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watershed-line of the affluents of Lake good offices in order that the territories Tanganyika, on the east; and by the water belonging to this Power, and comprised in sheds of the Basins of the Zambezi and the the Conventional free-trade zone, shall by Logé, on the south. It therefore comprises the common consent of this Power, and of all the regions watered by the Congo and the other belligerent or belligerents, be its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, | placed during the war under the rule of with its eastern tributaries. 2. In the neutrality, and considered as belonging to a maritime zone extending along the Atlantic non-belligerent State, the belligerents thenceOcean from the parallel situated in 2° 30' forth abstaining from extending hostilities of south latitude to the mouth of the Logé. to the territories thus neutralized, and from The northern boundary will follow the using them as a base for warlike operations. parallel situated in 2° 30' from the coast to | Article XII.-In case a serious disagreement, the point where it meets the geographical originating on the subject of, or in the limits Basin of the Congo, avoiding the Basin of of, the territories mentioned in Article I., the Ogowe, to which the provisions of the and placed under the free-trade system, present Act do not apply. The southern shall arise between any Signatory Powers of boundary will follow the course of the Logé the present Act, or the Powers which may to its source, and thence pass eastwards till become parties to it, these Powers bind it joins the geographical Basin of the Congo. themselves, before appealing to arms, to 3. In the zone stretching eastwards from have recourse to the mediation of one or the Congo Basin, as above defined, to the more of the friendly Powers. In a similar Indian Ocean from 5 degrees of north case, the same Powers reserve to themselves latitude to the mouth of the Zambezi in the the option of having recourse to arbitration. south, from which point the line of demarcation will ascend the Zambezi to 5 miles Gambia. Administrator Llewelyn's above its confluence with the Shiré, and Report for 1897.-Most peaceful and prosthen follow the watershed between the perous year since the accession of the affluents of Lake Nyasa and those of the Queen. Exports, £164,000; imports, Zambezi till at last it reaches the watershed £140,000. Revenue, £40,000; expenditure, between the waters of the Zambezi and the £28,000. Peace and security are now estabCongo. It is expressly recognized that in lished in the Protectorate. extending the principle of free trade to this eastern zone the Conference Powers only German Claims. (Report on German undertake engagements for themselves, and Colonies. Embassy at Berlin.)—The that in the territories belonging to an above Report takes notice of the following independent Sovereign State this principle resolutions of the German Colonial Society shall only be applicable in so far as it is respecting German claims in Nigeria :approved by such State. But the Powers “ With reference to the Anglo-French agree to use their good offices with the Agreement of June 14th, 1898, the general Governments established on the African meeting of the German Colonial Society shore of the Indian Ocean for the purpose resolves to request the Chancellor of the of obtaining such approval, and in any case Empire to take advantage of the negotia-, of securing the most favourable conditions tions shortly to be entered into between to the transit (traffic) of all nations. Great Britain and Germany for the CHAPTER III.—Declaration relative to the delimitation of Togoland, to give effect to Neutrality of the Territories comprised in the wishes of the German Colonial Society the Conventional Basin of the Congo. | in regard to the various colonial questions Article X.-In order to give a new guarantee which are still open, and which should be of security to trade and industry, and to regulated by agreement with England, encourage, by the maintenance of peace, many of which have already been repeatedly the development of civilization in the urged. The German Colonial Society countries mentioned in Article I., and especially hopes that, in order to safeguard placed under the free-trade system, the German interests in the bend of the Niger, High Signatory Parties to the present Act, at least the following demands will be and those who shall hereafter adopt it, bind insisted upon by the Representatives of the themselves to respect the neutrality of the Imperial Government :-'1. The