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POLITICAL SECTION. CELEBRATED THREE STAR WHISKEY.

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TRADE JJ & S MARK.

Each Bottle bears John Jameson & Son's Registered Water-marked Label with name of Bottler, together with the Distillers' Signature and Trade Mark on Capsule, without which none is genuine.

MAY BE HAD OF ALL WINE MERCHANTS.

CHARING CROSS

TURKISH BATHS.

(NEVILL'S.) Gentlemen's Entrance, NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE.

SEPARATE BATH FOR LADIES.
Entrance-Northumberland Passage, Craven Street, Strand.

PRONOUNCED TO BE THE FINEST IN EUROPE.

Admission-9 a.m. to 7 p.m., 3s. 6d.; after 7 p.m., 28. These Baths stand on what was formerly part of the grounds of the celebrated Northumberland House. They occupied nearly three years in building, and involved an expenditure of £30,000. They comprise a large suite of Bath Rooms, having a floor space of about twelve thousand feet, with a smaller suite in a separate but adjacent building for the exclusive use of ladies; the Cooling Rooms, which are fitted in the most luxurious manner, are surmounted by a lofty dome specially designed to permit free circulation of air and to ensure perfect ventilation ; the heating and ventilation of the hot chambers have been brought to a state of perfection by a system first introduced by the Proprietors of these Baths, while the whole of the decorations of both Hot and Cooling Rooms have been designed by most eminent authorities.

And at LONDON BRIDGE, ALDGATE, EDGWARE ROAD, and

BROAD STREET, &c.
PROSPECTUS POST FREE.

POLITICAL SECTION.

All Articles are arranged alphabetically, and, where possible, are grouped under a general heading. Thus,

matters relating to Africa (other than Egypt) are dealt with in alphabetical order under Africa ; but cross references will be found throughout the work directing inquirers to any comprehensive heading under which informatiion will be found.)

AFRICA.

