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expressing his opinion that a better prospect of success might be offered by an endeavour to effect a compromise by means of diplo. matic correspondence between the Belgian and French Governments. The Russian delegate having expressed similar views, it became evident that a prolongation of the Conference at the present moment could not lead to any general understanding. The final meeting was therefore held on the 25th instant, and it was agreed that the Belgian Government should pursue the subject through the diplomatic channel, and that the Conference should be convoked again later on, if a satisfactory result could be obtained as a preliminary step. In accepting this proposal we, however, reserved entire liberty of action to Her Majesty's Government in regard to any measures which the development of the sugar question might render necessary. We have the honour to inclose copies of the procèsverbaux and of the other documents con. nected with the proceedings, which, according to a resolution agreed to at the final meeting, may be published by the respective Governments whenever they may consider it convenient. These documents contain only the Official Report of the proceedings. Much of the actual work has, however, been done by means of more or less informal discussions, undertaken with a view, if possible, to discover some means of arriving at an understanding acceptable to all the Powers represented. Throughout these discussions we have made clear the earnest desire of Her Majesty's Government to promote a generally satis. factory result, and their readiness to consider any suggestions either for the total or the partial suppression of the bounties, whether immediately or by means of gradual reductions." The delegates add the following observations:-" We do not consider it to be any part of our duty to discuss the economic aspects of the Sugar Bounty question, either in its bearing upon the Ūnited Kingdom or upon the British Colonies. This branch of the subject has already received the careful consideration of Her Majesty's Government; but having given above a brief outline of the proceedings of the Brussels Sugar Conference we desire to offer the following general observations upon the present position of the question from the international point of view ": - Austria - Hungary, Germany, Belgium, and Holland desire to effect a complete abolition of the bounties, and no opposition to an arrangement to this effect is to be apprehended from Spain and Sweden. France, however, whilst willing to abolish the direct bounty on export under her Law of 1897, wishes to retain the advantage of the indirect export bounty created by her internal Law of 1884; and Russia declines even to discuss whether her existing system amounts to a bounty on export or not. Germany grants only a direct export bounty, which is, roughly speaking, about equal in amount to the
direct export bounty granted under the French Law of 1897, and although sugar can be produced cheaper in Germany than in France, it is not to be expected that Germany will consent to abolish the whole of her bounty whilst France retains that created by her Law of 1884, which is about three times as much as the direct export bounty granted under her Law of 1897. Austria-Hungary, on the other hand, contends that the Russian system does in fact amount to the grant of a bounty on exportation, and as Russia is her chief competitor in the sugar markets of Italy and the Levant, the Austro-Hungarian Government are not prepared to abolish their bounties unless some modification can be obtained in the Russian system. It seems clear that in these circumstances there are at present but two methods of securing the suppression of the bounty system :-1. By coming to some arrangement for such modifications or limitations in the French and Russian systems as may be acceptable to the other sugar-producing States, in return for the suppression of their bounties; and 2. By the conclusion of a Convention between a certain number of the sugarproducing States providing for the total suppression of sugar bounties within their dominions, and engaging that they will either impose countervailing duties on, or prohibit the entry of, bounty-fed sugar coming from States which cannot be induced to become parties to the Convention. The market of the United States is already rendered unprofitable by this means to all bounty-fed sugar. All the continental sugar-producing States, by means of customs duties and internal legislation, reserve the entire supply of the home market to the home producer of sugar ; and the English, and to a rapidly increasing extent the Indian, market thus becomes essential for the surplus sugar production of the European countries. Any steps by which these markets might be closed to bounty-fed sugar must therefore have a decisive effect in securing the speedy abolition of the bounty system. That system is, however, now felt to press heavily on the economic resources of those States which have recourse to it, and it is not impossible that a further exchange of views may lead to some concessions by France and Russia which would form the basis of a general arrangement acceptable to all the sugar-producing States, as at least a mitigation of the unsatisfactory system which at present prevails. If no solution can be obtained, it is possible that a still worse state of affairs may result by the increase of bounties in various countries.
TA-LIEN-WAN and Port Arthur
(Lease to Russia). (See CHINA.)
THURSTON (Major), Murder of. (See AFRICA : UGANDA.)
