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ments of the Government, and of the great | the makers thought it worth their while to railway, shipping, and other joint-stock humour the fancy of their Japanese cuscompanies. In the second class the British tomers. For some reason of their own the merchant in Japan takes little share, Japanese wished to have a machine with preferring, because of the onerous conditions | the arm somewhat higher than it is usually of contract, to leave it to Japanese firms. made. The English makers thought that But the rapidity with which railways are the change would be a disadvantage in spreading in Japan makes itincumbent upon working the machine, or at any rate that British merchants to watch their oppor it was unnecessary. Some German makers tunities in this direction. There are now did not mind that, they saw that in conin operation 600 miles of State railways, sulting the Japanese preference there would and 2,300 miles of private lines; besides be an advantage to themselves; and now this, there are nearly 1,000 miles more of the German-made sewing machine is seen private lines in course of construction, and everywhere.” The Report urges that charters for further extensions, amounting British manufacturers should be specially to 500 miles, have been granted. According represented by experts in the principal to the Government programme of railway classes of machinery. It recommends that construction within the next 10 years, payment should be secured by Home manu26,500,000 yen are to be spent in improving facturers before parting with goods; in some and doubling existing State lines, and cases the buyer might refuse to take delivery within the same period 87,000,000 yen will without a substantial reduction on the be paid in constructing new lines extending already agreed price. The Government over 1,220 miles. Private lines will probably stimulate the desire of the Japanese so to grow even more rapidly, for railway com conduct international trade that the foreign panies pay exceedingly well in Japan; the merchant in Japan can be dispensed with; shares of nearly all the companies are at a but the Japanese gain more than they lose high premium, and in a country where in by employing the foreign intermediary. terest on money rules high, this indicates Reasons are given why the Japanese cannot very profitable working. On the Govern. do direct trade, the chief being that the ment lines, the net profit amounts to more Japanese merchant has no credit and that than 10 per cent. on the capital, and it may no trust can be put in him when it is a be taken for granted that private lines are question of faithful execution of contracts. more economically worked than these. The Industrial Japan.-Mr. Brenan notes that Japanese have not the capital for all the Japan is fast becomingan industrial country. remunerative works they would like to un “In 1872 the whole value of manufactured dertake, and under existing conditions articles exported by Japan did not amount foreigners may not hold shares in railway to $500,000; in 1896 it reached $45,000,000, companies ; but when, in a couple of years, or 40 per cent. of her total exports. In the new treaties come into force, and no the earlier year the whole import trade distinction is made between natives and may be said to have been in manufactured foreigners, it may be expected that foreign articles, now the value of raw materials capital will flow in for railway construction imported into the country amounts to as well as other productive works, $46,000,000, or some 30 per cent. of her and then the demand for railway total imports. It is chiefly in her trade material of all sorts will increase." with Asiatic countries that this increasing The English having introduced railways into importation of raw material is noticeable. Japan, at one time had matters all their own Speaking generally, Japan's trade with these way; but of late the Japanese have taken Asiatic countries may be said to consist of to manage things for themselves, and there imports of raw materials, and exports of has been a tendency to give orders to manufactured articles." The increased America, especially for locomotives. The importation of machinery for several years tendering for Government materials for may be regarded as representing Japan's naval yards, military arsenals, and railways capacity as a manufacturing country. is in the hands of half-a-dozen Japanese “ To ensure commercial supremacy in the firms, but the bulk of the materials is East is the avowed ambition of Japan's procured in England. But the English leading men, and to China as a great market makers show less eagerness to secure orders to take off Japan's manufactures, present than do their Continental or American and future, their eyes are eagerly turned. rivals. British manufacturers are not so There is in the capital a Government comaccommodating. For example : “ An mercial school, which was founded some arsenal required a crane with the lifting years ago to qualify young men to engage machinery of a certain description, not in trade in Europe and America. One of now considered as the most serviceable. the leading members of the Council of the Application was made to an English maker, school recently delivered a lecture, in the who refused to supply the out-of-date article. course of which he laid great stress on the A German maker accepted the order, and insignificant part which Japanese merchants thus obtained an opening which he will were taking in the trade between China and probably turn to good advantage. Again, Japan; and he certainly did not understate the sewing machines of a well-known the fact, for not only is all the trade between English maker were in possession of the the two countries in Chinese hands, even in field, and might have remained there had | Japan, but Chinese are establishing themselves in