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estimated the additional factor of decline resulting from reductions in the number of surviving pups caused by the larger pelagic catch of 1892 and 1895. (16) The diminution of the herd is yet far from a stage which involves or threatens the actual extermination of the species, so long as it is protected in its haunts on land. It is not possible during the continuance of the conservative methods at present in force upon the islands, with the further safeguard of the protected zone at sea, that any pelagic killing should accomplish this final end. There is evidence, however, that, in its present condition, the herd yields an inconsiderable return either to the lessees of the islands or to the owners of the pelagic fleet."

BERLIN ACT (Conference). (See

AFRICA : CONGO.)

BOUNTIES (Sugar). (See SUGAR BOUNTIES CONFERENCE.)

BRITISH GUIANA. (See WEST INDIA COMMISSION.)

breeding bulls, females, and pups on the breeding rookeries are not disturbed; there is no evidence or sign of impairment by driving of the virility of males; the operations of driving and killing are conducted skilfully and without inhumanity. (10) The pelagic industry is conducted in an orderly manner and in a spirit of acquiescence in the limitations imposed by the law. (11) Pelagic sealing involves the killing of males and females alike, without discrimination and in proportion as the two sexes coexist in the sea. The reduction of males effected on the islands causes an enhanced proportion of females to be found in the pelagic catch; hence this proportion, if it vary from no other cause. varies at least with the catch upon the islands. In 1895 Mr. A. B. Alexander, on behalf of the Government of the United States, found 62:3 per cent. of females in the catch of the Dora Sievard in Behring Sea, and in 1896 Mr. Andrew Halkett, on behalf of the Canadian Government, found 84.2 in the catch of the same schooner in the same sea. There are no doubt instances, especially in the season of migration and on the course of the migrating herds, of catches containing a very different proportion of the two sexes. (12) The large proportion of females in the pelagic state includes not only adult females that are both nursing and pregnant, but also young seals that are not pregnant, and others that have not yet brought forth young, with such also as have recently lost their young through the various causes of natural mortality. (13) The polygamous habit of the animal, coupled with an equal birth-rate of the two sexes, permits a large number of males to be removed with impunity from the herd, while, as with other animals, any similar abstraction of females checks or lessens the herd's increase, or, when carried further, brings about an actual diminution of the herd. It is equally plain that a certain number of females may be killed without involving the actual diminution of the herd, if the number killed do not exceed the annual increment of the breeding herd, taking into consideration the annual losses by death through old age and through incidents at sea. (14) While, whether from a consideration of the birth-rate or from an inspection of the visible effects, it is manifest that the take of females in recent years has been so far in excess of the natural increment as to lead to a reduction of the herd in the degree related above, yet the ratio of the pelagic catch of one year to that of the following has fallen off more rapidly than the ratio of the breeding herd of one year to the breeding herd of the next. (15) In this greater reduction of the pelagic catch, compared with the gradual decrease of the herd, there is a tendency towards equilibrium, or a stage at which the numbers of the breeding herd would neither increase nor decrease. In considering the probable size of the herd in the immediate future, there remains to be

BRITISH NEW GUINEA.

Correspondence relating to an Agreement between the Government of British New Guinea and the British New Guinea Syndicate. Presented July, 1898.-In May, 1897, Mr. John Lowles, M.P., submitted to the Colonial Office proposals for the acquisition of land in British New Guinea by the British New Guinea Syndicate. The following was the suggested basis of arrangement to be proposed to the Administration of the Colony :-(1) The granting of a Government Ordinance, giving the Syndicate the right to take up (say) 250,000 acres of suitable lands, not yet appropriated, for a period of one year (from January 1st, 1898, to December 31st, 1898) by a cash payment of £1,000, payable in four quarterly instalments, and to continue the same thereafter to the Syndicate, its successors and assigns, until a sum of £30,000 in all shall have been paid (at any time within eight years from the date of the granting of the Ordinance) when the Syndicate, its successors and assigns, are to be confirmed in the freehold of the lands and all their products, subject to paying a special tax of two-and-a-half per cent. on the net export value of all products taken out of the country from the lands occupied. (2) The Syndicate, its successors and assigns, to be required, as a condition of the continuance of the option before referred to, after the 31st of December, 1899, to submit proof of an expenditure of not less than £10,000 within that period (or rather two years from the date of the Ordinance) on the institution of actual trade operations, and in like manner to submit proof that at the end of eight years from the date of the