TRINIDAD. (See WEST INDIA COM
Report of Royal Commission. Dated April 4th, 1898.—This Commission was appointed to inquire “ what administrative procedures are available and would be desirable for controlling the danger to man through the use as food of the meat and milk of tuberculous animals; and what are the considerations which should govern the action of the responsible authorities in condemning for the purpose of food supplies, animals, carcases, or meat exhibiting any stage of tuberculosis." They say that nothing has come before them to raise any doubt as to the accuracy of the opinion of the Royal Commission of 1895, that tubercular disease in bovine and other animals is identical with that in the human subject, and that it is communicable from one to the other; and also of opinion that “any person who takes tuberculous matter into the body as food incurs risk of acquiring tuberculous disease.” At the same time they think there has been a tendency to exaggerate the extent of the risk arising from meat. Discussing the extent to which the herds of the United Kingdom have become infected with tuberculosis they say:—“Overwhelming evidence proved the greater prevalence of tuberculosis amorg dairy stock than among bullocks or heifers, owing, no doubt, to the close confinement of cows during a great part of the year, sometimes throughout the year, to their greater average age, and to the severe drain on them caused by milking. It is a common practice with cowkeepers to main. tain a high temperature in the byres, which is rarely found associated with efficient ventilation. One very serious feature in the distribution of this disease is its prevalence among high-class pedigree stock. This does not appear to arise from any greater predisposition to the disease among highly-bred animals, but partly because that, owing to the high value of certain strains, cows are retained for breeding purposes much longer than would be the case in ordinary stock, and partly because, when young, they are commonly subjected to more artificial treatment than less valuable stock. The result of Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael's experiments upon pedigree stock, and of those conducted over a period of five years in Denmark under superintendence of Professor Bang, shows how much can be done towards eliminating the disease from any herd kept under good sanitary conditions, by isolating such animals as react to the tuberculin test. Several witnesses (both veterinary surgeons and others) expressed the opinion that some breeds of cattle, such as Shorthorns, Jerseys, and Ayrshires, are more susceptible of tuberculosis than others, such as the Welsh breeds, Herefords, and Highland cattle. No doubt they were
speaking accurately from the result of their observations, but a careful comparison of the facts collected during our inquiry, over a very wide and varied field, has convinced us that the chief element in immunity from tuberculosis is to be found in the conditions under which cattle are reared and kept. Shorthorns, Jerseys, and Ayrshires are the principal dairy breeds in this country; dairy cows, as a rule, are kept more in houses than is the case with cattle meant for slaughter; such houses are often illventilated, ill-lighted, ill-drained, and illcleaned. It is not surprising, therefore, if tuberculosis prevails to a very large extent among that class of stock.” The disease is almost unknown among cows kept in the open air. Examining the legislation and practice for the inspection of meat, they point out that “there is a total absence of uniformity in the special qualifications required of the persons employed as meat inspectors by the sanitary authorities in different places, as may be seen by a Return presented to the House of Commons in 1896, showing the previous vocations of those acting in that capacity. In Battersea, for instance, four plumbers and three carpenters discharge the office of meat inspector; in Hackney the duties have been committed to two plumbers, one carpenter, one compositor, one bricklayer, one florist, one builder, one surveyor, and one stonemason. In Portsmouth a solitary butcher has received as colleagues three school teachers, one medical dispenser, one carpenter, and one tram-conductor." As to the amount and distribution of tubercular disease which justifies the seizure and con. demnation of a carcase as unfit for human food, the widest discrepancy prevails in opinion and practice. “Chaos is the only word to express the absence of system in the inspection and seizure of tuberculous meat, and it has, in our opinion, become necessary that regulations should be formulated for the guidance of those who are concerned in dealing with this subject. In Belfast the presence of tuberculosis in any degree is held to be ground for seizure; on the other hand, in Islington the veterinary inspector of the Corporation of the City of London only seizes those carcases wherein tuberculosis is generalised and the meat in poor condition. In Dublin the medical officer of health used to seize on the slightest evidence of tuberculosis, but he has recently modified his views, and only seizes carcases which are somewhat extensively affected. In Sheffield seizure is made of a carcase showing the slightest trace of tuberculosis ; in Manchester, in cases where the disease is localised, the affected part is removed and destroyed, the remainder is passed. Numerous instances of similar discrepancy will be found in the evidence ; the above, taken almost at random, may be sufficient to illustrate the present condition of inspection applied to tuberculous carcases." They believe that such a stage of experience and knowledge has been attained