positions in Japan which the numerous as in English factories, and their Japanese had no excuse for allowing them work is comparatively inefficient. But, well to occupy.” The Japanese are not at or badly managed, the Japanese mills are present qualified to trade in China. Very paying well. The home demand for yarn is few speak the language and most of them gradually increasing ; but now that China is despise the Chinese. “After all that has herself producing, it is unlikely that Japan been said about Japan's rapid development will secure the China market. Japan will as a manufacturing country, and her pros probably in a short time have more spindles pects of not only ousting European countries than she can profitably employ. Labour from the Asiatic markets, but even invading troubles, also, may arise, owing to the short us on our own ground, a certain sense of supply of mill hands and the advance in disappointment, or to some it may be a wages. There are as yet no factory laws, feeling of relief, is experienced when one and the Japanese takes his work easily. Long comes to look a little below the surface. hours do not mean uninterrupted toil. Like If we take the statistics of Japan's trade, all Asiatics, the Japanese rebels against which are prepared in a very systematic assiduous labour. The homespun article has manner, we find certainly that her exports driven Indian yarn out of Japan ; but India to foreign countries have increased enor is supplying Japan with the bulk of the raw mously in the last few years, but an analysis cotton she requires. Fine English yarns of these exports show that with the excep hold their own, and the demand for English tions to be presently noted it is not so much piece-goods is still increasing. “In 1885 the in any new direction that Japan's commerce import of cotton piece-goods was 52,179,000 has increased, but that her sta ple products yards, of which 29,239,000 yards were grey are being exported in ever-increasing quan shirtings. In 1896 the total import was tities." In no articles except cotton yarn, 110,000,000 yards, out of which grey shirtcotton textiles, matches, glassware, and ings figured for 55,000,000 yards. The umbrellas, has Japan as yet succeeded in steam-driven spindle has displaced the hand competing with the older manufacturing | spinning wheel, and the hands thus set free countries in outside markets. The Japanese have been put on to the hand-looms; but think they can make everything, but their they weave not fast enough to supply tendency is to deteriorate in the articles Japan's increasing demands for cotton they manufacture. The Japanese have yet textiles. How rapid is this increase may be to learn that in business honesty pays in the | judged when it is stated that in 1885 long run. The industries of the country are 62,000,000 lbs. of yarn were woven into cloth; in a state of transition. Cheapness of labour | in 1896 the amount was over 200,000,000 lbs. has been counted on as a factor of import A certain portion of this cloth was exance; but wages are rising very fast; in ported to China and other parts, but not in some trades they are 50 per cent. higher nearly sufficient quantities to account for than they were a few years ago. While we the growing output. The increased conneed not fear that Japanese wares will sumption is explained by the changing drive ours out of the market because of their habits of the Japanese, in whom is growing superiority, we may yet be injured by a fondness for luxury and display which the inferior articles being passed off as “best old-fashioned conservatives denounce as & English make." There is much fictitious change for the worse.” The Japanese are commercial and industrial activity in Japan, beginning to be a wool-wearing nation where bubble enterprises and scheming com (sheep will not live in the country). In 1896 pany promoters exist as elsewhere. Osaka is 3,650,000 lbs. of wool imported and worked the chief seat of Japan's industry. “A recent up in mills, which make 12 per cent. of official return states that there are 4,962 Japan's woollen requirements. In the factories large and small, and 1,370 factory match trade, where the hand labour is chimneys. In these are employed 31,400 astonishingly rapid, there is over-production; men and 27,900 women. Besides these, but a limitation of output has been decided there are 19,000 weaving establishments upon. A Norwegian Consular Report on this with over 30,000 handlooms, giving employ subject says:-“Japanese com ment to 5,600 men and 40,000 women spells bankruptcy. About 50,000 cases of weavers. Throughout Japan it is com 50 gross of matches have been exported, puted that there are 600,000 hand-looms, nine-tenths of which, consisting of phosemploying 48,000 men and 895,000 women. phoric matches, went to the British Indies. These looms are engaged in weaving silk, Japanese competition, which was formerly cotton, hemp, and jute. In the article of confined exclusively to safety matches, has cotton, the province of Aichi is the greatest now become equally serious in connection weaving district; it turns out 15,000,000 with the phosphoric article. Japan now piéces of cotton cloth, the total production exports large quantities to the whole of of Japan being 30,000,000 pieces. Osaka India. Of the five match factories working with its hand-looms supplies only 3,330,000 for the export trade, one has been compelled pieces. It is clear that here is a promising to amalgamate its two establishments, field for the introduction of modern weaving another has made very bad business, a machinery." In cotton spinning, Osaka third no longer makes safety matches, the has made rapid strides. The mills work fourth has lowered its output, and the fifth night and day with double shifts. The has gone bankrupt." Carpet-making has hands employed are three or four times as | also grown to large proportions, and affords