granting of the Ordinance the sum of £30,000 on trade operations and works of development in the country. (3) During the period of eight years from the date of the Ordinance the Administration to under. take not to increase the export duties and import duties as now imposed, so far as regards the operations of the Syndicate, its successors or assigns. (4) The Syndicate, its successors and assigns, to be accorded such powers of primary administration as distinct from its purely business direction as the local Administration and the Colonial Office may agree in respect only of the lands, &c., assigned. (5) Subject to the foregoing limitations, the Syndicate, its successors and assigns, to be granted, as far as may be reasonably possible, the powers and privileges which distinguish the British North Borneo Company. (6) The Syndicate, its successors and assigns, to be free to take up further lands (over and beyond the 250,000 acres first conceded) as may be mutually agreed with the local Administration and the Colonial Office. The latter office communicated with Sir Hugh Nelson, the Prime Minister of Queensland, and said that the details must be settled with the Lieutenant-Governor, then Sir William Macgregor, and the Government of Queensland. But Mr. Chamberlain “could not approve of any arrangement comprehending Sections 3, 4, and 5 as above. Mr. Lowles thereupon accepted this non-approval so long as it is clearly understood that the preliminary operations of any organised development are not totally crippled by the imposition of duties and charges which would preclude the reasonable possibility of the institutions and individuals who are ready to provide the necessary capital securing a legitimate and moderate return for their speculation and investments.” In April, 1898, Lord Lamington, Governor of Queensland, transmitted despatches received from Sir William Macgregor and copy of an Ordinance which he (Lord Lamington) had sanctioned for introduction in the Legislature of British New Guinea. Sir William Macgregor's despatch was generally in favour of granting the required facilities to the Syndicate. “The British New Guinea Syndicate seems to me to present itself opportunely as a new and different mean's for fostering agricultural and allied industries. Unless some encouragement is given to a company of that sort there is no apparent prospect of any great progress being made for some time in opening up and developing the agricultural resources of the country.” ..: “I may state that in my opinion this agreement, if entered into definitely, and carried out with reasonable care and diligence, will prove of great advantage to the possession." A Provisional Agreement was also transmitted between the Syndicate and the Administrator of British New Guinea. To this Mr. Chamberlain suggested certain amendments. Some were accepted by the Syndicate through the solicitors,

Messrs. Minet, Pering Smith and Co., and others made the subject of counter suggestions. The Ordinance was eventually passed (March 21st). In May Mr. Daniel Cooper, Agent-Generalfor New South Wales, advised the Colonial Office that the New South Wales Government had “determined to oppose the project most unreservedly, and So probably will the Government of Victoria.” He forwarded the following telegram from the Premier and Colonial Treasurer of New South Wales :-" The Administrator of British New Guinea has passed an Ordinance authorising a land transaction of great magnitude, and with powers of choosing land which have aroused very strong public opinion against the proposal. The New South Wales Government have determined to oppose the project most unreservedly, and so probably will the Government of Victoria. Kindly make such representations to the Colonial Office as will prevent allowance of the Ordinance until the matter has been maturely considered.” Acting - Governor Sir S. W. Griffith (Queensland) also telegraphed to Mr. Chamberlain :-With reference to British New Guinea Ordinance, my Government request me to inform you as far as can be ascertained Government of New South Wales and Government of Victoria were not consulted with respect to terms of contract with Syndicate prior to Governor of Queensland giving directions for introduction ordinance by Lieutenant-Governor of British New Guinea as required (by) provision of Clause 20 British New Guinea amended proposals. Government of New South Wales, Government of Victoria now remonstrate strongly with Nelson, who was then Prime Minister, now absent from Colony. My Government request that question of exercise of power of disallowance may be reserved until there is opportunity for all three Governments express opinion on Ordinance for consideration of Her Majesty's Government." The opposition of the Ministries of New South Wales and Victoria was put upon the ground that the Queensland Government, in not consulting these colonies before sanctioning the Agreement, had committed a violation of law. Besides that, they strongly objected to some of the conditions of the arrangement. The position of the matter, as disclosed by the correspondence, is explained by the following telegram from Mr. Chamberlain to Governor Viscount Hampden (New South Wales), dated June 13th, 1898:-“ Your Ministers do not state specifically objections to New Guinea agreement, and I trust that they may have been removed by amendments required by me in my despatch 3rd May, which I desired Lamington communicate to you and Governor Victoria as soon as possible. Matter appears to be one of ordinary administration, and Government of Queensland not strictly bound to consult with other Governments, though in view of magnitude of transaction and important bearing on