as to the nature of tuberculosis and the effect of tuberculous meat upon the human consumer as to enable a uniform standard to be prescribed for the guidance of meat inspectors. As regards slaughter-houses, they say that the use of public slaughter-houses in populous places, to the exclusion of all private ones, “is a necessary preliminary to a uniform and equitable system of meat inspection.” They cannot, on the merits of the case, recommend compensation to butchers for carcases seized by the local authorities or their officers on account of tuberculosis. Dealing with the question of milk supply, they say:-“Whatever degree of danger may be incurred by the consumption of the flesh of tuberculous animals (and we have already stated our belief that the tendency in this country has been rather to exaggerate this than to underrate it), there can be little doubt that the corresponding danger in respect of milk supply is a far greater one. On this point the opinion of the previous Royal Commission on Tuberculosis was emphatic—“No doubt the largest part of the tuberculosis which man obtains through his food is by means of milk containing tuberculous matter.” In Great Britain and Ireland meat, as a rule, is cooked before it is eaten to an extent which goes largely to destroy infective matter, Milk, on the other hand, is largely consumed in a raw state, especially by children, and there exists a general distaste for cooked milk as a beverage. Amongst most continental nations the practice is to some extent the opposite of this, and large quantities of meat, especially in the various forms of sausages, are consumed absolutely raw, while the greater proportion of the milk is cooked before consumption. It has been proved over and over again that milk from tuberculous udders, and even milk which has been purposely contaminated with tuberculous matter, can be rendered perfectly harmless by being boiled for one minute-a method of sterilization which we agree with the former Commission in preferring for general application to any of the other plans which have been employed. We have already explained how unsatisfactory is the system of meat inspection in this country; but as regards milk, in relation to tuberculosis, inspection is still more so; indeed, it may be said not to exist. Even local authorities, who exert themselves to prevent the sale of tuberculous meat, are without sufficient powers to prevent the sale within their districts of milk drawn from diseased cows. It is true that in this respect the City of Glasgow possesses exceptional powers. Nevertheless, during the visit of some of Your Majesty's Commissioners to that city they were shown in the public slaughterhouse the carcase of a well-nourished cow which had been seized for generalised tuberculosis. She had been yielding milk to the day of her slaughter, as shown by the milk flowing freely from her udder, and might have continued to do so had not her owner
sold her to the butcher. It has been proved to our satisfaction from the returns of medical officers of health and meat inspectors, that tuberculosis prevails to a larger extent among dairy stock than in any other class of animal. Considerable difference of opinion exists among experts as to the extent to which a cow may be affected with tuberculosis without rendering her milk dangerous. It was not proved to our satisfaction that tubercle bacilli had ever been detected in milk, unless drawn from a cow with tuberculosis of the mammary gland. In that case the disease generally, but not always, manifests itself by external signs, and the udder is suspected to be tuberculous. It is obvious, we think, that milk drawn from such a source ought to render him who exposes it for sale liable to heavy penalties. But there is no power at present to prevent such milk being sold. Professor McFadyean told us that, in a sample of milk from a diseased udder submitted to him for diagnosis, he had no difficulty in detecting tubercle bacilli, yet the milk from that cow continued to be sent in for sale in a neighbouring city. Unfortunately, tuberculosis of the udder can rarely be differentiated from other forms of udder disease by the ordinary stock owner or dairyman, and hence all udder diseases should be forthwith notified to the local authority.” They do not advise the claim for compensation should be entertained, except under special and defined circumstances (when the cow has been slaughtered and found to have been free from the disease), and they advocate prohibition in populous places of cowsheds not at present registered. They add :-“We desire to say that we have received the impression that public opinion is prepared to endorse measures taken to secure an uncontaminated milk supply. We have examined the establishments of two of the leading dairy firms supplying the metropolis, and have noted with satisfaction a number of systematic precautions taken in them against disease in the cows whence the milk is drawn, and against the presence of impurity in milk supplied to their customers. There is also a growing tendency among the wealthier class of customers to purchase their milk from dairymen who can give some assurance as to the adoption of such precautions. But much remains to be done to protect the poorer classes in populous districts, who cannot afford to pay a higher price for a guaranteed article, and perhaps have not the degree of knowledge necessary to warn them against milk coming from dubious sources." The Recommendations of the Commission are as follows :—“A. Slaughter-houses.-1. We recommend that in all towns and municipal boroughs in England and Wales, and in Ireland, powers be conferred on the authorities similar to those conferred on Scottish corporations and municipalities by the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act, 1892, viz. :-(a.) When the local authority in any town or urban