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an example of the Japanese being able to “only so long as such heavy bounties and beat those from whom they learned. subsidies are paid as will make up for the Official Aids to Private Enterprise. There is losses caused by unbusinesslike methods a disposition to look to the State for special and by the unwillingness to accept foreign assistance; and on the part of the Govern advice and assistance." State of the ment there is a tendency to take in hand National Finances. Though the cost of and nurse every new enterprise. “The the war is more than covered by the result is an amount of fostering encourage. Chinese indemnity the outlay to which the ment which may almost be described as country is pledged far surpasses the balance coddling. Yet in their haste to develop the of 100,000,000 yen to the good on that commerce of Japan her statesmen fre indemnity. In eight years' time, when the quently appear to lose sight of the main programme of naval and military expansion question, and to confine their attention to is completed, it is estimated that the the personal element. The expansion of ordinary expenditure will have reached the international trade is the theme of their figure of 173,000,000 yen-twice the sum discourses, but when their teaching is sufficient before the war. Recourse will be translated into action it is evident that it had to increased taxation and loans, but at is not the volume of commerce alone that present “it is clear that Japan is living is in their thoughts, but also the share of it beyond her income.” “Everything points which is conducted by Japanese agency." to a coming period of financial stringency The keynote of Government meddling with when the burden of taxation must grow trade is to be found in the Japanese more and more heavy if an equilibrium is jealousy of foreign participation in the to be maintained. This cannot but react development of the country. Trade guilds upon trade, and must also affect the position and trusts flourish vigorously, and are used of the British merchant in Japan, who in as a means of bending the foreign merchant two years' time will pass under Japanese to their will. “The functions of these jurisdiction, and will have in common with associations have extended until they have the native to bear his share of the national assumed the character of trusts,' and in expenditure.” The Island of Formosa.their hands foreign importers and exporters Discussing the question of this new acquisi. are likely to come off badly, for the latter lie tion Mr. Brenan points out that Japanese entirely at their mercy. As the foreigner's rule is not yet fully established, that the operations are restricted to the Treaty Ports, work of pacification has been attended with these well-organized associations stand much severity, cruelty, and vindictiveness, between them and the native producers and and it will take years of honest and benign consumers and foreigners of divers nationali. government to undo the effects of this ties, far from being able to effect similar treatment. Further, the Japanese officials combinations in self-defence, play into the are the dupes of their Chinese employés. hands of these trusts' by their keen com But notwithstanding the rascalities of these petition amongst themselves. The influence Chinese harpies, the inability of the Japanese of these combined associations has to speak the Formosan language, and the now made itself felt in the Diet, misunderstandings between rulers and ruled, and their proceedings are now to the volume of the island's trade has been have the sanction of the law." maintained. Whether British trade will Mercantile Marine. Before the war with gain or lose by the Japanese ownership of China the tonnage of Japanese steamers Formosa is a question difficult to answer. was 160,000, it is now close upon 400,000. Suggested Appointment of a Commercial “ The principal steamship company in Secretary.-Mr. Brenan recommends the Japan, the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, im appointment of a British officer for Japan: mediately after the war, decided to largely who shall devote his sole attention to the increase its capital, by raising it from development of trade. Consuls, he contends, 8,000,000 yen to 22,000,000 yen, and to run are not in a position to make a systematic a regular line of steamers to Europe, study of trade questions; the ordinary staff America, India, and Australia ; and to this of H.M. Legation are engaged exclusively end it gave orders for 18 new steamers, in political matters, and there should be 15 of which are to be of 5,000 tons or over, attached to that staff, at least as an experiand the remaining three of 3,000 tons each. ment for five years, an officer whose sole When these are delivered the company will function it would be to promote trade. be in possession of a fleet of 80 vessels, 50 Besides writing monthly, quarterly, halfof which will be over 2,000 tons.” So far, yearly, or annual reports, he should prepare each trip to Europe and America has shown special monographs on particular subjects a heavy loss. Shipping business is not yet on his own initiative or at the request of well managed. The Japanese captain has Chambers of Commerce in Great Britain. to earn a reputation as a skilful navigator He should make a study of Japanese and indiscipline among the crews prevails. Commercial Law (in a short period all Besides the Government dockyards Japan foreigners will come under the jurisdiction of has four private shipbuilding yards, chiefly the Japanese law-courts) and watch the for small coasting steamers, the parts for working of the law, and obtain early informawhich are bought in Europe. Bad manage tion of projected public works. Mr. Brenan ment prevails in the yards and steamships concludes :-" At present there is somewhere will be built in Japan and steamers run | one connecting link wanting between the