the subject of future finance and adminis less, the journey across by the Mount tration, I assumed that as it only reached Knutsford track should be an easy one for, me 9th April it had been fully considered in say, fifteen days. The conduct of the old Conference Melbourne. Government of miners-of the men that have been at work Queensland cannot now repudiate without for years in the Colony-has been good. breach of faith, but if after full considera They have generally dealt justly and fairly tion of my amendments and all the circum with the natives, and they have been lawstances, three Governments agree in urging abiding. But amongst the men that came strongly further specific amendments not to the Central District last year there was, touching essence of agreement, I will as might have been expected, a margin, endeavour to obtain assent of Syndicate. probably a small one, of a different comRepeat this telegram to Governor Victoria.” plexion. By these some acts of robbery

were committed on natives, which greatly Report for 1896–97.-Imports, £57,392 ; interfered with the engagement of carriers exports, £44,345. Revenue, £10,633, paid for the Vanapa track. These acts of violence into the Queensland Treasury; actual ex were not accompanied by more serious penditure, £16,228. The Report, by Sir crimes, and they met with universal conWilliam Macgregor, is chiefly a description demnation on the part of the great majority of tours he made in the interior of the of the men themselves. The old hands Colony. The exports increased in value who have worked with the natives for years over those of the preceding year by £24,944. spoke of these occurrences with one voice “ The largest item of export was gold; but in terms of indignation. It was unfortuthe amount of this article as entered at the nate that the perpetrators got away from Custom House is doubtless very much less the Possession without being prosecuted. than what was actually taken away. There Several parties proceeded inland from Port can be no doubt that at least twice the Moresby towards the Brown River on prosamount of gold declared was obtained in pecting tours, but it does not appear that the Possession during the year. The figures they got any farther than their predecessors here given are those declared at the Custom | in 1878, even if they got so far. They met House, Cooktown, and do not include gold with few natives. The relations between taken to Sydney and other places direct the prospectors and them were good, except from the fields. The increase shown by the in the case of Mr. Rochfort, who was actual figures is an advance of £20,283 on attacked by the aggressive tribe of Bauro, the previous year. In computing the value who drove his small party back from of gold exported, it has been reckoned at Ginianumu after spearing a South Sea £3 10s. an ounce, which must be somewhat man.” Several special expeditions were under its real value.” Prospecting miners sent directly inland from Port Moresby to arrived in the Colony in large numbers. try to pacify that part of the country, so The difficulties of developing the country that it could be visited by the prospector, are disclosed in the following passage from but the process of pacification was by no the section of the Report on mining : means completed in that region within the “ About 400 men landed at Port Moresby.

year. They travelled thence generally in three or four directions, on the Vanapa track, inland BRITISH SOUTH AFRICA from Port Moresby, by the Rigo Station, and along the Angabunga River. In most

COMPANY (Administrative instances they carried their own effects and

Changes). (See AFRICA.) tools, and in a very few days became quite unfit for the road. Unfortunately, most of

BULGARIA. them seemed unable to make for themselves Commercial Agreement, July, 1897.suitable camping arrangements, and all the Article I. British subjects in Bulgaria and officers of the Government concur in Bulgarians in the United Kingdom shall stating that many men were thoughtless respectively enjoy in all matters of navigaand careless, ill-provided with food, and in tion and trade, including importation and too many cases with no medicines whatever. exportation, as well as transit, the same The result was that after a very short time “ rights, privileges, facilities, immunities, large numbers became very weak and gave and exemptions, as are enjoyed, or may way to fever and dysentery. In the Central hereafter be enjoyed, by natives or by subDivision six died in the temporary hospital jects of any other foreign State, without at Port Moresby, about as many are known payment of any impost, tax, customs duty, to have died on the tracks in the bush, one or other due, charge, or expense, other or on board the Merrie England, and several higher than those to which the latter are in the Cooktown Hospital. Of some 130 liable ; further, no customs duties or other men that started inland on the Vanapa dues or charges shall be levied at any one track the majority did not get past the frontier different from or higher than those Evelyn Creek, two days inland from Doura. which are levied at any other frontier on Only two small parties from the South similar articles. British subjects in BulCoast seem to have reached the eastern side garia, and Bulgarians in the United Kingof Mount Scratchley, and they consisted of, dom of Great Britain and Ireland, shall or were conducted by, men already accus enjoy perfect equality of treatment with tomed to travel in the country. Neverthe natives and the subjects of every other

foreign Power. Article IV.-Her Britannic Majesty consents upon her part, in case of the attack of an invader, to protect Chusan and its dependencies, and to restore it to the possession of China, as of old; but as this stipulation proceeds from the friendly alliance between the two nations, no pecuniary subsidies are to be due from China on this account.”

