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also reported that the Chief of the Shilluk that the fact of Her Majesty's Government Tribe denied having made any Treaty with having complied with his Excellency's rethe French, that“ the entire tribe expressed quest in regard to the transmission of the the greatest delight at returning to allegi message does not imply the slightest modiance with us," and that Marchand was in fication of the views previously expressed want of ammunition and supplies. “Any by them. You should add that, whether in that may be sent to him must take months to times of Egyptian or Dervish dominion, arrive at their destination. He is cut off the region in which M. Marchand was from the interior, and is quite inadequately found has never been without an owner, provided with water transport. Moreover, he and that, in the view of Her Majesty's has no following in the country, and nothing Government, his expedition into it with an could have saved his expedition from being escort of 100 Senegalese troops has no annihilated by the Dervishes if we had been political effect, nor can any political signi. a fortạight later in crushing the Khalifa.” ficance be attached to it.” An Appendix to On these facts being brought to the know this correspondence contains documents ledge of M. Delcassé, he said he could say showing the position of affairs between nothing until he had consulted his col. France and Great Britain in relation to the leagues. On September 27th M. Delcassé Nile Valley prior to the Khartoum occupaasked that Lord Salisbury should consent tion and the arrival of Marchand at to a telegram (en clair if thought fit) being Fashoda. The first is a Memorandum by sent by the French Agent at Cairo, via M. Decrais, and dated August 8th, 1894. Its Khartoum to Fashoda. The telegram would argument is that the rights of the Sultan contain instructions to Marchand to send and of the Khedive of Egypt in the proat once one of the French officers with him vinces of the basin of the Upper Nile was to Cairo, with a copy of his (Marchand's) unimpaired by the Agreement (to which Report, so that the French Government | France objected) of May 12th, 1894, might learn its contents as soon as possible. between Great Britain and the Congo Free M. Delcassé laid stress upon the desire of State. There is also a Despatch from the France, equally with Great Britain, to avoid Earl of Kimberley (August 14th, 1894) to a conflict. Sir Edmund Monson's Despatch Lord Dufferin, then Ambassador in Paris, proceeds:-"I told M. Delcassé in reply, replying to the objections of France to this that I must conclude, from the language Agreement. Then follows the speech by which he had held, that the French Govern Sir Edward Grey in the House of Commons, ment had decided that they would not which has already been quoted. Following recall M. Marchand before receiving his this is an extract from M. Hanotaux's report, and I asked if I was right in this speech to the Senate, in which he said, conclusion. I pointed out to his Excellency inter alia :-“Between the country of the that M. Marchand himself is stated to be lakes and the point of Wady Halfa, on the desirous of retiring from his position, which Nile, extends a vast region, measuring 20 appeared to be a disagreeable one. Such degrees of latitude, or 2,000 kilomètres, being the case, I must urgently press him that is more than the breadth of Western to tell me whether he refused at once to Europe from Gibraltar to Dunkirk. In recall M. Marchand. After considering his this region there is at this moment, perreply for some few minutes, his Excellency haps, not a single European; in any case, said that he himself was ready to discuss there does not exist any power derived, by the question in the most conciliatory spirit, any title, from a European authority. It but I must not ask him for the impossible. is the country of the Mahdi! Now, gentleI pointed out that your Lordship’s telegram men, it is the future of this country which of the 9th instant, which I had communi. fills, with an uneasiness which we may cated to him at the time, had made him describe as at least premature, the minds aware that Her Majesty's Government con of a certain number of persons interested sidered that there could be no discussion in Africa. The Egyptians who occupied upon such questions as the right of Egypt this vast domain for a considerable time to Fashoda.” Lord Salisbury (September have moved to the north. Emin Pasha 28th) telegraphed to Sir Edmund that Her himself was compelled to withdraw. The Majesty's Government could not decline to rights of the Sultan and the Khedive alone forward a message to the explorer, that continue to exist over the regions of the facilities would be given for its speedy Soudan and of Equatorial Africa." . And, despatch, and that he did not desire to in conclusion :-“When the time comes for know its purport. But Sir Edmund was settling finally the fate of these distant to explain that the British Government countries, I am one of those who think “could not be responsible for the results to that, by seeing that the rights of the Sultan the health or safety of the explorer which and of the Khedive are respected, and by the delay in quitting his present situation assigning to each party concerned what is may bring about.” On October 3rd Lord due to it according to its works, two great Salisbury informed Sir Edmund that the nations will be able to arrive at an message from the French Government to arrangement which will reconcile their Marchand had been transmitted to Khar interests and satisfy their common aspiratoum, and would be forwarded thence. He tions towards civilization and progress.” added :-“In order to avoid any misunder FURTHER CORRESPONDENCE (Egypt, No.III. standing, you should state to M. Delcassé October, 1898. Continuation of Egypt, No. II.).