manufacturer in England and the consumer opium, hope is still cherished that by way in Japan, and while the former is to a large of compensation to the few foreign firms extent represented by the British merchant who were engaged in the trade, for the loss in Japan, he is not yet fully so. The of a very lucrative business, the Governmerchant in Japan with his native ment may see its way to utilizing them as constituents attentively watch the change agents for the import of the drug.' As of markets, and sends home particulars of regards the camphor export trade, the outeverything that is likely to find a sale. look is not bright, and there is little hope But these particulars are not necessarily of its becoming brighter until something is sent to England alone. The merchant in done to render travelling in the interior of Japan, where he acts for himself, will seek the island of Formosa less dangerous than the cheapest market, be it in England, it is at present. Robberies on the road Germany, or the United States, and if he occur with quite monotonous frequency, thinks a novelty can be supplied cheaper by native traders are carried off to the hills either of the latter, he will naturally go and held for ransom, and farmhouses and there. But even when he sends to his own depôts are constantly attacked. This state country it may happen that his indents are of affairs, unless soon remedied, must have a not fulfilled. Each merchant in Japan is serious effect, not only on the camphor connected in business with certain manu trade, but on trade generally in South facturers in England, represents them in Formosa, and until the country becomes Japan, and is bound, as it were, to go to quieter there can be little prospect of trade them alone for whatever he requires from developing. No Japanese mercantile firms England. They may not be willing or able of any standing have as yet established to undertake what he in Japan requires in themselves in this district, but numbers of particular or in special instances, and the excellent shops have been opened in the city result is that the order is entirely dropped of Tainan, All kinds of articles are dealt or is fulfilled in another country, whereas in, the goods, which are of foreign or had full publicity been given to the fact Japanese make, being imported chiefly from that such and such goods were likely to Japan.” find a sale in Japan, there might have been a score of manufacturers in England ready 1 Yokohama. Report for 1897, by Mr. to supply them, who under present circum Acting Consul-General Forster.-Exports, stances never heard of them till it is too £9,211,820; imports, £8,987,559—a total late. I cannot entertain any confident trade £3,500,000 in excess of the previous hope that a commercial secretary would year. Of the total export trade of the port adequately fill the gap that undoubtedly the United States take 52 per cent., France now exists. As he gained experience he 28 per cent., and Great Britain and the would to some extent, but every possible Colonies 14 per cent. Of the imports Great qualification cannot be found in one single Britain supplies 52 per cent., the United individual. We require a knowledge of the States 13 per cent., Germany 12 per cent., Japanese language, people, and trade and China 2 per cent. Of last year's total history; a trained and acute power of British trade, amounting to £6,047,013, twoobservation, & faculty for logically mar thirds were with the United Kingdom itself, shalling facts and recasting voluminous one-sixth with Hong Kong, and the remainstatistics, a readiness of pen, descriptive ing sixth was distributed between India, powers, and some knowledge of law. Canada, and Australia. Though the total Io all these we can scarcely hope to add value of the trade with Australia was only expert acquaintance with various branches £101,000, this was an increase of 33 per and staples of trade, but the want of that cent. on that of the previous year. The immay be remedied in some degree by obser. ports are mainly lead and wool, but the vation. Even the best man in these respects Customs Returns show that in addition to a will, to a great extent, be found wanting; considerable export of rice, a steady and inbut such an appointment furnishes the

