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engaged being in-patients, and the medical staff, several of whom were themselves ill with fever, found it almost impossible efficiently to cope with the sickness.” The plague in India had interfered with the steady influx of coolies. In the dry season water had to be fetched from long distances. Rails were laid up to March last for 139 miles. The supply of locomotives was delayed by the engineering strike in England. The necessity of transporting troops and stores in connection with rebellions in Uganda also interfered with constructive work. The transport department-camels, mules, donkeys, and bul. locks-sustained heavy losses, owing to the tetse fly, which infests part of the line area up to 220 miles. Mules best resisted the disease, but 10 per cent. of these perished in six months, notwithstanding applications of sheep dip. The rolling stock consisted of 8 new locomotives, and 22 second-hand ; 307 new and second-hand goods vehicles, and 23 new coaching vehicles. The first length (100 miles), from Mombasa to the Voi River, was opened in December, 1897, under the rules of the Indian Railways Act (9 of 1890). The section was opened to the public for goods traffic and to passengers in February, 1898. For the first three months of 1898 the traffic earnings were, 126,460 rupees — 64,570 rupees from coaching (parcels and mails); 32,170 rupees from goods ; and 29,720 rupees from railway stores. Excluding the last item, the earnings were 67.6 rupees per mile per week. “There has also been à large saving to the Protectorates through the cheap carriage of troops and stores over the long waterless tract between the coast and the Voi River." The expenditure up to March 31st, 1898, was £1,005,390. The estimate for 1898-99 was £625,000.

regular domicile and means of subsistence on penalty of being declared vagrants, and then being assigned definite work and provided with food by the Court before which they are brought. Concubines.—The question of concubines has been much discussed in England, and many wild and extravagant statements have been made about it. It should be understood that by the Sheria of Islam, a concubine has a very important legal status, second only to that of a wife. She has a house and servants assigned to her, she is handsomely clothed, and receives many presents of jewellery, and her children take rank immediately after the chil. dren of the legal wife. If the father dies intestate they take their share of the property with the other children. A concubine as soon as she has become a mother is free. The great difference between a wife and a concubine is that a wife can obtain a divorce, but a concubine cannot. For a man to take his slave by force and make her his concubine is considered disgraceful by Arab social law, and is seldom done. The dislike of a woman to be made a concubine is not an objection to cohabitation with the master, but a dislike to the seclu. sion of the harem." It was provided that concubines “shall remain in their present relations,” except where cruelty could be proved. Much of the correspondence relates to this point, the British and Foreign AntiSlavery Society and certain missionaries in the islands contending that the provision has the effect of retaining in virtual slavery the greater portion of the female population. As, however, the Decree is regarded as a further progressive step towards the ultimate abolition of slavery, and not as a final and complete measure, destroying the institution root and branch in defiance of Mahommedan law and social conditions, it is unnecessary here to enter into the controversy between the critics of the Decree and its official defenders. What will be of service is a presentation of the facts showing what has been done under the Decree. These are revealed in a despatch by Sir Arthur Hardinge to Lord Salisbury, dated Zanzibar, April 23rd, 1898. He states that 2,000 slaves obtained their freedom during the preceding year in consequence of the Decree, and that 2,278 more had, without claiming papers of freedom, made contracts with their masters as free labourers. To all intents and purposes, therefore, 4,278 slaves had become free-3,245 in Zanzibar and the rest in Pemba. The number of females thus free nearly equalled the number of males. Of the female slaves only three were concubines, “redeemed” in accordance with Article V. of the Decree, “with the sanction of the Court;" and these were in Pemba. No concubines had applied for freedom in Zanzibar. The sum awarded in compensation of owners was 12,017 rupees in Zanzi. bar, and 4,330 rupees in Pemba-about £1.,043 in all. The average amount granted per slave was between £3 and 44. The total

