrary ter," &c. has in the press, and will pub. winds, which still continued to thwart us. lish in a few weeks, an Essay on the Near the Greenland coast, the streams or
Evils of Popular Ignorance; in an octavo fields of ice consisted of a collection of
volume. leose and comparatively flat pieces, more
Mr. SHARON Turner's third edition, or less densely compacted together, according to the state of the weather; but, of the History of the Anglo-Saxons, in on approaching the shores of Labrador, three volumes octavo, is nearly ready. It we fell in with many icebergs, or large will contain an addition of several obfoating fields of ice,
serrations and dialogues of King Alfred In these straits the Hudson's-bay vessels on the subjects discussed by Boethius, a are generally visited by a tribe of Esqui- fuller analysis of the beroic poem of maux, wino frequent the shores during Beowulf, a larger view of the Witevasummer, and conic off to the ships for the gemot or Anglo-Saxon Parliament, and a purpose of bartering their whole wealtli,' detail of the population of the Anglowhich consits in whale and seal blubber, Saxons. for iron, which has become an article of
"The amusing tourist, Dr. Syntax, has the first conseqnence to them. Accord- extended his peregrinations to France, ingly, one day when we were above twenty where there is indeed ample scope for bis, miles from the shore, these poor creatures ventured off in their skin
canoes, pulling of the Grotesque, is a happy ideas and
descriptive powers. A tour in search with the utmost anxiety to reach the vessels. It sometimes happens, when the
we doubt not, that the learned Doctor, ships have a fair wind, that they run past in his poetical survey of Paris, will afthe Esquimaux haunts without stopping: ford us a much more entertaining picture in the present instance, however, we were than has yet been furnished of that most, detained by light contrary winds, which fascinating capital, not excepting even enabled them to overtake us; and, when the sallies of fancy which have emathey did so, they expressed so much joy nated froin the lively author of “The and exultation, that it was easy to con. Fudge Family." ceive how great their disappointment Mr. J. P. Neale is proceeding in the must have been when they missed us. In third volume of his work of Noblemen's, a short time we were surrounded by thirty and Gentlemen's Seats in the United or forty canoes, each carrying one man, Kingdom. The work is published in, with his small cargo of merchandize, which, to their great satisfaction, they
monthly numbers, quarto and octavo, speedily exchanged for pieces of iron and will, when complete, form six voa, hoops, knives, saws, haichets and bar. luines, viz. four being views in England poons, and tin-pots. The wind conti- and Wales, one in Scotland, and one in puing contrary during the remainder of Ireland. the day, we stood in towards the land, The same tasteful author will also and gave the women of the tribe an op- publish on the 1st of April, No. IX. of, portunity to come 'off, which they did, in The History and Antiquities of the Abbey dive large canoes framed like the large one Church of S:. Peter's, Westminster. The