together.” Reports of Native Commissioners

were also forwarded, describing the treatBechuanaland. (Native Disturbances ment and disposition of the prisoners. Correspondence. Presented March, 1898.) Consequently the Colonial Office wrote -Inconsequence of the Bechuana Rebellion (January 24th) that Mr. Chamberlain did a Bill was introduced into the Cape House not find any fresh reason which would of Assembly for the proclamation of certain justify Her Majesty's Government in internative reserves as Crown Lands. The fering in a matter in respect of which the Aborigines Protection Society protested Cape Government were answerable to the against the acquisition of these lands and the Parliament of the Cape Colony. “The indenturing of surrendered rebels for five attitude of the Aborigines Protection Society years at 10s, a month for men and 7s. 6d. was based on statements, the accuracy of for youths, with food and housing, as a which is not established.” violation of the Emancipation Act, and practically a revival of slavery. Mr. British Central Africa Protectorate Chamberlain asked the Governor to report (Report for year 1897-8. Africa, No. IX.).on the whole question, but pointed out to Acting Commissioner Manning's Report for the society that the question of the legality year ending March 31, 1898, shows that the of the action of the Cape Government was number of Europeans in the Protectorate one that must be decided in the Courts of is about 300. European planters are pushLaw. In his Report (January 5th, 1898), | ing further inland, and have opened estates Sir Alfred Milner showed that of the 2,064 | on the west of Lake Nyassa. Indian rebels who surrendered, 1,871 were finally traders continue to settle in small numbers, indentured at Cape Town. " The gravamen and have penetrated to Zomba and to of the charge against the Government is Liwonde, on the upper Shiré. On the that these contracts were not entered into Portuguese border the native population voluntarily, but under compulsion. The was always unsettled, leading to raids into prisoners were given the option to engage British territory by natives for whom as servants for five years, or to stand their the Portuguese are responsible. But on trial for treason, and they chose the former the whole the natives had settled down to alternative. It is contended that this was peaceable occupations, and the number of virtually compulsion, and I do not under skilled labourers was increasing. Planting stand Ministers to deny that, as a matter operations in coffee were considerably exof-fact, the threat of prosecution for treason tended. Endeavours had been made to did constitute very effective pressure upon push the rubber industry, and to acclimathe rebels to enter into contracts. The case tize the rubber-bearing trees of the West for the Government is that (1) as regards Coast. The export of rubber increased fourthe men, they were rebels and might have fold in the year under review. Tobacco been punished as rebels, and that it was a and tea cultivation had been attempted. merciful thing to give them the option of RAILWAYS: The survey of a line from going into service instead of going to prison; Chiromo to the navigable waters of the (2) as regards the women and children, who Upper Shiré had been completed. The were clearly not punishable as rebels, these survey line runs through Blantyre to a spot really did elect for service, or rather the below the Mpimbi on the navigable Shiré, women did, for the children, of course, and a good and fairly easy gradient had been simply followed their mothers (see on this obtained. Particulars are given of the sucpoint Mr. Stanford's account on p. 27 of cessful operations in August, 1897, against the Blue Book, of what passed between him the Angura of Lake Chilwa. The Proand the women at Kuruman). It can, I tectorate Forces consist of six companies of think, hardly be doubted that the women natives (107 rank and file in each), with a and children are better off than they would Sikh colour-sergeant and three Sikh drillhave been if left to fend for themselves, instructors, and commanded by a British with their husbands and fathers in prison. officer selected from the British service. Great care has been taken, in arranging the Two companies are stationed at Zomba, contracts, that families should be kept and the others at Mlanje, Mangoche, Fort Maguire (Lake Nyassa), and Murimba dis and of its public revenues as distinguished tricts respectively. The men are armed from its commercial profits, together with with the Snider rifle, and the force has also estimates of like expenditure and revenue a battery of four 7-pounder mountain guns, for the ensuing year and any other reports two 9-pounder field guns, and one Maxim, the Secretary of State may desire. The worked by native gunners, under Sikh in following is a summary of the proposals :structors. There is also a Sikh contingent (A.) Local Administration. — Proposals of 175 men, lent by the Indian Government under this head refer to Southern Rhodesia for three years, with three European officers. only. Northern Rhodesia reserved for The Naval service consists of two gunboats, future consideration. 1. Modification of Dove ” and “Guendolin," and two Lake Administrative Council, as suggested by steamers. HEALTH : Dr. Kerr Cross's report British South Africa Company, by addition says that the health of the Protectorate of four elected members of Council, and of cannot be characterized as good. Thirty sufficient number of members of Council two Europeans died-a death-rate of 10 per nominated by Company to ensure for cent. “Apart from malarial fever. . . Company majority as long as they are Central Africa would be a desirable country responsible for expenditure. 2. Legislation. for Europeans. With malarial fever it can Enactment of Ordinances by Board of only be designated as unhealthy." “ The Directors to be discontinued. All legislaone outstanding disease is black-water fever. tion in future, including imposition of . . . It would seem that this disease taxes, to be effected generally by Ordinances was specially prevalent in the higher of Administrator in Legislative Council, lands." It has been seen on the Shiré in exceptional circumstances by Proclamariver and the lake, but seems to be most tion of High Commissioner. As at present, frequently observed in the plateau and hill Proclamation to have superior force and countries. Discussing the use of quinine, Dr. High Commissioner's previous consent to Kerr Cross says that “ quinine is our sheet be necessary for its amendment or repeal anchor in ordinary fever, but where the by an Ordinance. Ordinances to be subject kidney is burdened or has partially lost to confirmation by High Commissioner and its functions, quinine, I think, is contra- | to disallowance by Secretary of State within indicated, and, if pushed, may lead to coma a year. 3. Control of High Commissioner and death.” The Sikhs suffered greatly to be based upon full information obtained from fever when exposed during campaign locally through an Imperial officer styled work. The health of native soldiers was Resident Commissioner. This officer to be good. The prevailing diseases of the natives appointed and to be paid by Crown: not to are dysentery, chicken-pox, syphilis, and a interfere with work of administration except host of skin diseases. The utter neglect of as regards employment of armed forces : sanitary laws by natives is always a source not to have power of overruling Administraof danger to a European settlement. The tor or Council or to deal directly with subtotal trade of the Protectorate for the year ordinate officers of British South Africa was £116,264 (imports, £88,827; exports, Company, but to have seat on Legislative £27,436), a marked increase on previous Council with right to speak but not to vote, returns.