Zanzibar and Pemba (Abolition of the Legal Status of Slavery. Africa, No. VI., July, 1898.)—This Correspondence relates to the working of the Decree of 6th April, 1897. The Decree abolished, not the insti. tution of slavery, but the legal enforcement by the Courts of Zanzibar and Pemba of the rights hitherto held under that institution. Thus the Courts refuse to enforce any alleged rights over the body, service, or property of any person on the ground that such a person is a slave. We quote from Commissioner Farler's summary of the points of the Decree :-“Compensation.-If an owner can show that he hitherto had been lawfully possessed of such rights in accordance with the Decrees of previous Sultans, and has now by the application of the said Decree been deprived of them and thereby suffered loss, then the Courts can decide upon the amount of compensation to be granted, and the Government of Zanzibar will pay this sum. Vagrants.-Neither slaves who have left their masters nor freed slaves will be allowed to wander about without a home or visible means of subsistence. They must show that they have a

cost to the Zanzibar Government of carry ing out the Decree was £9,001. Sir Arthur Hardinge proceeds to discuss the practical effect of the Decree under three heads-(1) Upon the relations of master and slave; (2) upon the general condition of the slave population ; (3) upon the industry of the islands. On the first he says that the majority of the masters are realizing the importance of retaining the slaves on the land by either freeing them themselves, or, without formally freeing them, making agreements with them as if they were already free labourers. “These agreements usually stipulate that the slave shall have an allotment of on an average four acres, the produce of which shall be entirely his own, and that he shall be free to devote his whole time to it for three days a week, but that on the remaining four he shall, in lieu of rent, work gratis for six hours a daynamely, from 8 a.m. till 2 p.m. (or a total of twenty-four hours a week) on the master's land, and shall receive pice, or an equivalent in produce, calculated on the local market rates, for all work done for his employer outside that specified period. Up tilī now these agreements have been made verbally, sometimes in the presence of the Walis or English Commissioners, oftener between master and slave alone, but the Govern. ment has now ordered that they shall in future be drawn up wherever possible in writing, and registered by the Courts, and shall specify the period for which they are to run, which will probably in most cases be two years, that being the term which General Sir Lloyd Mathews considers fairest to both sides. The Sultan has set the example of this system, and the consequence has been that, of the several thousand slaves living and working on his lands, not one has, so far as I know, asked for freedom. The system, however, does not always work well, especially in the case of the smaller and poorer landowners, who cannot pay their slaves in pice for work done over and above the weekly term of twenty-four hours which represents the rent of the slave or freed slaves' allotment. The slaves will work fairly willingly for pice, but not for produce, which they have the trouble of having to take to the towns to sell before they can turn it into money, and which they find it simpler to steal straight off, well knowing that their masters cannot now afford to be too severe upon their delinquencies, for fear of losing their labour altogether. The consequence has been that in many cases their agreements with their masters are only observed by them so long as they care to keep to them, and the complaints of the Arabs on this head are very bitter.” As to point 2, Sir Arthur says that while the Decree has placed the masters in a somewhat disadvantageous position, the slaves "as a whole have greatly gained by it, and are now, in relation to their wants, in a situation which the Protectorate in most European States would regard with envy.” Even in the few out-of-the-way places where