foreign State in all matters relating to bonding, bounties, drawbacks, facilities, patents for inventions, trade-marks, distinctive marks of manufacture or of origin, patterns, and designs.” Article II. Except for sanitary measures, “No prohibition or restriction shall be maintained or decreed against the importation of any article the produce or manufacture of one or other of the contracting countries, from whatever place arriving, which shall not equally apply to the importation of the like article produced or manufactured in any other foreign country.” Article III. Articles of British origin shall pay on entering Bulgaria the custom's octroi and excise duties specified in Annex (A), “ saving all reductions which have been and may be granted to other Powers. Articles IV. & Ý. The Arrangement shall be applicable to the British Colonies; but they shall be free to refuse its acceptance.” Article VI. The present Arrangement shall come into effect on the 12th-24th July, 1897, and shall remain in force until the 19th-31st December, 1899. And it shall remain binding unless notice of termination is given by either of the parties six months before December, 1899.

CANADA. (See CROFTER COLONIZA

TION.)

CENTRAL AFRICA PROTEC.

TORATE. (See AFRICA.)

CEYLON.

Report for 1897.-Revenue, Rs. 24,006,521; expenditure, Rs. 21,634,377-a year of marked progress, breaking all previous records. Total value of trade, Rs. 183,127,077 -imports, Rs. 98,027,473, and exports; Rs. 85,099,603; an increase on the total of nearly nine million rupees. “The large increase in the import of cotton goods is an unmistakable proof of the prosperity of the island, as evidenced by the purchasing power of the inhabitants. With regard to the exports, the most satisfactory feature is the increase in the quantity and value of the produce of the cocoanut palm exported. The value amounted to no less than Rs. 13,142,621, showing an increase over the previous year of nearly two million rupees. The value of tea exported was Rs. 46,931,190.”

Kiao-Chau Bay, German Occupation of. Correspondence respecting the Affairs of China." No. I. (1898). Presented to Parliament April, 1898.-On November 17th, 1897, Sir Claude Macdonald telegraphed from Pekin to the Marquis of Salisbury, saying that in consequence of the murder of two German missionaries in Shantung Province, German men-of-war had visited Kiao-Chau Bay and ordered the Commandant to evacuate the place. The Tsung-li-Yamên were in a state of great perturbation. A telegram sent by Sir Claude the succeeding day announced that the German Admiral had ordered the Chinese Commandant at Kiao-Chau to evacuate the place within forty-eight hours, that the Yamên had telegraphed that no resistance was to be offered, and further, that 600 men had been landed from the German warships and had taken possession of the Chinese barracks. Baron von Heyking, the German Ambassador at Pekin, informed the Chinese Government (November 22nd, 1897) that the evacuation of Kiao-Chau would not take place until the following demands had been granted :-(1) An Imperial tablet to be built to the memory of the murdered missionaries; (2) Indemnity to be paid to their families; (3) Permanent degradation of the Governor of Shantung; (4) Chinese Government to pay the cost of the German occupation of KiaoChau; (5) German engineers to have the preference in any railway building in the Province of Shantung, and in working in any mine which may exist on the track of such railway. The last demand Sir Claude Macdonald thought was at variance with the most-favoured-nation clause; but he thought all the others should be granted. Lord Salisbury thereupon telegraphed Sir Claude to advise the Chinese Government to accede to the first four demands. But he added : “As regards fifth demand, I understand that a British subject has already been granted a concession for a railway and mines. If this is so, you can inform the Chinese Government that under most-favoured-nation clause the demand is inadmissible, but that apart from this consideration the consent of Her Majesty's Government cannot be given to the abrogation of the rights of a British subject for the purpose of making a concession to others." The Chinese Government refused to open negotiations until Kiao-Chau had been evacuated. Baron von Heyking replied by informing the Yamên that the uselessness of putting any faith in the promises of the Chinese Government having been

CHINA. (Trade Reports.) (See CHINA :

COMMERCIAL SECTION.)

CHINA.