and full power to call for information or

reports on any subject through AdministraBritish South Africa Co.'s Territories. tor. 4. Commandant of forces to be Changes in Administration. Presented appointed and to be paid by Crown, but no February, 1898.-On January 13th Mr. | longer to be Deputy Commissioner. As Chamberlain wrote to High Commissioner | regards employment of forces for purposes Sir Alfred Milner, sending proposals on the of ordinary police, inclusive of suppression question of the future exercise of adminis of internal disturbances, he would be trative powers by the British South Africa authorized to act on his own discretion, Company. He had come to the conclusion but would be ordinarily guided by wishes that, to preserve consistency of administra and requirements of Administrator and his tion throughout the British sphere in South subordinate officers. Should he think it Africa, it was necessary that the control undesirable to comply with them in any of the Crown over the local administration of case, he would refer for instructions to Rhodesia must, for the present, continue to be Resident Commissioner, and he would in exercised through the High Commissioner. no case take action of nature of military The proposed measures aimed not so much operations without authority from Resident at setting up new machinery for the control Commissioner. 5. If Company so desire, of the Company's administration by the separate Administrators to be appointed to Crown as at rendering that which was Matabeleland and Mashonaland. In that already provided for its purpose more effec case, each Administrator to have separate tive in its action. The Proposals provided Executive Council, but there would be only that if the Company have any difference one Legislative Council in which both with a native chief or tribe the Secretary of Administrators would sit, and one of them State may require the matter to be submitted would preside. 6. Except as modified by to him, and the Company must act in these proposals or by lapse of time, provisions accordance with his directions. The of Matabeleland Order in Council to be Company to be required to furnish annually maintained, but appointment and removal accounts of its administrative expenditure of native Commissioners to be on same footing as of Magistrates. (B.) Board of Secretary of State to overrule their veto. Directors.-1. Board of Directors to be Probably the wishes of the Board in the required to communicate to the Secretary matter will be sufficiently met by providing of State within a certain time all Minutes, that the Secretary of State may within a Orders, or Resolutions dealing with ad. year disallow an Ordinance, either of his ministration. Secretary of State to have own motion or at the request of the Board power of veto or suspension of any which of Directors. Mr. Chamberlain agrees with are objectionable. 2. Secretary of State to the Board of Directors, that in present have access through persons named by him circumstances it will not be advisable to to all records of Company and to be have more than one Executive Council for furnished with copies of correspondence Matabeleland and Mashonaland.” An between them and officers in South Africa Order in Council was subsequently issued and with such other documents, reports, | giving effect to the projected new Constituand accounts as he may require, and to tion for Southern Rhodesia. have power of removing any Director of or official of the Company in this country who! Congo State. Report for 1897, from the fails to comply. Powers of inspecting | Legation at Brussels.—Total trade for 1897 records and correspondence would as at was £1,635,371, nearly £400,000 more than present proposed be exercised through in 1896, or more than double that of 1893. Colonial Office. 3. The Life Directorships This increase is almost entirely to the to be abolished: whole Board of Directors benefit of Belgium. Exports to England to be elected by shareholders, any official in 1888 were £37,481, in 1897 they were or Director removed by Secretary of State not one-third of that sum. The imports not being eligible without his consent. from England to that Colony were £103,729, End of Summary.-The Board of the South about the same as in 1893. A large portion Africa Company expressed general con. of the increase in the imports from Belgium currence with the principles of these | during the past year must be attributed to proposals, and noticed with satisfaction the great quantity of materials required that the Legislative Council was to be for the construction of the railway from strengthened by the introduction of a | Matadi to Stanley Pool, as the value of the representative element. The Secretary locomotives, trucks, and rails imported in added :-“My Directors concur with the the course of last year alone amounted to proposal that all legislation shall in future £120,000. The steamers which keep up the be passed locally, but in view of the financial mail service between Antwerp and the responsibility of the Board to Shareholders, Congo now run to a considerable extent and of the increased powers proposed to be under the Belgian flag, whereas formerly entrusted to the local Administration, they they flew English or German colours. This submit that the power at present vested in accounts for the increase in the number of the Company of directing and controlling Belgian and the decrease in the number of all Fiscal Legislation should remain intact, | English steamers visiting the Congo ports and that authority to disallow all legislation during the last three years. Baron van passed by the Legislative Council, subject, Eetvelde in his Report draws attention to if so desired, to the approval of the Secretary the slight decrease which has taken place of State, should be retained by the Company. | during the year in the comsumption of With reference to Clause 24, my Directors spirituous liquors, as in 1897 only 1,138,125 desire power to appoint two separate litres were imported, compared with Administrators, one for Matabeleland and | 1,465,590 litres in 1895, these imports being

he other for Mashonaland, but would for the most part derived from Germany submit for the consideration of the Secretary and Holland. The total State receipts in of State, that the manifest advantage of 1897, apart from the Royal and Government promoting uniformity of administration subsidies, amounted to £367,334. throughout Southern Rhodesia, and the difficulty of constituting two equally Treaty Engagements in respect to the efficient Executive Councils occasioned by Congo.—The following extracts from the the various Heads of Departments being General Act of the Conference of Berlin, stationed permanently at one centre, alike signed by fourteen European Powers and by point to the advisability of establishing one the United States, show the conditions Executive Council only.” Mr. Chamberlain relative to freedom of trade in the Congo directed (February 15th) that the following State and the neutralities of.the territories : reply should be sent to the Company: “Mr. CHAPTER I.-Declaration relative to Freedom Chamberlain thinks it not unreasonable of Trade in the Basin of the Congo, its that the Directors should continue to have Mouths and circumjacent Regions, with a voice in controlling the legislation for the other Provisions connected therewith. Company's territories, on the ground that Article 1.—The trade of all nations shall much of it may affect the financial respon enjoy complete freedom :-1. In all the sibilities of the Board. He is therefore regions forming the Basin of the Congo and ready to modify the proposal in paragraph its outlets. This basin is bounded by the 21 of the Memorandum of proposals by watersheds (or mountain ridges) of the giving authority to the Board of Directors adjacent basins-namely, in particular, to disallow Ordinances passed by the Legis those of the Niari, the Ogowé, the Schari, lative Council, subject to the power of the and the Nile, on the north; by the eastern

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