the Decree was not then fully understood, it had effectively protected the slave against cruel or brutal treatment. Concerning point 3—the effect of the Decree upon industry—the labour market in the towns had not been perceptibly disturbed. A gradual general tendency towards a demand for a higher rate of wages seemed apparent, but this was due to the steady advance of civilization and commercial requirements. rather than to the Decree. Clove cultiva. tion is the chief industry of the islands. On this Sir Arthur remarks :--"Last. year's clove crop, which, for causes independent of the Decree, was a very poor one, was not affected by it, for the knowledge that they could not be compelled to work had not yet sufficiently spread among the slaves to make any perceptible difference in the picking. This year, however, it seems to be generally anticipated that they will have in many places to be induced to pick their master's trees, where the latter are not in a position to offer them payment in money, by a promise of half the crop picked by them. This means, of course, that the landowners will only get half the harvest, a circumstance which will precipitate the bankruptcy of some of them, and, their land being a drug in the market, the conversion of a good many acres now under cultivation into waste land, and will, therefore, indirectly affect, at any rate for a time, the future revenue : and agricultural prosperity of the country.” The Report proceeds to dispose of certain exaggerated statements made by missionaries in the islands, and to discuss the effects of the Decrees on the Slave Trade. An expected effect was that the owners would attempt to dispose of their slaves in the Arabian market. Special vigilance was accordingly exercised by the Zanzibar authorities and by Her Majesty's vessels to prevent the exportation of slaves, which had long been practically extinct in the islands. On the subject of concubinage, Sir Arthur says:-“ An impression seemed to prevail among many critics of the Article on this subject that a master could in virtue of it keep any female slave in servi. tude by merely declaring her a concubine,' and Bishop Tucker has lent the sanction of his great authority to this delusion. Any person, however, acquainted with native: customs, would know that a concubine is a slave girl, whom her master, having begotten a child by her, or having only cohabited with her, removes from the category of common slaves, and has to treat for all purposes as a wife. The status of a concubine is familiar to all readers of the Bible, but whilst the Bible makes her children the legal inferiors of those of the wife, and proclaims that the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free-woman,' Islam, as becomes the creed of the children of Hagar, puts the offspring of the concubine on the same level as the offspring of the wife, and treats Ishmael as equal with Isaac. Indeed, it

may safely be said that in almost all 1894, not to be abolished, but provision for Mahommedan societies, in which there is a a Court of Appeal for native cases to be large slave population, the children of con made. 3. Restrictions to be maintained on cubines outnumber those of wives, at least sale of liquor to natives. 4. Obligation for among the propertied classes." And again: payment of pensions and grants to native " The institution of concubinage has no Chiefs to be taken over by Natal Governreal connection with the economic aspects | ment. 5. Lands and buildings in connection of slave labour; it belongs, as I observed in with mission stations to be secured. 6. a letter to Bishop Tucker, to that borderland Position of Government officials retained between polygamy and domestic slavery in or abolished to be safeguarded. The which in an Eastern society the one blends provisions of the Natal Bill should, I so to speak with the other, and on which consider, as far as possible, follow the it is most difficult to encroach, without precedent of the British Bechuanaland disturbing, in a manner, which any people Annexation Act (see C.—7232), and in of spirit would resent, the domestic life of accordance with what took place in the subject race. It ought, however, I think, connection with annexation of British to be made clear to those whe criticize the Bechuanaland to Cape, I should have to law of Islam on this subject without personal ask your Ministers to give an assurance experience of its working that a slave that the Colonial Government will not, woman, in Zanzibar at least, cannot be without previously ascertaining views of made a concubine against her will, and, Her Majesty's Government, propose to , further, that only those Arabs who are in Parliament Bills altering the local law as fairly prosperous circumstances can main regards liquor, land or native jurisdiction. tain a large number even of voluntary I am sure your Ministers will appreciate the .concubines in their harems." He considers validity of my reasons for making this that the Decree has, so far and on the stipulation, by which a divergence of whole, realized its main objects. “It has opinion between the Colonial Government been, in fact, a reform, but a conservative and the Imperial Government may be and cautious reform, of far-reaching, rendered less possible, or altogether avoided. ultimate consequences, rather than of I am prepared to leave it entirely to the striking immediate effects.” In a Despatch Natal Government and Parliament to by Lord Salisbury to Sir Arthur, the Foreign decide what, if any, franchise privileges Secretary cites evidence of the advantageous should, for the present, be enjoyed by the results of the Decree, and says :- Her white residents in Zululand. With respect Majesty's Government are not disposed to to Amatongaland, which will be incorporshare the disappointment that has been ated at the same time as Zululand with expressed in some quarters as to the Natal, I am ready to authorize the issue of relatively slow rate of progress that is the necessary Proclamation for its annexsaid to have been made. A readjustment, | ation as British territory as soon as your rather than a violent revolution, in the Ministers submit to Parliament their Bill. social economy of the islands has always Your Government must, of course, be been their object; and the information asked to abide by any agreement come to now before them leads them to think by Her Majesty's Government and Portugal that this is in course of being achieved.” with respect to the Amatongaland boundary,