district in England and Wales and | We recommend that in future no person be Ireland have provided a public slaughter permitted to act as a meat inspector until house, power be conferred on them to he has passed a qualifying examination, declare that no other place within the before such authority as may be prescribed town or borough shall be used for by the Local Government Board (or Board slaughtering, except that a period of three of Agriculture), on the following subjects :years be allowed to the owners of exist (a.) The law of meat inspection, and such ing registered private slaughter-houses to bye-laws, regulations, &c., asmay be in force apply their premises to other purposes. at the time he presents himself for examinaThe term of Three years to date, in those tion. (6.) The names and situations of the places where adequate public slaughter organs of the body. (c.) Signs of health and houses already exist, from the public disease in animals destined for food, both announcement by the local authority that when alive and after slaughter. (d.) The the use of such public slaughter-house is appearance and character of fresh meat, obligatory, or, in those places where public organs, fat, and blood, and the conditions slaughter-houses have not been erected, rendering them, or preparations from them, from the public announcement by the local fit or unfit for human food. C. Tuber. authority that tenders for their erection culosis in Animals Intended for Food.-6. have been accepted. (6.) That local We recommend that the Local Government authorities be empowered to require all Board be empowered to issue instructions meat slaughtered elsewhere than in a from time to time for the guidance of meat public slaughter-house, and brought into inspectors, prescribing the degree of tuber. the district for sale, to be taken to a place cular disease which, in the opinion of the or places where such meat may be in. Board, should cause a carcase, or part therespected; and that local authorities be of, to be seized.... In view of the greater empowered to make a charge to cover the tendency to generalisation of tuberculosis reasonable expenses attendant on such in the pig, we consider that the presence of inspection. (c.) That when a public tubercular deposit in any degree should slaughter-house has been established in involve seizure of the whole carcase spectors shall be engaged to inspect all and of the organs. In respect of animals immediately after slaughter, and foreign dead meat, seizure shall ensue stamp the joints of all carcases passed as in every case where the pleura have sound. 2. It appears desirable that in been “stripped.' MILK.-D. Diseases in London the provision of public in substitu the Udders of Cows.—7. We recommend tion for private slaughter-houses should be that notification of every disease in the considered in respect to the needs of London udder shall be made compulsory, under as a whole, and in determining their penalty, on the owners of all cows, whether positions regard must be had for the con. in private dairies or those of which the venient conveyance of animals by railway | milk is offered for sale. 8. We recommend from the markets beyond the limits of that for the purpose of excluding from their London, as well as from the Islington districts the milk affected with tuberculosis market, to the public slaughter-houses of the udder, or exhibiting clinical sympwhich should be provided. At the present toms of the disease, local authorities should time no administrative authority has be given powers somewhat similar to those statutory power authorizing it to provide of sections 24-27 of the Glasgow Police public slaughter-houses other than for the (Amendment) Act, with power to slaughter slaughter of foreign cattle at the port of such cows, subject to compensation under debarcation. 3. With regard to slaughter the conditions named in the Report 9. houses in rural districts, the case is not so We also recommend that powers shall be easy to deal with. But the difficulty is one given to local authorities to take samples that must be faced, otherwise there will be and make analyses from time to time of the a dangerous tendency to send unwholesome milk produced or sold in their districts, and animals to be slaughtered and sold in small that milk vendors shall be required to villages where they will escape inspec. supply sufficient information as to the tion. We recommend, therefore, that in sources from which their milk is derived. Great Britain the inspection of meat in At ports where milk and milk products are rural districts be administered by county received from foreign countries, any costs councils. In Ireland the duty of carrying that may be thus incurred in their exam. out inspection ought to devolve upon ination shall be borne by the importers. authorities corresponding as nearly as E. Cowsheds, Byres, &c.—10. We recompossible to those charged with that duty in mend that the Local Government Board England and Scotland. In view of the be empowered to require local authorities announced intention of the Government to adopt regulations as to dairies, cowsheds, to introduce a new scheme of local govern &c., where that shall be found not to have ment into Ireland we refrain from specify been done already. 11. That in future no ing the exact machinery which should be cowshed, byre, or shippon, other than those employed. 4. We recommend further that already registered, shall be permitted or it shall not be lawful to offer for sale the registered in urban districts within 100 feet meat of any animal which has not been of any dwelling-house; and that the discon. killed in a duly licensed slaughter-house. tinuance of any one already existing shall B. Qualifications of Meat Inspectors.