German territories, or portions of territories, belong Colonial Society considers that the stipulaing to the said countries, comprising therein tions of the Anglo-French Agreement of the territorial waters, so long as the Powers June 14th, which refer to the exchange of a which exercise, or shall exercise, the rights portion of the territory of Gandu, situated of sovereignty or Protectorate over those on the left bank of the Niger, for certain territories, using their option of proclaiming territory hitherto in French possession, is themselves neutral, shall fulfil the duties a violation of the Treaty rights of Germany which neutrality requires. Article XI. in regard to Gandu; they protest against In case a Power exercising rights of it, and express the expectation that the sovereignty or Protectorate in the countries Imperial Government will also protest mentioned in Article I., and placed under against this unscrupulous proceeding on the free-trade system, shall be involved in a | the part of England. 2. That the Sultanate war, then the High Signatory Powers to of Gandu and its vassal States to which the present Act, and those who shall here Germany has acquired a claim by the treaty after adopt it, bind themselves to lend their concluded by the Togoland expedition, in which the Sultan recognizes the German cisely the most deadly to Europeans, and, Protectorate, cannot be apportioned without again, when the rubber is collected it has an agreement with the German Government. to be brought to the port of exportation on 3. That in view of the extension of the the heads of carriers, which so increases the sphere of interests of the German Colony of cost of transport that it often does not pay the Cameroons up to the shores of Lake to export this special product. Gold was Chad, a division of the basin of Lake exported to the value (23,555. ozs.) of £84,797. Chad and of its islands, should such be “ The gold mining industry is carried on intended by the line drawn from north to chiefly in the western district-in Wassaw south along “the meridian passing 35' east and Appolonia. Three. or four companies of the centre of the town of Kuka," cannot are doing steady work. The gold reefs of be admitted. 4. That German rights in the mining district have been declared by Kano and Sokoto should in so far be experts to be similar to those of Johannesmaintained, as the Sultan of Sokoto, by a burg, and there is no reason why goldtreaty concluded in 1885, had already con mining in this Colony in a very short ferred upon German traders, in the space of time should not prove a deterritories subject to him, the same rights cided success. The industry up to the and privileges in regard to trade as had present has been hampered owing to been enjoyed by the subjects of other the serious difficulty of transporting the nations, especially by the Royal Niger necessary machinery from the coast to the Company. 5. That in the revision of the mines; but the Government is constructing Niger Navigation Act which will become a railway from the coast to the mining necessary, all the conditions should be districts in the neighbourhood of Tarquah, fulfilled which the Act promised, in order and when this is completed it is confidently that Germany may carry out unhindered, anticipated that the gold industry will on the Niger and its tributaries, the develop receive an impetus which will result in the ment of her sphere of interest in the larger investment of capital for the developBenué and Lake Chad districts. 6. That ment of existing mines and the opening of in the delimitation of the Colony of Togo. new ones. On the other hand, it cannot be land towards the west, a natural frontier expected that investors will risk their money should be agreed upon, which is required, in this part of Africa unless they are assured not by the interests of Germany alone, but that they will have proper security as by those of both nations. In doing so, it regards the land which has been conceded, should not be overlooked that both in the and the Government has under consideraneutral zone and in the districts to the tion a Lands Bill, one of the objects of north of the neutral zone Germany possesses which is to afford such security. From older treaty rights than England, and also the general standpoint the most important that on the occasion of the Franco-German legislation of the year was the “ Peace Togo Agreement France ceded her claims Preservation Ordinance." It “ suppresses to Mamprussi and Gambaga, together with the assembling together of armed men for other rights to Germany."