and to defray any further expenses in conZululand and Amatongaland. Corres nection with the demarcation, if the pondence on Affairs of Zululand. Pre Boundary Commission has not completed sented March, 1898.-On May 4th, 1897, its work before the incorporation has taken Mr. Chamberlain notified to Governor Sir place. Annexation Bill was passed by the W. J. Hely Hutchinson that he was Natal Government and Proclamations issued prepared to advise Her Majesty's Govern. annexing Zululand and Amatongaland to ment to assent to the annexation of the Colony Arrangements were also made Zululand (and Amatongaland) to Natal on for the return of Dinuzulu and his two the following conditions:-1. The existing uncles, Ndabuko and Tshingana, from St. system of land tenure to be maintained for Helena, whither they had been deported as five years, and during that period no grants captives. The conditions under which the of land to be made. In the meantime a return of Dinuzulu and the Chiefs was joint Imperial and Colonial Commission to allowed (they arrived at Eshowe viâ be appointed to mark out sufficient land Durban about January 10th, 1897) were reserves for native locations, which it is thus defined by Mr. Chamberlain:understood will be inalienable without “ Dinuzulu will be taken into the service of Secretary of State's consent, and the Natal the Government of Zululand, his position Government, at the end of a period of five being that of Government Induna. A house years, will be at liberty to deal with the will be provided for him on a site to be unreserved land. The Natal Government, selected by the Governor, and a salary of during the period of five years, to be at £500 per annum will be attached to his liberty to proclaim townships, with the office. He must clearly understand that he consent of the Secretary of State, if neces does not return to Zululand as Paramount sary in consequence of progress of mining Chief; he must respect, listen to, and obey enterprise. 2. The native jurisdiction, as those officers of the Government who are provided for under Proclamation No. VI. of placed in authority over him; the position

assigned to him by the Government, and the salary allotted to it will be held during the pleasure of the Government, and will be strictly dependent on the manner in which he behaves and obeys the laws laid down for guidance, but will not be with. drawn without the approval of the Secretary of State. As Government Induna he will be liable to be employed in native matters that may arise and be brought to the notice of the Governor's representative in Zululand, such as questions of inheritance and others on which it may be desirable to obtain independent evidence and opinions. He will be chief over those people residing in the location marked off for the Usutu. He will govern amongst them and will rule them by the same laws and form of Government as other chiefs of tribes in Zululand, and he will himself, like those chiefs, be under the laws of the Government of Zululand.”

ALIEN EMIGRATION. (See EMI

GRATION.) AMATONGALAND (Annexation to

Natal). (See AFRICA : ZULULAND:) ANTIGUA. (See WEST INDIA COM

MISSION.) ARO TRIBES. (See AFRICA: NIGER

Coast REPORT.) BAHR-EL-GHAZEL. (See EGYPT : VALLEY OF NILE.)