—This Correspondence opens with a that concession on his part did not diminish Despatch (October 6th) by Lord Salisbury the significance of the act as an assertion of to Sir Edmund Monson, recounting a con. her rights by England. In the objections versation with Baronde Courcel, the French raised by the French Government to that Ambassador, at the Foreign Office. The arrangement, the rights of the Khedive over interview lasted nearly two hours, and was these territories were expressly asserted as chiefly occupied by observations on his still existing. Then came Sir Edward Grey's (de Courcel's) part, upon the question of speech in 1895, which was followed in 1897 Fashoda. His argument was, principally, by a formal note from your Excellency, inthat though the country bordering the forming the French Foreign Minister that White Nile was formerly under the Govern. Her Majesty's Government adhered to the ment of Egypt, it had become res nullius by statements made by their predecessors by its abandonment by that Government; that that speech. If France had throughout the French had as much right as the | intended to challenge our claims, and to Germans or Belgians to a position on the occupy a portion of this territory for herself, Nile, and that the French Government, by she was bound to have broken silence. At the reserves it had uniformly made in that all events, if she thought fit to try, in face diplomacy on the subject, “had retained of these warnings, to establish a title over for themselves the right to occupy the banks the vast territory to which they applied by of the Nile when they thought fit." In a secret expedition of a handful of men, she reply, Lord Salisbury pointed out that how must not be surprised that the claim would ever much the success of the Mahdi had not be recognized by us." Baron de Courcel rendered dormant the Egyptian title to the "insisted on the strength of feeling that prebanks of the Nile, the amount of right vailed in France on the subject. I assured gained by the Mahdi, whatever it was, had him that the strength of feeling in England been entirely transferred to the conqueror. was not less remarkable.” He made no That question could only have been settled, definite proposal, but “indicated pretty as it was settled, on the field of battle. But clearly that the delimitation must be one the controversy did not authorize a third which would give a considerable stretch of party to claim the disputed land as derelict. the left bank of the Nile to France.” Lord To There is no ground in international law Salisbury gave no countenance to this for asserting that the dispute of title be suggestion. In reply to Baron de Courcel's tween them, which had been inclined one complaint that France should be excluded day by military superiority in one direction, from the Nile, while Germany and Belgium and a few years later had been inclined in were admitted, Lord Salisbury pointed out the other, could give any authority or title that the possession of a portion of the shores to another Power to come in and seize the of Lake Victoria Nyanza could hardly be disputed region as vacant or relinquished called a position on the banks of territory. To the last the power of the the Nile; and that whatever rights the Dervishes was extended as far south as Bor, Congo State possessed below Lado, where and their effective occupation did not cease the navigable Nile commenced, were only till their title passed by the victory of given to the King of the Belgians during his Omdurman without diminution into the life. “ We separated without coming to any hands of the conquering armies. I pointed conclusion; for I had no communication out to him that such an occupation as that to make, except the reiteration of our claim of M. Marchand, with an escort of 100 of right; and he made no suggestion of any troops, could give no title to the occupying arrangement by which that right could be force, and that, in point of fact, but for the reconciled with the present pretensions or arrival of the British flotilla M. Marchand's desires of France.” Writing from Dal, escort would have been destroyed by the White Nile (September 21st), the Sirdar Dervishes. M. Marchand's was a secret sent a full report of his arrival at Fashoda, expedition into a territory already owned and meeting with Major Marchand, whom and occupied, and concerning which France he informed that “the presence of the