creasing demand is springing up for Japanese only prospect of even very partially filling manufactured articles such as silk piecethe present gap, and the advantage to be goods, floor matting, and fancy goods. The gained is worth making the trial."

trade with Canada shows a slight increase,

due to the larger export of tea. The in. Tainan and District. Report for 1897, creased import of raw cotton and sugar is by Mr. Acting-Consul Griffiths.-Exports, accountable for the increase shown in the £333,148 ; imports, £279,136-a considerable value of imports from British India and decrease, owing to the cessation of opium Hong Kong respectively. The United States imports. “There are four British and two are now supplying part of the demand for German firms at present established in this manufactured iron and pig-iron, and have district. During the year one British firm absorbed the trade in wire nails formerly of merchants, with headquarters at Hong done with Belgium and Germany. The Kong, closed its Tainan branch, while one Report urges the necessity of better business German firm, with headquarters at Tamsui, methods by the British manufacturer. opened a branch establishment in this district. The year's trade, so far as foreign KHORASAN. (See PERSIA.) merchants were concerned, cannot be considered satisfactory." .:. “As regards | KIUKIANG. (See China.)

KIUNGCHOW. (See China.) such materials, then, a field as yet but

little explored is open to British enterprise, LIKIN. (See CHINA: CENTRAL AND

and if merchants, instead of being content

merely to supply goods for which there is SOUTHERN.)

already a demand, were to exert themselves

to introduce new articles direct to the conLITHUANIA. (See Russia.)

sumers, and especially those of the poorer

classes, it might well happen that the reLORENÇO MARQUES. (See sulting trade would prove far more AFRICA.)

important than that at present existing." MEXICO.

MOROCCO. (See AFRICA.)
Cotton Manufacturing. Report on the NAGASAKI. (See JAPAN.)
Cotton Manufacturing Industry in
Mexico, by W. Lionel Carden (Received

NICARAGUA. (See SOUTH AMERICA.) March, 1898).-This Report contains an exhaustive description of the growth of this

NING-PO. (See CHINA.) industry in Mexico. The conclusion is that the conditions of manufacture are so NORTH CHINA. (See CHINA: CHEFOO favourable that it will be very hard, if not impossible, for English cottons to compete

REPORT.) with the local industry. “The price of the raw material, except for the import duty,

ODESSA. (See Russia.) which is not quite 1d. per lb., is practically the same as in England; although fuel is

OIL WELLS (Baku). (See Russia : dear, the gross expenditure under this head Batoum.) is not large, owing to the extensive use of water for motive-power; taxation is light;

PAKHOI. (See CHINA.) and, finally, labour, which, though not of a high order, is good enough for the manu

PATRAS. (See GREECE.) facture of the class of goods for which there is the largest demand in Mexico, is ex

PERSIA. tremely cheap. Under these circumstances Bushire and District. Report for 1897, it is only because the output of the Mexican by Lt.-Col. Meade, Consul-General.-Trade factories has never yet been sufficient to to and from the Persian Gulf showed an supply the local demand that it has been improvement on that of 1896 of an increase possible to continue the importation of low of £457,725 in imports and £15,277 in exgrade English piece-goods into this market;

ports. “The new German firm alluded to but there are strong grounds for believing in last year's Report, which trades under the that this state of things will not last long. name of Deutsch-Persische Handels-GesellThe normal increase of consumption of schaft, continued its operations at Bushire cotton piece-goods does not exceed 3,000,000 throughout the year, besides starting square mètres, or 150,000 pieces per annum. agencies at Shiraz, and in one or two of the As against this, the increase of manufac lesser ports in the Persian Gulf. Many turing capacity in 1897 over that of 1896 merchants and manufacturers in Germany was about 500 looms, representing a mini. and Belgium have commenced soliciting mum output of 300,000 pieces, while the orders from the Persian traders, and their new factories which are now in course of eagerness to afford facilities will probably erection, and will be in working before the sooner or later open up fresh lines of end of 1898, will have 1,200 new looms, commerce, though, for the year under giving an output of nearly 750,000 pieces. report, the competition thus offered has not At this rate, therefore, it cannot be long been seriously felt by the old established before the Mexican factories will be in a firms here. The deputation of Dr. Hauck, position to produce all the plain and coloured formerly of the German Legation at Teheran, cotton goods of ordinary qualities required as Consul in Bushire, to initiate a German for home consumption. It is useless to Vice-Consulate here, is significant of the attempt to disguise the fact that this will

endeavours which Germany has lately begun be a severe blow to English trade, as more to make all over the world to expand her than half the value of the English goods trade. I would invite special attention to exported to Mexico consists of cheap cloth, this matter, as it is certain to affect British which must eventually be excluded from trade ere long, and efforts should be made this market. English manufacturers, how to maintain our present supremacy.” The ever, should bear in mind that the capacity importation of arms was stopped by the of the ordinary Mexican operative is limited, Persian Government in December, but the and that, in order to produce goods of importation for the eleven months shows superior fineness or of a variety of textures, an increase in the value of the previous skilled labour, usually foreign, has to be year's imports by £12,500. employed, which, while often unsatisfactory, is always expensive, and adds very Khorasan. Report for 1896-1897, by materially to the cost of production. In | Consul-General Yate. The foreign trade

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