since 1893 there has been a steady decrease year by year both in the total number of failures and in the total liabilities. The number of bills of sale filed yearly during the same period exhibits a similar decrease, while the number of County Court judgments has fluctuated very little. The fluctuations of insolvency in particular trades and occupations in 1897 and four previous years are shown in the Comparative Table given in Annex No. V., page 65. Out of 65 groups of particular trades, 30 show an increase in liabilities amounting to £1,872,201, and 35 & decrease of £2,118,533. Amongst the failures in which an increase of liabilities is noticeable are bankers, whose liabilities amount to £814,246, as against £34,585 in 1896. This large increase is due to the failure of a private bank having several branches in the South of England. A Receiving Order was made against the firm, while a former partner, who had not long previously retired, executed a deed of assignment, As the liabilities under the deed include liabilities due to the creditors of the bank, the total liabilities are not so great as the figures appear to indicate. The only other trades in which the liabilities exceed half a million are grocery and provisions, £633,356, and leather trades, £544;575. The former amount is slightly less than the similar liabilities in the preceding year, but the leather trades show an increase of over £200,000. The liabilities of directors and promoters of public companies have increased by $154,000, and those of drapers and haberdashers by £182,000. It is regrettable to observe that the liabilities of solicitors, whose failure so often involves great loss or ruin to many of their clients, have increased to over £460,000. Beer wine, and spirit trades, farmers, shipping trades, cotton, wool, and timber merchants show a considerable decrease in liabilities, but the most marked diminution occurs in the class described in the proceedings as Merchants, whose liabilities are £347,256, as compared with £996,163 in 1896, & decrease of no less than £648,907." Of the failures of women the total (Receiving Orders and Deeds) is 422, with liabilities £309,236, and assets £124,943. The total number of women who failed during the year was 422, a decrease of 17 as compared with 1896. The largest number of failures occurs amongst widows, and the numbers of widows and spinsters who failed under Receiving Orders are practically identical with the failures in the same classes under Deeds of Arrangement. Owing to the fact pointed out in previous Reports that married women cannot be made bankrupt unless trading separately and apart from their husbands, the number of this class under Deeds exceeds the number under Receiving Orders by 35. In 386 out of the total number of failures the debtors were engaged in some trade or occupation, while of the 36 debtors who had no ocoupation, or whose occupation was

BANKRUPTCY.

Board of Trade Report, 1897, Ordered August, 1898.-The Report of Mr. John Smith, Inspector-General in Bankruptcy for England and Wales, gives the following totals under the Bankruptcy Acts, 1883 and 1889: Number of Receiving Orders, 4,074 ; Liabilities, £5,678,498; Assets, £2,756,079; estimated loss to creditors, £3.791,196. There was a decrease as compared with 1896 of 79 in the Orders, £223,640 in the Liabilities and £543,747 in the estimated loss to creditors. Under the Deed of Arrangement Act, 1887, there were 3,208 deeds; Liabilities, 3,980,615; Assets, $1,910,492 ; estimated loss to creditors, $2,706,954. There was a decrease of 63 deeds, £499,268 in liabilities; £428,215 in assets, and £213,791 in estimated loss to .creditors. The total of both classes is 7,282 cases, with liabilities £9,659,113; assets, £4,666,571 ; and estimated loss to creditors of £6,498,150—2 decrease of 142 in the cases, £722,908 in liabilities, £6,387 in assets, and £757,538 in estimated loss to creditors. The Report says: “As compared with the figures for 1896 the Table shows a decrease of 142 in the total number of failures in 1897 and a decrease in the total amount of liabilities of nearly threequarters of a million. It is noticeable that