Chusan (Non-Cession of).- In the Convention between Great Britain and China of April 4th, 1846, the following Articles appear :- Article III.—“It is stipulated on the part of His Majesty the Emperor of China that on the evacuation of Chusan by Her Britannic Majesty's forces the said island shall never be ceded to any other

proved by experience, the evacuation would not take place until the German demands had been satisfied. On November 30th Sir Claude Macdonald informed Lord Salisbury that the negotiations with a British subject for a railway in Shantung had fallen through. Further, that a defined area around Kiao-Chau Bay, including the city of Kiao-Chau, would be administered under the law of Germany. On December 6th Sir Claude announced that the Chinese Government, in order to hasten the German evacuation of the Bay, were ready to agree to all the conditions demanded. Lord Salisbury replied that if the fifth point were conceded Her Majesty's Government would be compelled to demand equality of treatment for British subjects under the most-favoured-nation clause of the treaties, and compensation on points in respect to which the rights secured by treaty had been disregarded. On December 14th the Yamên stated to Sir Claude that the absence of any assurance that Kiao-Chau would be evacuated had delayed the negotiations, and that Baron Heyking had demanded a coaling-station. They were anxious to know whether Her Majesty's Government would object, if a railway were built in Shantung, to the employment of German capital and engineers, if cheaper terms were not offered by others. Lord Salisbury replied that objections would be raised to the grant of exclusive privileges to other nations (as was the case in the French Convention of 1895), and that any concession to Germany of this nature would meet with opposition. On December 31st the German Minister demanded the dismissal of the Tartar General in Shantung, for having made use of strong anti-foreign language, and had threatened to leave Pekin if the demand was not complied with. The Governor was instantly dismissed. A despatch from Sir Ernest Satow, British Minister at Tokio (December 1st), showed that the Japanese considered that some ulterior motive underlay the seizure of Kiao-Chau Bay by the Germans, and were carefully watching the course of events. On December 30th M. de Bülow assured our representative at Berlin that in the action taken the German Government had no intention to create complications, to disturb the peace, or to shake (“ébranler') the Chinese Empire, still less to do any. thing disagreeable to England. Indeed, one of the reasons for selecting the port of Kiao-Chau was that it was in the north of China, and thus “far removed from the regions in which England was directly interested.” He was a strong partisanand the Emperor shared his views--of a good understanding between Germany and England, whose interests were so much alike in most parts of the world, and he “ sincerely hoped that the irritation which unfortunately existed in both countries would gradually subside.” To this it was replied that, while reciprocating the desire for a good understanding, “should

a demand be put forward for exclusive privileges, or should other countries seek to take possession of Chinese ports, it would probably become necessary for Her Majesty's Government to take steps for the protection of her vast interests in China." The negotiations between the Yamên and Baron Heyking resulted (January 5th, 1898) in the lease of Kiao-Chau Bay to the German Government for a period of ninetynine years. The exact extent of territory ceded was as follows :-The line has, for its southern border, a line running east and west south of the Islands Toloxan and NiuTao; for its northern boundary, a line run. ning east and west in a latitude to the north of the city of Kiao-chau. On the west the frontier is a line joining the others, running north and south to the east of High Double Peak; and on the east a north and south line running from a point to the east of Niu-Tao Island. The lease included the transfer of Sovereign rights. The original five demands were granted. The Correspondence shows that the occupation, in its political aspects, was discussed between the European Powers without marked opposition to the German claims. M. Hanotaux thought the step taken by the Germans was very serious, and might have important consequences. Lord Salisbury admitted that so far as he knew he thought it probable that no great injury had been inflicted upon England, “though the relation of the occupation to our treaty rights in China would require careful consideration." Count Mouravieff said he had been “ rather surprised when he heard of the occupation of the Bay in question.”

Mr. Kinder (Attempted Dismissal of). -Sir Claude Macdonald reported in October, 1897, attempts by the Russian Chargé d'Affaires to procure the dismissal of Mr. Kinder, an Englishman, from his post of Engineer-in-Chief on the Northern Railways of China—the Pekin-Tientsin-Shanhaikuan line. He told the Tsung-li-Yamêr that Mr. Kinder's displacement would be viewed with serious displeasure by Her Majesty's Government. The Ministers stated that M. Pavloff, the Russian Chargé d'Affaires, “had, in the first instance, represented to them, on his own authority, that the employment of an English engineer on the extension northwards of the TientsinShanhaikuan line would be displeasing to Russia ; and on meeting with a refusal, he returned to the attack in two or three days' time, with instructions from his Govern. ment to demand that a Russian engineer should take Mr. Kinder's place. It was not necessary for me to demonstrate to the Ministers the unreasonableness of this demand, for they showed themselves fully alive to it. I reminded them, however, that England had not opposed the extension of the Siberian line through Manchuria, and had thus shown that she was not moved by any jealous desire to hamper Russian development; but that unless the

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