unlawful purposes; and, for the preservation
of the peace, empowers the Governor in CounGold Coast. Report for 1897.-Revenue, cil, by proclamation published in the Gazette, £237,857; expenditure, £406,369, including to declare it unlawful to carry arms or £147,587 paid on account of the Ashanti ammunition within any specified part of the Expedition. “There has been an increase Colony, but reserving the right to impose of the trade of the Colony for the year under conditions and regulations under which the review, although the country beyond carrying of arms and ammunition may be Ashanti has been in anything but a settled licensed, and to make provision for the state. The total value of imports in 1897 persons who may grant licenses to have or was $784,188, and the value of the exports carry arms or ammunition. Provision is £857,793, thus making the total value of made for a District Commissioner himself the trade of the Colony for the year to search or to direct a search warrant to .£1,641,981, an increase of $71,861 on the | any person to enter and search any house, year 1896.” The value of rubber exported buildings, or places in the proclaimed disto the United Kingdom was £391,106, and trict for any arms or ammunition suspected to Germany £28,691. " The great fear as to be there in contravention of the regards this industry is the destruction of Ordinance. Power is given to the Governor the trees by the natives; they are not in Council to fine, not exceeding £500, satisfied only with tapping, but the trees under certain circumstances, any chief in a are cut down so that they may obtain as proclaimed district.” Two railway surveys much milk as possible. To ensure the which were commenced in 1896 were compreservation of the trees it may become pleted in 1897; one from Accra to Kumassi necessary for the Government to intervene viâ Insuaim, and the other from Talkoradi and preserve the forests by requiring natives Bay to Tarquah. Arrangements have been to take out licenses for working the rubber made for the construction of a line from trees. The Germans in the neighbouring Sekondi to Tarquah. This line will go Colony of Togoland have such a system in through the mining and timber districts, force. Another disadvantage that the and work was commenced early in 1898. rubber trade has to contend with is that The Report contains details of the movethe regions which produce rubber are pre- ments of French and British detachments
armed.” Imports £770,510, of which the United Kingdom sent £574,937 and Germany £165,912. The exports were chiefly rubber, palm oil and mahogany, but the total is not stated. Population about 50,000. Resident European population 250. Twenty-threedied during the year at an average age of 34. General death-rate 59 per thousand, as against 19:4 in England,
in the hinterland; but as the claims of the two nations have been settled by the Convention of last year it is not necessary to recount them. Mention is made of the activity of German officials in the Neutral Zone. “On the 2nd of July the German Government were asked by Her Majesty's Government for an assurance that they would abstain from any operations against Yendi, to which a German expedition was said to be then advancing. It was pointed out to the German Government that the terms of the agreement of 1888 could not be disregarded by one of the parties to it without giving the other the right to secure its interests in such way as it might con. sider best, irrespective of that agreement. No answer was received from the German Government, and on the 2nd of August the Governor of the Gold Coast was ordered to occupy Salaga, which was done on the 21st of that month. At the close of the year the British forces were still in occupation at Salaga. But, subsequently, assurances were received from the German Government that they had given orders for the withdrawal of any German troops which might be in the Neutral Zone, and Her Majesty's Govern. ment agreed to withdraw the British troops from the Zone with the reservation that any infringement of the agreement by either party in the future would give the other the right to send troops again into the Neutral territory."
Lagos. Report for 1897.- Revenue £177,220_a faīling-off owing to disquietude in the hinterland, and a dry season. Ex. penditure, £182,669. “There is an armed force, known as the Hausa Force, numbering about 844 officers and men of all ranks. This force is intended almost entirely for service up-country, where the endurance and marching powers of the men are of the greatest value. They are armed with Martini. Metford carbines, and the force possesses also five 7-pr. R.M.L. guns, four Maxim guns, two 3-barrel Nordenfelt, one Gatling gun, and four rocket troughs; there is also one 3-pr. quick-firing Nordenfelt on board the Colonial Government stern-wheel steamer Maud The total cost of maintenance during 1897 amounted to £23,069. The large number of out-stations in the interior requiring to be supplied from headquarters cause the numbers actually stationed in Lagos at any one time to be small, but since 1895, when the force was reorganized, police work is not required of them, all such duties being carried out very efficiently by the civil police. This young force is steadily improving year by year in discipline and activity, and the habitual criminal finds that his profession has to be carried on under increasingly difficult circumstances. It is composed of 382 officers and men of all ranks, and was maintained during the year at a total cost of £11,223. The men, in addition to being taught police duties, are regularly drilled and taught the use of the Snider rifle, with which they are