had received repeated warnings that a French at Fashoda and in the Valley of the seizure of land in that locality could not be Nile was regarded as a direct violation accepted by Great Britain. The first warn. of the rights of Egypt and Great Britain, ing was the Anglo-German Agreement, which and that he must protest in the strongest was communicated to the French Govern terms against their occupation of Fashoda, ment, and the provisions of which, as and the hoisting of the French flag in the regards the Nile, were never formally con. dominions of the Khedive.” Major tested. The next warning was given by the Marchand said that, as a soldier, he had Agreement with the King of the Belgians, to obey orders. “The instructions of his which gave him, for his lifetime, occupation Government to occupy the Bahr-el-Ghazel up to Fashoda, and which Agreement is in and the Mudirieh of Fashoda were precise, existence and full force still. It has never and, having carried them out, he must been cancelled and never been repudiated by await the orders of his Government as to his this country. It is true that the King of the subsequent action and movements." I Belgians was persuaded, without any assent then pointed out that I had the instructions on the part of Great Britain, to promise the of the Government to re-establish Egyptian French Government that he would not take | authority in the Fashoda Mudirieh, and I advantage of it beyond a certain limit; but asked M. Marchand whether he was prepared

-on behalf of the French Government-to resist the execution of these orders; he must be fully aware, I said, that the Egyptian and British forces were very much more powerful than those at his disposal, but, at the same time, I was very averse to creating a situation which might lead to hostilities. I therefore begged M. Marchand to most carefully consider his final decision on this matter. I further informed him that I should be pleased to place one of the gunboats at his disposal to convey him and his expedition north. In answer to this, M. Marchand did not hesitate to admit the preponderating forces at my disposal, and his inability to offer effective armed resistance ; if, however, he said, I felt obliged to take any such action, he could only submit to the inevitable, which would mean that he and his companions would die at their posts. He begged, therefore, that I would consider his position, and would allow the question of his remaining at Fashoda to be referred to his Government, as, without their orders, he could not retire from his position or haul down his flag; at the same time, he said, he felt sure that, under the circumstances, the orders for his retirement would not be delayed by his Government, and that then he hoped to avail him. self of the offer I had made him. I then said to him: “Do I understand that you are authorized by the French Government to resist Egypt in putting up its flag and reasserting its authority in its former possessions—such as the Mudirieh of Fashoda ?M. Marchand hesitated, and then said he could not resist the Egyptian flag being hoisted. I replied that my instructions were to hoist the flag, and that I intended to do so. The flag was hoisted accordingly. The correspondence contains the letters which passed between the Sirdar and Major Marchand the day before the former's arrival at Fashoda. Major Marchand informed the Sirdar that by orders of my Government, I have occupied the Bahr-el-Ghazel as far as Meshra-erRek, and the confluence of the Bahr-elGhazel with the Bahr-el-Djebel, as well as the Shilluk Country on the left bank of the White Nile, as far as Fashoda, which I entered on the 10th July last." Being attacked by two Dervish steamers on August 25th, he drove them off. “After this engagement, the first consequence of which was the liberation of the Shilluk country, I signed, on 3rd September, a Treaty with Sultan Kour Abd-el-Fadil, Grand Mek, placing the Shilluk country, on the left bank of the White Nile, under the Protectorate of France, subject to ratification by my Government”-copies of which Treaty had been sent to Europe by way of Sobat and Abyssinia, and also by way of the Bahrel-Ghazel to the West Coast. Against this positive statement is to be set the following passage from the Sirdar's report of his arrival at Fashoda :—“The Mek of the Shilluks had by this time arrived in the Egyptian camp at Fashoda with a large

