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God shewed, what he can do, and what on the other hand, he will do, when he shall restore life, as it were, from the dead, Rom. xi. 15. arise. arise thou charming friendly


XVII. To this Spirit the apostle principally ascribes two effects, Rom. viii. 15, 16. the former of which is, the making us cry, Abba, father; the latter, that together with our Spirit, itself beareth witness, that we are the children of God: and as these two things contain the highest consolation, it will not be improper to explain them with all the accuracy, we are a


XVIII. The Holy Spirit is never idle, where he is; there the heart brings forth a good speech, Psal. xlv. 1. The Spirit is that msytical new wine, which makes the virgins cheer ful, (eloquent) Zech. ix. 17. and causeth the lips of those that are asleep to speak, Can. vii. 9. They who have the Spirit of faith, as they believe so they speak, 2 Cor. iv. 13.

XIX. Nor do they only speak, muttering like the ventriloquists, who speak from the belly, or like those who scarce speak out what they have conceived in their mind, fear having restrained their faultering tongue; but they confidently cry out with a loud voice. Nor is it in vain, that the apostle both here and Gal. iv. 6. uses the term crying. it denotes that boldness, freedom, and courage, with which we are commanded to approach the throne of grace, Heb, iv. 16. and present our requests there.

XX. But what does he principally teach us to cry? Abba father. Servants and hand-maids, of old were not suffered to call their masters by the name of Father, as the very learned Selden, de Successionibus c. 4. has shewn from the law of the Hebrews. But the servants and hand-maids of God, both under the Old and New Testament, are allowed this privilege, as was shewn above from Isa. lxiii. 26. Job xxxiv. 36. To which I now add, Isa. xliv. 8. and Jer. iii. 4. When Christ commanded his disciples to pray, Our father which art in beaven, he used an expression well known to, and very common among the Jews. Thus Maimonides in Tephilloth---Our father, who art in heaven, so deal with us, as thou hast promised by the prophets.

XXI, And the doubling of words, Abba, father, both here and in the epistle to the Galatians, is very emphatical. The former being of Hebrew, and the latter of a Greek original. Did not the apostle by this intend to teach us, that under the influence of the Spirit, God was now to be called Father, by believers of whatever nation, or in whatever language? For


the reason of this repetition, seems here to be different from that in Mark, ch. xiv. 36. where we have a summary of Christ's prayers, and the latter may be imagined to be added by Mark, as an explanation of the former. For, Christ spoke not in Greek, as Paul wrote in that language. The observation of the celebrated Lightfoot, on Mark xiv. 36, is worth mentioning; that though Abbi may, indeed, denote, not only a natural, but also a civil father, as an elder, a lord, or master, a teacher a magistrate: yet Abba, only a natural, or adopting father. For the proof of this he gives us a great number of examples. Thus therefore, Christ calls God, Abba, in the strongest sense! and believers also according to their condition.

XXII. Unless we rather say, that this repetition of the word is an evidence that the appellation was pleasant and familiar. For x, Appa, which differs not much from Abba, was not in that sense unknown even to the Greeks. Thus Callimachus, in his hymn to Diana, brings her in as a little girl playing in the bosom and arms, of her father Jupiter, and calling him in a familiar and enticing manner Appa. Hence also Abare, which in Ausonius stands for p and signifies to address one in a kind manner, as one brother does another. See what Ludov. Capellus has learnedly collected to this purpose in his Spicilegium on Mark xiv. 36.

XXIII. Nor does this appellation consist in bare words, as if we flattered God only with our lips: but if we are really partakers of adoption, it shews that there is faith, and the full assurance of it, in the heart, and by making a profession of it, we honour God, and celebrate the glory of his grace, 'whereby he hath raised us, the most unworthy of mortals to such a high pitch of honour. We also profess, that we pray in faith, and expect from him, what children ought to expect. from a most indulgent father. And at the same time by calling him father, we bind ourselves to an obedience, a reverence and a love becoming such a father. And therefore when the Apostle says, that by the spirit we cry Abba father, he thereby teacheth us that this Spirit is the author of faith, boldness, confession, piety and sincere obedience.

XXIV. But let us now consider the other effect of the Spirit, which according to the Apostle, consists in this that he" beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God." Here we have two witnesses, agreeing in one testimony: the one of a lower rank, our spirit; the other of the highest, the Spirit of Adoption, who is the Spirit of the Son of God, Gal. iv. 6. Both may be well qualified for this, bnt each in his own measure, degree and order.

XXV. By our spirit is understood, the mind and conscience


of every believer, whereby he may be conscious of what passes in his own heart. In this sense the Apostle said, "what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him?" I Cor. ii. 11. It is otherwise called "the heart of man, condemning or acquitting him," 1 John iii. 20, 21. or συνείδησις συμμαρτυρῶσα “ conscience joining to bear witness, and thoughts the mean while accusing, or else excusing one another, Rom. ii. 15.

XXVI. The testimony of our spirit consists in an exact representation of our state by certain marks, and a full assurance of faith, which is followed by a most quiet tranquillity of soul and a joy unspeakable. For as the spirit, which beareth witness and the man to whom he does so, are in effect all one, no other testimony needs here be thought of, than the composure of the soul which, by infallible marks, is conscious of its own happiness. Accordingly our Apostle, when he would tell us, that he was fully persuaded, that he spoke in sincerity, affirms, that his conscience bears him witness, Rom. ix. 1. whose witness can be no other than a representation of the truth plainly perceived by it.