Niger Coast Protectorate (Report for the year 1896-7, March, 1898).-Com. missioner Sir R. Moor's Réport shows that the total revenue was £112,440, chiefly derived from Customs; this, with a balance from the previous year, made a sum of £129,877 available for expenditure, which amounted to £128,411. The Niger Coast Protectorate Force cost £17,412, and the Marine Department £17,608. The disproportionate expenditure on these services is due to the transitional state of the work of the Protectorate, and to the large extent of waterway which has to be policed. The report mentions the massacre of Consul Phillips' party in the previous year, during an attempt to reach Benin City, and the successful punitive expedition afterwards undertaken. “ Its result was that Benin City was taken within seven weeks of the date of the massacre, and that the entire territories have since been brought under direct Government control, which will, no doubt, be for the good of the people, and lead to & considerable increase in the volume of trade in that locality. The territories are between 3,000 and 4,000 square miles in extent, and carry a large population, though it is hard to arrive at an estimate of the actual number. There are, however, 400 towns and villages in the territories, and the security given to life by direct administrative control, together with the doing away of human sacrifice and other forms of waste of human life will, no doubt, lead to a large increase of the population." The Europeans numbered 214, including 16 women; but the climate “has proved to be unhealthy, and even deadly, not only to Europeans but to alien natives also.” The revenues of the Protectorate do not admit of the establishment of Government schools. Education is carried on by various missions, and the chiefs and more intelligent natives show a keen desire that their sons should be taught. The value of the total imports: was £655,977 and exports £785,605; " Other countries accounting for £92,686 imports: and £239,138 exports, the balances credited to the United Kingdom. The spirit duties having been doubled in November, 1895, there was a considerably decreased import and consumption of spirits. Sir R. Moor complains of the want of variety and shoddy character of goods sent by merchants. On the subject of opening up new territories he reports efforts to open relations with the Aro or Judku tribe, from the right bank of: the Cross River. Bendi is one of the large Ju-ju centres of the Aro nation, and was reached by Major Leonard and Mr.
James, whose reception was not, however, From this point the frontier shall follow friendly. “This matter is really one of the northern limits of the lands belonging great importance, and for several years I to Sapeliga as far as the River Nuhau have personally been engaged in trying to (Nouhau), and shall then follow the thalweg arrange a meeting of all the chiefs of the of this river up or down stream, as the Aros, with a view to explaining to them the case may be, to a point situated 2 miles object of the establishment of the Govern. (3,219 mètres) eastward of the road which ment in this country, and the reasons why leads from Gambaga to Tenkrügu (Tinit is desirable that European officers should gourkou), viâ Bawku (Baukou). Thence it visit their territories. These people are the shall rejoin by a straight line the 11th traders throughout the territories on the degree of north latitude at the intersection right bank of the Cross River from Itu and of this parallel with the road which is shown Enyon up to Afikpo, and control all the on the Map No. 1 as leading from Sausanne interior trade behind Opobo, Okrika, and Mango to Pama viâ Jebigu.” Article II.New Calabar. It is probable that they The frontier between Lagos and Dahomey, oppress the Ibo tribe considerably, and the defined in 1895, shall be recognized as opening up of their country is a matter dividing the French and British possessions requiring very delicate handling, as any from the sea up to the 9th degree of north move in the wrong direction would lead to latitude. Where the River Ocpara intersects a stoppage of trade in the Old Calabar, with the degree the frontier line is to Opobo, Bonny, and New Calabar districts, proceed northward and follow a line passing which would be disastrous to the revenues west of the lands belonging to Tabira, of the Protectorate. I do not, however, Okuta, Boria, Tere, Gbani, Ashigere (Yassianticipate any such eventuality arising, as kéra), and Dekala. From the most westerly all the officers in the eastern and central point of the Dekala lands the frontier is to divisions are fully aware of the great im run north and strike the Niger at a point portance of the most circumspect action in 10 miles up stream from the centre of the their dealings with these people, and any town of Gere (port of Ilo), measured as the attempts made to enter their country.” crow flies. Article III.–From where the line In the New Calabar, the Sapele, and the strikes the Niger it is to continue at right Kwale country, journeys had been made, angles to the right bank as far as its interand friendly relations established with the section with the median line of the river people. The effect of the taking of Benin and continue up stream to Dallul Mauri, City is discussed, and it is said that the about 17 miles from a point on the left people are intelligent, and will quickly pick bank at Gere. From this point of interup civilized ideas and become keen traders. section the frontier shall follow this perThe Protectorate Force consists of a com pendicular until it meets the left bank of mandant, 14 wing officers and 450 men, and the river. Article IV.-To the east of the is provided with three 7-pounder mounted Niger the line starts from the meridian carriage guns, three Maxims, rocket tubes line of the Dallul Mauri and follows it until and troughs. This, however, is an in it meets the circumference of a circle drawn sufficient number for the due garrisoning of from the centre of the town of Sokoto with the Protectorate, now that so much new a radius of 100 miles. “From this point territory has been opened out.