contingent of his followers; he utterly denied that he had made any Treaty whatever with M. Marchand's expedition, and expressed his great satisfaction that the Government had taken over the administration of his country. On September 21st the Sirdar informed Major Marchand of the establishment of Government posts and garrisons on the Sobat and the despatch of gunboats up the Bahr-el-Ghazel to establish posts there. On October 12th, Lord Salisbury reported to Sir E. Monson another long conversation with the French Ambassador in London. “He” (Baron de Courcel) “insisted that he had no instructions”; he wished only “ to explore the question"; “but I declined to make any proposal or suggestion under those conditions"; any. thing he said would not bind his Government with anything Lord Salisbury said would bind the British Government. The Ambassador afterwards said that though he had no special instructions he had general instructions. The field of argument was then re-traversed. Lord Salisbury insisted that the Valley of the Nile had belonged and still belonged to Egypt. " Whatever impediment or diminution that title might have suffered through the conquest and occupation of the Mahdi had been removed by the victory of the Anglo-Egyptian army on September 2nd. There was no pretence, therefore, for the contention that the region was open to the enterprises or occupation of a third Power. But, even if it had been so, no title or right of occupation could be created by a secret expedition across unknown and unexplored wastes, at a distance from the French border, by M. Marchand and a scanty escort.” Discussing with the Ambassador, Major Marchand's retreat westward, Lord Salisbury offered to furnish the officer with the necessary provisions and munitions of war to enable him to reach what was admitted to be French territorythe region lying beyond the watershed that separates the Ubanghi from the affluents of the Nile. The Despatch proceeds:–« To this suggestion, however, his Excellency did not assent. He passed from it suddenly, and stated that the object of the French Government was to have an outlet to the Nile for their Ubanghi province, and he asked for such a territorial delimitation as would place France upon the navigable portion of the Bahr-el-Ghazel, so that no frontier could intervene between her commerce and the Nile. He stated that posts had been for a considerable time established by France in the upper portions of the province, and that they had every right to them which could arise from long and undisputed occupation. I replied that these were questions which I was not in a position to discuss. I did not possess as yet the requisite knowledge to enter satisfactorily upon the points that he had raised, and any proposals affecting a general delimitation were of too grave a character to be disposed of except by the submission of

definite proposals to the Cabinet, furnished this country to places out of Europe in 1897 with such information as was necessary for was 213,280, including foreigners. British the consideration of the subject. He and Irish emigrants numbered 146,460. intimated that if I could give him a The total figure is less by 29,000 than in satisfactory answer on this question, M. 1896, and by 58,500 in 1895. “Of the total Marchand might be allowed to return down number of emigrants in 1897, viz., 213,280, the Nile. I did not, however, enter upon 132,048 booked for the United States, this idea, which was only indicated in a 22,669 for British North America, 12,396 for vague and superficial way. I pointed out Australasia, 28,801 for the Cape and Natal, to him that both with respect to the means and 17,366 for other places. Taking the of M. Marchand's retreat and any other equivalent proportions, it is seen that 72:5 stipulations which it was his object to per cent. of the emigrants went to North suggest, it would be very difficult to deal America, 5.8 to Australasia, and 13.5 to with them satisfactorily unless he was good South Africa. As compared with the figures. enough to let me have them in a written for 1896, emigrants to the United States form. The extreme indefiniteness of his were fewer by over 22,000, and those to language, and the rhetorical character he South Africa were fewer by 7,000. Emigragave to it by the great earnestness with tion to British North America was practiwhich he addressed himself to the subject, cally at the same level in the two years, made it impossible for me to express or to while there was an increase of nearly 1,700 form any definite opinion upon the various persons among emigrants to Australasia. propositions which he seemed to desire to The diminished emigration to South Africa convey. I thought it better to wait until is noticeable as interrupting the continuous they were submitted either to me or to your increase hitherto observed for some time Excellency in a more precise and tangible past in the passenger movement in that form rather than enter upon a discussion part of the world. The number of emigrants which, under the circumstances, would have thither in 1897 was, however, still higher by been fruitful of misapprehension. This nearly 3,000 than in 1895. The decrease appeared to me especially to be the case with between 1896 and 1897, though shared respect to the allusions which he made from almost equally between native and foreign time to time to what he considered to be the emigrants from this country to South Africa, territory to which France had a just right. was relatively greater among the latter, who I informed him that it was no part of my numbered 7,692 last year, against 11,246 in duty to discuss these claims now, but that the preceding year, a fall of 31.6 per cent., in abstaining from doing so I must not be | while the decrease from 24,594 to 21,109 understood to be in any degree admitting among British and Irish emigrants repretheir validity.”