--5. be ordered on the certificate, either of the medical officer of health that it is injurious shall be-(a) That the test be applied by a to the health of human beings residing near veterinary surgeon; (b) that tuberculin be it, or of the veterinary inspector that it is supplied only to such owners as will undernot a place wherein cows ought to be take to isolate reacting animals from kept for the purpose of milk supply, and healthy ones; (c) that the stock to be that it is incapable of being made so. tested shall be kept under satisfactory 12. That the conditions of the attached sanitary conditions, and more especially cowsheds that shall warrant the registering that sufficient air space, ventilation, and of a dairy in a populous place, whether light be provided in the buildings occupied technically urban or rural, in the future by the animals. 16. We recommend that shall include the following :-(1) An imper the Board of Agriculture in England and vious floor; (2) a sufficient water supply for Scotland and the Veterinary Department flushing; (3) proper drainage ; (4) a depôt of the Privy Council in Ireland undertake for the manure at a sufficient distance from the circulation among agricultural societies the byres; (5) a minimum cubic contents of instructions for the proper use of the as regards such districts of from 600 to tuberculin test, with explanation of the 800 feet for each adult beast, varying ac significance of reaction, and directions for cording to the average weight of the effective isolation of reacting animals.” animals; (6) a minimum floor space of Three of the Commissioners- Sir Herbert 50 feet to each adult beast; (7) sufficient Maxwell (Chairman), Mr. Harcourt Clare, light and ventilation. While we have pre and Mr. 'Cooke-Trench-dissociate themscribed a minimum cubic contents and selves from the finding in respect to the floor space without mentioning definite claim for compensation by butchers for dimensions affecting ventilation and light carcases seized and condemned for tubering, we are distinctly of opinion that these culosis. In a separate report they state are by far the most important, and that their reasons, and make the subjoined requirements as to cubic and floor space recommendations:-“ We recommend that are mainly of value as tending to facilitate the owner of a carcase confiscated and adequate movement of air. Existing cow destroyed, wholly or in part, by order of a sheds should be obliged to conform to the magistrate on account of tuberculosis shall prescribed regulations within a period of receive full compensation and repayment twelve months from the time of the regula of the amount paid by him for the animal, tions coming into force. 13. The same provided-(a) That the magistrate ordering conditions as those recommended for confiscation shall satisfy himself that the populous places should apply to cowsheds animal had a good appearance before in sparsely-populated places, except in sol slaughter, was well nourished, and exhibited far as cubic contents per cow are con no visible signs of tuberculosis ; (b) that no cerned ; as regards these cubic contents, compensation be paid for any animal for such space per cow should be provided as which there has been paid less than a would, in view of the surrounding circum minimum price, to be fixed from time to stances, secure reasonable ventilation with time by the Board of Agriculture, according out draught. But the physical circum to the market values current, nor in excess stances prevailing in different localities of a maximum price, to be fixed in the being so various, we do not find it prac same manner; (c) that no sum shall be ticable to prescribe uniform minimum paid in compensation except on the order requirements in this respect. 14. We of the magistrate ordering the confiscation recommend that where cows housed in one of the carcase; (d) that all compensation district supply milk to another district, the so ordered shall be charged against and local authority of the district in which the paid by the Council of the administrative cows are housed shall be bound, when County, which shall be entitled to repay. required, to supply to the local authority of ment of one-half the amount from Imperial the district in which the milk is sold or funds." consumed full information and veterinary reports regarding the condition of the cows, byres, &c., whence the milk is drawn.
TUNIS. Where the local authority of one district are dissatisfied with the reports so obtained, Convention between Great Britain and they may apply to the Local Government France. Signed September 18th, 1897. Board, with a view to an independent Ratified October 15th, 1897.–Article I. inspection and report being made. F. All treaties between the two Powers are Elimination of Bovine Tuberculosis. – extended to the Regency of Tunis. "The 15. We recommend that funds be placed at Government of Her Britannic Majesty will the disposal of the Board of Agriculture in abstain from claiming for its Consuls, its England and Scotland, and of the Veterin. subjects, and its establishments in the ary Department of the Privy Council in Regency of Tunis other rights and privileges Ireland, for the preparation of commercial than those secured for it in France. Moretuberculin, and that stockowners be en over, the treatment of the most favoured couraged to test their animals by the offer nation, which is secured on either side by of a gratuitous supply of tuberculin and the the aforementioned treaties and convengratuitous services of a veterinary surgeon tions, and the reciprocal enjoyment of the on certain conditions. These conditions | lowest Customs tariff are guaranteed to the