it shall follow the northern arc of this circle
as far as its second intersection with the Niger Convention between Great Britain 14th parallel of north latitude. From this and France. Signed at Paris, June 14th, second point of intersection it shall follow 1898 (Africa, No. IV.).—The Convention for this parallel eastward for a distance of 70 the delimitation of British and French miles (112,652 mètres); then proceed due possessions East and West of the Niger, south until it reaches the parallel of 13° 20' declares (Article I.) :--The frontier separat north latitude, then eastward along this ing the British Colony of the Gold Coast parallel for a distance of 250 miles (402,230 from the French Colonies of the Ivory mètres) ; then due north until it regains Coast and Sudan shall start from the the 14th parallel of north latitude; then northern terminal point of the frontier laid eastwards along this parallel as far as its. down in the Anglo-French Agreement of intersection with the meridian passing 35' the 12th July, 1893, viz., the intersection of east of the centre of the town of Kuka, and the thalweg of the Black Volta with the 9th thence this meridian southward until its degree of north latitude, and shall follow intersection with the southern shore of the thalweg of this river northward up to Lake Chad. The Government of the French its intersection with the 11th degree of Republic recognizes, as falling within the north latitude. From this point it shall British sphere, the territory to the east of follow this parallel of latitude eastward as the Niger, comprised within the above-menfar as the river shown on Map No. 1, tioned line, the Anglo-German frontier, and annexed to the present Protocol, as passing the sea. The Government of Her Britannic immediately to the east of the villages of Majesty recognizes, as falling within the Zwaga (Souaga) and Zebilla (Sebilla), and French sphere, the northern, eastern, and it shall then follow the thalweg of the southern shores of Lake Chad, which are western branch of this river up stream to comprised between the point of intersection its intersection with the parallel of latitude of the 14th degree of north latitude, with passing through the village of Sapeliga. | the western shore of the lake and the point
of incidence on the shore of the Lake of the frontier determined by the Franco-German Convention of the 15th March, 1894.” Article V.-The two Governments undertake to appoint-within a year from date of the Convention as regards the West of the Nigerand two years as regards the last-Commissioners to delimit on the spot the lines of demarcation“ in conformity and in accord. ance with the spirit” of the Protocol. Islands in the Niger are in such delimitation to be distributed equitably. Article VI.-The Contracting Powers engage reciprocally to treat with consideration (“ bienveillance ") the native Chiefs who, having had Treaties with one of them, shall, in virtue of the present Protocol, come under the sovereignty of the other. Article VII.-Each of the Contracting Powers undertakes not to exercise any political action in the spheres of the other. Each Power will not, in the spheres of the other, make territorial acquisitions, conclude Treaties, accept sovereign rights or Protectorates, nor hinder nor dispute the influence of the other. Article VIII.-Great Britain grants on lease to France two pieces of ground, to be selected by the two Governments in conjunction, “one of which will be situated in a suitable spot on the right bank of the Niger between Leaba and the junction of the River Moussa (Mochi) with the former river, and the other on one of the mouths of the Niger. Each of these pieces of land shall have a river frontage not exceeding 400 mètres in length, and shall form a block, the area of which shall not be less than 10 mor more than 50 hectares in extent. Regulations are to be made defining the conditions upon which the transit of merchandise shall be carried on on the Niger and its affluents, branches, and outlets, as well as on the land abovementioned. Article IX.