sents a fall of only 14 per cent. In this

connection it may be noted that the number EMIGRATION AND IMMI of emigrants coming under the description GRATION.

of miners and quarrymen’ who left in 1897

for places other than North America or Report for 1897, by Board of Trade.- | Australasia' (mainly, therefore, no doubt, There was a diminished passenger traffic for South Africa) was only 3,508, as against with countries out of Europe, but a con 6,866 in 1896.” Alien Immigration.-After siderable increase in the Continental traffic. analysing the Continental passenger moveA summary of the general passenger move ment, and making necessary deductions for ment in 1897 shows outwards, to countries foreign immigrants who left here for places. out of Europe 213,280 ; to Europe, 569,150. | outside Europe, and for seamen, the Report Inwards, from countries out of Europe, says :-“It would appear that the net result 155,114 ; from Europe, 587,000. Balance of the total passenger movement of 1897 outwards, 40,316. "The total outcome of into and out of the United Kingdom was to the whole passenger movement of 1897, viz., increase the foreign population of this an excess of about 40,300 in the number of country, taking all classes and nationalities persons leaving the United Kingdom over together, by somewhat less than 2,000 the number of persons arriving here from persons.” The Report shows that the total all parts, will be seen to have been the result number of persons entered on the alien lists of a net balance outwards of 52,800 natives, for 1897 was 80,834, of whom 32,221 were and a net balance inwards of 12,500 stated to be en route to other countries, and foreigners. Among the latter, however, are 10,762 were seamen. Discussing the nationincluded 10,800 foreign sailors, who, coming alities of the remainder of 38,851, the to the United Kingdom as passengers, are Report says : - “ The most important class, reckoned among the immigrants enumerated from the point of view of this inquiry, is in the above table, but of whom there is no that of Russian and Polish immigrants, such record when they leave as members of who increased in number last year by 2,002, the crews of outgoing ships. Making this a rather large increase, though less than deduction, then, it would appear that the that between 1895 and 1896, which was result of the total passenger movement in itself smaller than the increase from 1894 wards and outwards in 1897 was an addition to 1895. Of the total number of Russian to the foreign population of the United and Polish immigrants, 12,232, or nüarly 83 Kingdom of somewhat less than 2,000 per cent., came to London, as against 9,762 persons." The number of emigrants from in 1896 (76 per cent. of the total number for that year). This increase at the Port of roughly, to the effect that except in Leeds, London more than accounts for the total where resident and casual Jews are increasing increase between 1896 and 1897. At West in numbers, there has been no appreciable Hartlepool and at the Tyne ports there was increase either in numbers of aliens also some increase, the numbers for 1897 or in destitution. Except in London, being 514 in the former and 65 in the latter Leeds and Cardiff, there had, so far as could case, against 430 ånd 8 respectively in 1896. be ascertained, been rather a decrease. But at Hull there arrived 955 only in 1897, “ Information had been obtained through compared with 1,219 in 1896; at Grimsby the Local Government Board as to the 685 last year, against 794 in the previous extent to which relief was granted to aliens year; at Leith and Grangemouth only 9, by poor law authorities in the metropoli compared with 199 in 1896; and at New and the provinces. The effect is that such haven 225, as against 257. Of the 12,232 relief (chiefly medical aid) was granted to Russian and Polish immigrants that arrived a slightly increased extent last year (comat London in 1897, and were not stated in pared with 1896) in London, Leeds, and Alien Lists to be en route to other countries, Cardiff, but to a diminished extent in the 5,004 came from Hamburg, and 2,814 from rest of the country.” Bremen and Bremerhaven, as compared with 4,874 and 3,190 respectively in 1896. EPILEPTIC CHILDREN. (See Of the remainder 3,946, i.e., all but some