XXVII. It is indeed very requisite, that this testimony, which is given of an affair of the greatest moment, be solid and well grounded. We are therefore above all, to attend to two things. First, it is necessary, that our spirit be very exactly instructed from the word of God about the marks by which a child of God may be known and distinguished. The word of God alone is the silver seven times purified and refined. By this rule we are both to think and speak of the things that relate to salvation all the dictates of our spirit are to be tried by it, neither must we admit any thing, as worthy of credit in the matters of salvation which does not in the exactest manner agree therewith. Then, a most careful self examination should be added, whether we have the marks which God has given of his children in the scripture.

XXIX. The marks of the children of God are of two kinds. First, a certain good habit or disposition of soul, with a consistent tenour of a pious life: then, peculiar acts of God towards his beloved people, which he vouchsafes only to those whom he loves as a father.

XXIX. The marks of the former kind are such as these. 1st, The impression and expression of the divine image, with a holy conformity to our father and elder brother. For what is more natural, than for a son to resemble his father, and one brother be like another? As therefore the natural Son of God is "the brightness of the father's glory," Heb. i. 3. it is fit also, that we

in our order and measure, be so too: As corrupt Adam "begat a son in his own likeness, after his image," Gen. v. 3. so likewise when God begets children, he forms them in his own likeness, in righteousness and true holiness, Eph. iv. 24. And indeed, this likeness of God, is gradually perfected by familiar intercourse with him; till, having obtained that adoption of which the Apostle speaks, Rom. viii. 23. we are become perfectly like him, I John iii. 2.

XXX. 2dly, A new life that is worthy of God and the effect of the spirit of adoption, who is the spirit of life, Rom. viii. 2. As is the spirit of the creatures, so is their life. The natural man has not a more noble spirit, nor a more excellent principle of life than his soul: consequently he only lives an animal life. But as the children of God are endowed with that free spirit, Pɔal. li. 12. who is the spirit of Christ, Gal. iv. 6. so in their measure they live, as Christ formerly lived, imitating his example and pattern to the utmost of their power; that what Christ declared in the highest degree of himself, may in some measure be applied to them," the son can do nothing of himself, but what he seeth the father do for what things soever he doeth, these also doth the son likewise," John v. 19. Paul's exhortation is excellent, Eph. v. 1. "be ye followers of God as dear children.


XXXI. 3dly, A true and sincere love of God. Even nature teacheth this. For what genuine son does not love his father? This law is not only written, but born with us. And this love arises, partly from the consideration of the most amiable perfections of God, which his children are admitted to contemplate in a familiar way, seeing the king in his beauty, Isa. xxxiii. 17. Psal. lxiii. 2. Partly from the rays of the divine love reflected upon them, whereby they cannot but be inflamed, 1 John iv. 19. They never attentively reflect on this love, but they look upon the whole capacity of their soul, as insufficient to make due returns of love.

XXXII. 4thly, A filial fear and obedience Mal. i. 6. 1 Pet. i. 17. flowing from the foresaid love, which forbids them to do any thing that may displease God, and cannot bear to see his honour impaired by any other, Psal. xlii. 3, 10. On the contrary, it makes the person chearful and ready in all the duties of religion, John xiv. 21. does not suffer him to be at rest, if haply by any ill advised conduct he should provoke God, and be deprived of the sight of his blessed and gracious face as formerly. In fine, this constrains him to fall down in profound reverence, at the feet of his father, and with sorrow and tears,


plead for the pardon of his offences, and promise a more careful observance for the future, Luke vii. 38.

XXXIII. 5thly, Unfeigned brotherly love, which he entertains for all those in whom he observes the image of God, and a participation of the same grace with himself. As that natural affection of Joseph, for his brother Benjamin, discovered itself by the most evident tokens, Gen. xlv. 14, 15. so likewise while other marks are often indiscernable, this brotherly love gives to the doubting soul an evidence of its state, 1 John iii. 14. For the love of the brethren cannot be separated from the love of God. Who ever loves the original, will also love the copy: whoever loves God, will also love him who belongs to God, and in whom he observes the virtues of God, and whom he believes to be loved by God, 1 John iv. 20. Our spirit ought to be well assured of these things, before it can testify any thing about our state; and likewise to know, that all these things are to be found with the Sons of God, and with them only as the effects of the regenerating spirit.

XXXIV. But besides, there are some special acts of divine love which God vouchsafes only to his own children. The Lord, indeed, is good to all: and his tender mercies are over all his works, Psal. cxlv. 9. But he reserves a certain peculiar and unparalleled goodness for his elect; of which the Psalmist says, Psal. lxxiii. 1. Truly God is good to Israel, even to such as are of a clean heart. Hence it is, that, while they are sometimes ravished on high by his spirit, he surrounds them with the beams of his supercelestial light, gives them a view of his face shining with the brightest love, kisses them with the kisses of his mouth, admits them to the most endearing, mutual intercourse of mystical love with himself, and, while he plentifully sheds abroad his love in their hearts, he gives them to drink of rivers of honey and butter, and that often in the greatest drought of the parched soul, when expecting no such thing. There are many more mysteries in this secret intercourse with our heavenly father, which believers sometimes see, taste and feel, and which no pen of the learned can represent, as they deserve. And it is not fit, that the spirit of man should be unacquainted with these things since it is admitted as a witness of his state: for, though this is not the lot of all the children of God, nor the case at all times, nor indeed frequently: yet they whose lot it has at any time been, are certainly children of God.

XXXV. After our spirit is well instructed about all these things, it is further necessary it make a strict scrutiny concerning itself, and, as under the eye of an omniscient God, diligently search every particular without dissimulation, or disguise; Vol. I. 3 N


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