-French and British subjects and protected persons are to enjoy for thirty years the same treatment in all matters of river navigation, commerce, and of tariff and fiscal treatment and taxes of this kind. Subject to this condition each Power shall be free to fix its own tariff, fiscal treatment and taxes. The form of lease, which, in the event of the Convention not being denounced at the 30 years' term, is for 99 years, at a rental of one franc yearly, requires France to fence in such portion of the land, not exceeding 10 hectares, as will be used for landing, storage and transhipment of goods, not to permit the receipt or exit of any goods in contravention of British Customs Regulations, and not sell goods in retail. The British Govern. ment binds itself to fulfil all duties incumbent upon it as owner of the land.
way the Report says :-“It is expected that the whole of the first section, from Freetown to Songo Town, will be completed and open for traffic about August, 1898. An extension of the line to Rotifunk, a further distance of 25 miles, will then be taken in hand, as well as, it is hoped, the proposed pier at Government wharf, alongside of which ocean-going steamers will be able to take in and discharge cargoes.".
Uganda Protectorate: The Soudanese Rebellion. Africa, No. II. Papers relating to Recent Events in the Uganda Protectorate. Presented February, 1898.The Correspondence, which describes the revolt of the Soudanese garrisons in the Uganda Protectorate, and the consequent native troubles, opens in June with accounts of the measures taken by Major Ternan, Acting-Commissioner, to supply troops and stores to Major Macdonald for the purpose of his exploring journey to the source of the Juba River. Major Macdonald's instructions were thus set forth in a despatch (June 9th, 1897), by Lord Salisbury, which said that as it was desirable to obtain a more accurate knowledge of the territories lying on the northern and eastern frontiers of the East Africa and Uganda Protectorates, the expedition was to “ explore the districts adjacent to the Italian sphere in which the River Juba is believed to rise, and to cultivate friendly relations with the tribes residing in that portion of the British sphere." The force was to consist of eight Officers, besides Major Macdonald, 30 Sikhs, 300 Soudanese, 100 Swahilis and 200 porters, all from Uganda, and 150 Mombasa porters. The despatch proceeds :-“In order to facilitate and cheapen transport, and to enable you to take advantage of the favourable season during the present year, you should proceed viâ Mombasa and the Uganda Road till you reach a point at which you can turn off towards Lake Baringo, where you will be joined by the contingent from Uganda, and whence you will select your route to the north of Lake Rudolf. You must then be guided by circumstances as to the best and safest route to enable you to carry out the objects of your expedition. You will effect as careful a survey as possible of the districts through which you pass, and will explain to the natives the nature of the duties intrusted to you, and the position of Her Majesty's Government in the Uganda and East Africa Protectorates, and in the British sphere generally. You will, of course, be careful in all your dealings with the natives to avoid any steps likely to bring about a collision with them, and you will maintain strict discipline amongst your escort. You will report to me from time to time the progress of your expedition, of which you should also keep Her Majesty's Commissioners in Uganda and East Africa generally informed. You will recollect that within the borders of the Protectorates Her Majesty's Commissioners exercise the
Sierra Leone. Report for 1897.-Revenue, including Protectorate, £106,009; expenditure, £111,678. Imports £457,389, a decrease of £37,299 on the figures of 1896. Exports £400,748, a decrease of £48,285, partly due to less produce being brought down to Freetown from the northern rivers included in French Guinea. On the Sierra Leone Rail.