EDUCATION.) four or five hundred, came to London direct from Libau. The considerable immi

FACTORIES & WORKSHOPS. gration of Russians and Poles which has recently taken place from the Port of Libau Report for 1897, by Chief Inspector of was noted in last year's Report, and the Factories.-In 1897 there were 655 fatal figures just quoted for 1897 show that a accidents in factories and 39,739 non-fatal large increase again occurred last year, the accidents; in workshops there were 3 fatal corresponding number for 1896 having been and 77 non-fatal accidents. “ The number 1,197. Immigrants of this class coming of reported accidents continues to increase, from Libau to Hull were, however, fewer in notwithstanding the prevention of many 1897 than in the preceding year, the more by the constant advance in fencing of numbers being 396 last year and 571 in dangerous machinery and appliances. The 1896. How many of these Russians and increase is not confined to any particular Poles who were not stated in the Alien locality or industry, although, as will be seen Lists to be en route to other countries sub presently, it affects one section of the worksequently left the United Kingdom within ing population (male adults) far more than the year we have, as already pointed out, the rest. To a large extent it would seem no means of knowing; but that many did to be due to better observance of the requireso leave is certain, for a large number of ments of the Acts-to fuller statistics, persons belonging to these nationalities without necessary increase in number of were certainly included among the 2,700 casualties; or, in other words, to transfer aliens, who, as mentioned above, were from the unrecorded to the recorded class. ascertained by the Customs Officers to be Changes in the numbers of persons employed proceeding forthwith to other countries, have also to be borne in mind.” It appears though not so stated in the Alien Lists. that so far as fatal accidents are concerned There is reason to suppose, moreover, that the increase has been practically limited to the above figure is in reality considerably adult males, although in the non-fatal under the mark. Again, a certain number class it was shared also by young persons of the immigrants doubtless left the country and by females, children alone having a subsequently, either through the aid of the diminishing record in this respect. Lead Jewish Board of Guardians, or the Con Poisoning, &c.-The cases of lead poisoning, joint Committee of that body and the phosphorus poisoning, arsenic poisoning, Russo-Jewish Committee, or without such and anthrax in 1897 numbered 1,239, as assistance. During the year 1897 the above against 1,050 the previous year. “The agencies assisted about 2,000 Jews (mostly increase in the number of reported cases of Russians and Poles) to emigrate, and while lead poisoning from 1,030 in 1896 to 1,214 no doubt only a part of these had arrived in in 1897, was shared by all the industries this country during the year, this outflow named in the list, with the exception of the must be taken into account in estimating manufacture of paints and colours. As in the growth of the foreign Jewish population 1896 the worst records are those of the of London. It is known also that on a earthenware and white lead works.” The smaller scale various Jewish charitable reported cases of phosphorus poisoning were organizations in the provinces assisted poor only two, the same number as in the Jews to emigrate during the year. It is previous year. “Others, however, have clear, therefore, that there is an appre since come to light, and full inquiry is ciable outflow of Russian and Polish Jews, being made on this subject, the results of other than those described as transmigrants which will call for discussion in the next in the Alien Lists to be set against the Annual Report. There are 24 match immigration, although the data do not exist factories in the United Kingdom in which to enable its magnitude to be estimated.” | white or yellow phosphorus is used. Among The Police Reports from various centres are, the 1,700 persons employed in what may be

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