unknown, 26 were widows. On the subject prosecution proceedings, the question of of Prosecutions and Reports to the Incor bringing the conduct of solicitors before the porated Law Society the Report says : Incorporated Law Society for misappropria* In addition to the prosecutions ordered tion of trust moneys and other offences was. under the Debtors and Bankruptcy Acts, considered in four cases, but in only one prosecutions were instituted in three cases case was it thought advisable to take steps." for offences under other Acts disclosed in The percentages of discharges granted unthe course of the bankruptcy proceedings. conditionally and refused have increased as In one case the bankrupt as director and compared with the figures for 1896, buó the manager of certain steamship companies latter forms a smaller proportion than in misappropriated large sums of money. He any year previous to 1896. The total was charged with an offence under the number of cases in which discharge was Larceny Act, and was sentenced to three suspended for two years or more forms 88-3 years' penal servitude. In the second case per cent. of the total number of suspensions the bankrupt, who was charged with mis as compared with 84:3 per cent. in the appropriating trust moneys, received a preceding year. Only 25 prosecutions under sentence of three months' imprisonment. Section 166 of the Bankruptcy Act of 1883 The remaining case was that of a solicitor were ordered during the year. This is a who had been struck off the rolls, and it was decrease of two as compared with the remarkable for the number and ingenuity preceding year, and the smallest number of the frauds perpetrated by the bankrupt, since the Act of 1883 came into operation. and the extraordinary influence he exercised Of 20 cases tried, 13 resulted in convictions over those whom he used to further his and 7 in acquittals, the latter being an schemes. The offences charged included increase of 4 as compared with the previous forgery, perjury, larceny, and conspiracy.

year. The bankrupt was sentenced to ten years' penal servitude and nine months' hard BARBADOS. (See WEST INDIA COMlabour, the sentences to run concurrently,

MISSION.) and three of his confederates, one of whom was a solicitor, were sentenced to 12 months' BECHUANALAND (Native Dishard labour, 20 months' hard labour, and 9 months' hard labour respectively. Several

turbances). (See AFRICA.) others, mostly solicitors, appeared to be

BEHRING SEA. implicated, but not to an extent sufficient to warrant criminal proceedings against Conclusions Signed by the British, them. This case involved a great expendi. Canadian, and United States Delegates ture of time and trouble, and the Recorder respecting the Fur Seal Herd frequenting in passing sentence publicly thanked the the Pribyloff Islands in Behring Sea, Assistant Official Receiver, who was mainly January, 1898 (United States, No. II.).— responsible for the investigation. In some The delegates-Charles Summer Hamlin cases, however, the results of prosecutions and David Starr Jordan (United States), in regard to which much trouble has been D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (Great taken are the reverse of encouraging to Britain), and James Melville Macoun those on whom the duty of investigating | (Canada)—met in order to arrive at correct the facts and reporting to the Crown is conclusions respecting the numbers, condithrown. As an example may be mentioned tions and habits of the seals frequenting the case of a bankrupt who concealed the the Pribyloff Islands, as compared with the existence of a legacy due to him at the date seasons previous and subsequent to the of the Receiving Order, applied the money Paris, Award. Their joint conclusions to his own purposes, and subsequently when state that since 1884 the fur seal herd of questioned on the subject made a statement the Pribyloff, as measured either on the which investigation proved to be in every hauling grounds or breeding grounds, has material particular false. His conduct declined in numbers at a varying yearly resulted in a loss to his creditors of an asset rate. Comparing figures from 1871 to 1889 amounting to £163, and he was accordingly with those of 1896–97, they say that it prosecuted for offences under the Debtors is plain that the former yield of the hauling Act, Part II., Section 11, Sub-sections 1, 2, grounds of the Islands was from three to 4, and 6. The jury found the prisoner five times as great as in the years 1896 and guilty on all counts of the indictment, but 1897, and the same diminution to one-third recommended him to mercy in consideration or one-fifth of the former product may be of witnesses' testimony to character, and he assumed as the results of hunting at sea. was ordered to enter into his own recog The final conclusions are:-“(9) The nizances in the sum of £20 to come up for methods of driving and killing practised on judgment when called upon. The bankrupt the islands, as they have come under our had, previous to the prosecution, obtained observation during the past two years, call his discharge, subject to suspension for two for no criticism or objection. An adequate years, but upon application by the Official | supply of bulls is present on the rookeries ; Receiver for a review of the order, having the number of older bachelors rejected in regard to the offences that had been the drives during the period in question is committed, the period of suspension was such as to safeguard in the immediate extended to ten years. In addition to future a similarly adequate supply; the

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